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‣ Interfuel substitution in the consumption of energy in the United States

Baughman, Martin Lynn; Joskow, Paul L.; Zerhoot, Frederick S.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 4535561 bytes; application/pdf
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The effects of alternative public policies on the consumption and prices of various forms of energy in the United States depends critically on the nature of consumer demands for fuels and the supply characteristics of these fuels. Previous work on energy demand has tended to concentrate on the demand for a particular fuel as determined by standard economic variables such as the price of the fuel, income levels, sometimes the price of alternative fuels, and other demographic characteristics of the consuming population. In this work the consumer decision making process is viewed as being composed of two steps. First, the consumer decides that he wants a particular service and, secondly, seeks to find the fuel that will provide this service most cheaply. This view leads us to concentrate on substitution possibilities among fuels for particular services rather than own-price elasticities for a particular fuel. This paper presents results for the determinants of energy consumption in the residential and commercial sector in the United States. First, a discussion of the conceptual model used for fuel choice decisions is presented. Then, empirical results are given for appliance choices in the residential sector for four selected appliances and for the "fuel-split" of aggregate energy consumption among the three fuels used in the residential and commercial sector. The own-price and cross-price elasticities are estimated and discussed. Next...

‣ Energy conservation: a case study for a large manufacturing plant

Felton, Lewis Allen; Glicksman, Leon R.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 4079287 bytes; application/pdf
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The methods of formulating, implementing, and evaluating a conservation program in a commercial building or light industrial plant are examined in this paper. The results of one case study are also presented. In commercial and light industrial applications, most energy is consumed to maintain proper environmental conditions; light levels, heat levels, and fresh air levels. Most buildings today expend too much energy on these services. A co-ordinated program to maintain environmental conditions at levels pointed out in this report could save as mu h as 20% each year in energy consumption. This report presents a method that can be used by many commercial and light industrial concerns to establish a conservation program. Guidelines are presented that can be used to examine environmental conditions and determine how they must be changed. A system of program analysis is also presented. Results of this study show that saving 20% is possible, but motivation of the company and workforce will be a problem. The report also concludes that new buildings can be made more energy efficient if energy conservation is kept in mind during building design.

‣ Information systems to provide leading indicators of energy sufficiency : a report to the Federal Energy Administration

MIT Energy Lab
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 11635839 bytes; application/pdf
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Final working paper, submitted to Office of Data Policy, Federal Energy Administration in connection with A Study of information systems to provide leading indicators of energy sufficiency, (FEA Contract no. 14-01-001-2040).

‣ International issues in energy R & D policy

Greenwood, Ted Ronald Ivan; Jacoby, Henry D.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1507540 bytes; application/pdf
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‣ Interfuel substitution in the consumption of energy in the United States

Baughman, Martin Lynn; Joskow, Paul L.; Zerhoot, Frederick S.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 2142479 bytes; application/pdf
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NSF Grant GI-39150 and NSF Grant no. SIA 73-07871 A02

‣ Energy demand in the ERDA national R,D&D plan

Wood, David O.; Hausman, Jerry A.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1773125 bytes; application/pdf
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‣ Project Independence report : a review of U.S. energy needs up to 1985

Hausman, Jerry A.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 3077511 bytes; application/pdf
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‣ Energy system modeling and forecasting

Hoffman, Kenneth C.; Wood, David O.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 3032094 bytes; application/pdf
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‣ The FEA Project Independence report: an analytical review and evaluation

MIT Energy Laboratory Policy Study Group
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 6572499 bytes; application/pdf
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Final report to Office of Energy Research and Development Policy, National Science Foundation, Contract NSF C-1030

‣ Net energy analysis in the Energy Research and Development Administration plan

Polenske, Karen R.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 5455418 bytes; application/pdf
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Report prepared for the M.I.T. Energy Laboratory and the Office of Technology Assessment

‣ Government support for the commercialization of new energy technologies : an analysis and exploration of the issues

Policy Study Group, MIT Energy Lab
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 8000634 bytes; application/pdf
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This report examines the issues associated with government programs proposed for the "commercialization" of new energy technologies; these programs are intended to hasten the pace at which target technologies are adopted by the private sector. The "commercial demonstration" is the principal tool used in these programs. Most previous government interventions in support of technological change have focussed on R&D and left to the private sector the decision as to adoption for commercial utilization; thus there is relatively little in the way of analysis or experience which bears direct application. The analysis is divided into four sections. First, the role of R,D&D within the structure of the national energy goals and policies is examined. The issue or "prices versus gaps" is described as a crucial difference of viewpoint concerning the role of the government in the future of the energy system. Second, the process of technological change as it occurs with respect to energy technologies is then examined for possible sources of misaligment or social and private incentives. The process is described as a series of investments. Third, correction of these sources of misalignment then becomes the goal of commercial demonstration programs as this goal and the means for attaining it are explored. Government-supported commercialization may be viewed as a subsidy to the introduction stage of the process; the circumstances under which such subsidies are likely to affect the success of the subsequent diffusion stage are addressed. The discussion then turns to the political...

