The effects of alternative public policies on the consumption and
prices of various forms of energy in the United States depends critically
on the nature of consumer demands for fuels and the supply characteristics
of these fuels. Previous work on energy demand has tended to concentrate
on the demand for a particular fuel as determined by standard economic
variables such as the price of the fuel, income levels, sometimes the
price of alternative fuels, and other demographic characteristics of the
consuming population. In this work the consumer decision making process
is viewed as being composed of two steps. First, the consumer decides
that he wants a particular service and, secondly, seeks to find the fuel
that will provide this service most cheaply. This view leads us to concentrate on substitution possibilities among fuels for particular services
rather than own-price elasticities for a particular fuel.
This paper presents results for the determinants of energy consumption in the residential and commercial sector in the United States.
First, a discussion of the conceptual model used for fuel choice decisions
is presented. Then, empirical results are given for appliance choices in
the residential sector for four selected appliances and for the "fuel-split"
of aggregate energy consumption among the three fuels used in the residential
and commercial sector. The own-price and cross-price elasticities are
estimated and discussed.
The methods of formulating, implementing, and evaluating a
conservation program in a commercial building or light industrial
plant are examined in this paper. The results of one case study
are also presented.
In commercial and light industrial applications, most energy
is consumed to maintain proper environmental conditions; light
levels, heat levels, and fresh air levels. Most buildings today
expend too much energy on these services. A co-ordinated program
to maintain environmental conditions at levels pointed out in this
report could save as mu h as 20% each year in energy consumption.
This report presents a method that can be used by many commercial and light industrial concerns to establish a conservation
program. Guidelines are presented that can be used to examine
environmental conditions and determine how they must be changed.
A system of program analysis is also presented. Results of this study show that saving 20% is possible,
but motivation of the company and workforce will be a problem.
The report also concludes that new buildings can be made more
energy efficient if energy conservation is kept in mind during
Final working paper, submitted to Office of Data Policy, Federal Energy Administration in connection with A Study of information systems to provide leading indicators of energy sufficiency, (FEA Contract no. 14-01-001-2040).
This report examines the issues associated with government programs proposed for the "commercialization" of new energy technologies; these programs
are intended to hasten the pace at which target technologies are adopted by
the private sector. The "commercial demonstration" is the principal tool used
in these programs. Most previous government interventions in support of technological change have focussed on R&D and left to the private sector the decision as to adoption for commercial utilization; thus there is relatively
little in the way of analysis or experience which bears direct application.
The analysis is divided into four sections. First, the role of R,D&D
within the structure of the national energy goals and policies is examined.
The issue or "prices versus gaps" is described as a crucial difference of viewpoint concerning the role of the government in the future of the energy system.
Second, the process of technological change as it occurs with respect to energy
technologies is then examined for possible sources of misaligment or social
and private incentives. The process is described as a series of investments.
Third, correction of these sources of misalignment then becomes the goal of
commercial demonstration programs as this goal and the means for attaining it
are explored. Government-supported commercialization may be viewed as a subsidy to the introduction stage of the process; the circumstances under which
such subsidies are likely to affect the success of the subsequent diffusion
stage are addressed. The discussion then turns to the political...
Energy policy in the US is characterized by two motivations: to stem the flow of currency to the oil producing nations, and to prevent energy prices rising as much as it is now being feared they will. Conservation has been seized upon as a principal initiative, and the two most important components of present policy are the investment tax credit and energy taxes. The investment tax credit is aimed toward improving the way energy is used without raising the price. It lowers
the price of capital relative to energy for applications where there is a tradeoff. But this measure is working against the current of wider taxation measures which stimulate
energy growth through lowering the price of capital and raising the price of labor, thus encouraging investment in energy intensive equipment to substitute for labor. The
conservation investment tax credit does not reverse this trend. Nor does it have a significant effect in raising the
rate of return on an investment in conservation, which is dominated by the energy savings and the expected inflation
in energy prices. In summary, it appears that the tax credit will have difficulty achieving the goals set for it.
An encouragement of activities that conserve or substitute for energy by promoting employment rather than extra capital
investment is necessary. In a society...
(Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references.; CIS Microfiche Accession Numbers: CIS 77 S442-1; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from Congressional Information Service, Inc.; At head of title: 94th Congress, 2d session. Committee print.; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions.; (Statement of Responsibility) prepared by the Congressional Research Service at the request of Henry M. Jackson, chairman, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate, pursuant to S. Res. 45, a National fuels and energy policy study.
This paper presents an approach to the development and use of
management information systems that is particularly applicable to systems
with the following characteristics:
- several classes of users, each of which has a different
degree of sophistication
- complex and changing security requirements
- data exhibits complex and changing inter-relationships
- changing needs to be met by information system
- must be built quickly nd inexpensively
- complex data validation requirements
The approach is hierarchical from the user's view in that he may
access the system at distinct levels, corresponding to his degree of
computer sophistication. A casual user has high level primitives to work
with, while an experienced user has more flexible but more detailed low-
We also have advocated that such systems be implemented in a hierarchical
fashion, because this technique provides for ease of debugging, independence
of hardware, and a basis for investigating properties of completeness,
integrity, correctness, and performance.
This paper is a summary, based on a critical review of
selected literature pertaining to energy supply, demand, supply/
demand imbalances and the operational/technological developments
needed to redress imbalances. Crises have been a recurrent feature of man's history. There was a crisis based on a shortage of
wood fuel in the early 17th century. Whale oil was so short
during the Civil War that the price doubled, yet it then dropped
by a factor of six before the end of the century as kerosene became an alternate option. Energy demand growth soared in the U.S.
over the last two decades not because of need but because real
energy prices dropped. Energy was substituted for labor and material which were costing more. Now we have materials as well as
energy shortages and massive unemployment.
There is little agreement regarding our future supply of fossil fuels and no consensus on the best way to reduce demand.
History tells us that the imbalance will be resolved. It is our
task to make sure that the resolution occurs with the lowest possible social and environmental cost. Price can resolve the imbalance, but because price dbes not often reflect all costs this
resolution can be very disruptive. Alternatives must be developed
and options broadened. Opportunities for conservation should not
be overlooked for the marginal barrel of oil saved is of greater
value than the marginal barrel of new production.
A series of working papers and monographs which discuss certain aspects of this review more broadly are included in Volume
II of this report.; Environmental Protection Agency of United States and M.W. Kellogg Company
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy Policy Research, Energy LaboratoryPublicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy Policy Research, Energy Laboratory
by Seth David Hulkower.; Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Technology and Policy Program, 1986.; Series from publisher's list.; Includes bibliographical references.; Supported by the US Department of Energy, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Kraftwerk Union AG, and the Center for Energy Policy Research at MIT.
This paper examines from a policy perspective nuclear energy policy in the United States (US) from 1990 to 2010 and questions whether it is or has become a Federal or State responsibility. The present study, as befits policy research, engages with many disciplines (for example, in particular, law and politics) and hence the contributions move beyond that of nuclear energy policy literature and in particular to that on nuclear new build and other assessments of large infrastructure projects. Several examples at the Federal level are identified that demonstrate that the nuclear industry has evolved to a stage where it requires a focus on the power of actions at a more localised (state) level in order to re-ignite the industry. The research concludes that there remains a misunderstanding of the issue of project management for complex construction projects, and it is highly arguable whether many of its issues have been resolved. Further, the research asserts that the economics of nuclear energy are not the most nfluential reason for no nuclear new build in the US.