‣ Sensitivity analysis of the Brookhaven energy system optimization model

Shapiro, Jeremy F.; White, David Edwin; Wood, David O.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 437991 bytes; application/pdf
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Supported in part by the U.S. Army Research Office (Durham) under Contract no. DAAG29-76-C-0064

‣ Low prices or self-sufficiency : the conflicting goals of national energy policy

Hall, Robert Ernest; Pindyck, Robert S.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1080184 bytes; application/pdf
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‣ The effectiveness of government initiatives in energy conservation

Boshier, John F.
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 3462583 bytes; application/pdf
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Energy policy in the US is characterized by two motivations: to stem the flow of currency to the oil producing nations, and to prevent energy prices rising as much as it is now being feared they will. Conservation has been seized upon as a principal initiative, and the two most important components of present policy are the investment tax credit and energy taxes. The investment tax credit is aimed toward improving the way energy is used without raising the price. It lowers the price of capital relative to energy for applications where there is a tradeoff. But this measure is working against the current of wider taxation measures which stimulate energy growth through lowering the price of capital and raising the price of labor, thus encouraging investment in energy intensive equipment to substitute for labor. The conservation investment tax credit does not reverse this trend. Nor does it have a significant effect in raising the rate of return on an investment in conservation, which is dominated by the energy savings and the expected inflation in energy prices. In summary, it appears that the tax credit will have difficulty achieving the goals set for it. An encouragement of activities that conserve or substitute for energy by promoting employment rather than extra capital investment is necessary. In a society...

‣ New electric utility management and control systems : proceedings of conference, held in Boxborough, Massachusetts, May 30-June 1, 1979

MIT Energy Laboratory; MIT Homeostatic Control Study Group
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 13118686 bytes; application/pdf
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"This work was supported by the Center for Energy Policy Research and the Electric Power Systems Engineering Laboratory of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology."

‣ Energy legislation in the 94th Congress; National fuels and energy policy study

Library of Congress -- Congressional Research Service; Gulick, Frances; Gulick, Frances ( comp ); United States -- Congress. -- Senate. -- Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs
Fonte: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington ) Publicador: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.; U.S. Govt. Print. Off. ( Washington )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: vii, 90 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Publicado em //1976 Português
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(Bibliography) Includes bibliographical references.; CIS Microfiche Accession Numbers: CIS 77 S442-1; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from Congressional Information Service, Inc.; At head of title: 94th Congress, 2d session. Committee print.; Reuse of record except for individual research requires license from LexisNexis Academic & Library Solutions.; (Statement of Responsibility) prepared by the Congressional Research Service at the request of Henry M. Jackson, chairman, Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, United States Senate, pursuant to S. Res. 45, a National fuels and energy policy study.

‣ An application of a generalized management information system to energy policy and decision making : the user's view

Donovan, John J.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 784259 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper presents an approach to the development and use of management information systems that is particularly applicable to systems with the following characteristics: - several classes of users, each of which has a different degree of sophistication - complex and changing security requirements - data exhibits complex and changing inter-relationships - changing needs to be met by information system - must be built quickly nd inexpensively - complex data validation requirements The approach is hierarchical from the user's view in that he may access the system at distinct levels, corresponding to his degree of computer sophistication. A casual user has high level primitives to work with, while an experienced user has more flexible but more detailed low- level primitives. We also have advocated that such systems be implemented in a hierarchical fashion, because this technique provides for ease of debugging, independence of hardware, and a basis for investigating properties of completeness, integrity, correctness, and performance.

‣ Final report on energy, supply, demand/need and the gaps between : to the M.W. Kellogg Co., Houston, Texas and the Environmental Protection Agency under Task 27 of EPA Contract 8-01-1308

Meyer, James Wagner; Jones, William J.; Kessler, Myer M.
Fonte: MIT Energy Lab Publicador: MIT Energy Lab
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 14502067 bytes; 4493381 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This paper is a summary, based on a critical review of selected literature pertaining to energy supply, demand, supply/ demand imbalances and the operational/technological developments needed to redress imbalances. Crises have been a recurrent feature of man's history. There was a crisis based on a shortage of wood fuel in the early 17th century. Whale oil was so short during the Civil War that the price doubled, yet it then dropped by a factor of six before the end of the century as kerosene became an alternate option. Energy demand growth soared in the U.S. over the last two decades not because of need but because real energy prices dropped. Energy was substituted for labor and material which were costing more. Now we have materials as well as energy shortages and massive unemployment. There is little agreement regarding our future supply of fossil fuels and no consensus on the best way to reduce demand. History tells us that the imbalance will be resolved. It is our task to make sure that the resolution occurs with the lowest possible social and environmental cost. Price can resolve the imbalance, but because price dbes not often reflect all costs this resolution can be very disruptive. Alternatives must be developed and options broadened. Opportunities for conservation should not be overlooked for the marginal barrel of oil saved is of greater value than the marginal barrel of new production. A series of working papers and monographs which discuss certain aspects of this review more broadly are included in Volume II of this report.; Environmental Protection Agency of United States and M.W. Kellogg Company

‣ The effects of regulation on the performance of nuclear power in the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany

Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy Policy Research, Energy Laboratory Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy Policy Research, Energy Laboratory
Formato: ix, 101 p.; 4796048 bytes; application/pdf
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by Seth David Hulkower.; Thesis (M.S.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Technology and Policy Program, 1986.; Series from publisher's list.; Includes bibliographical references.; Supported by the US Department of Energy, the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Kraftwerk Union AG, and the Center for Energy Policy Research at MIT.

‣ Nuclear energy policy in the united states 1990-2010: A federal or state responsibility?

Heffron, Raphael J.
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Working Paper; not applicable
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This paper examines from a policy perspective nuclear energy policy in the United States (US) from 1990 to 2010 and questions whether it is or has become a Federal or State responsibility. The present study, as befits policy research, engages with many disciplines (for example, in particular, law and politics) and hence the contributions move beyond that of nuclear energy policy literature and in particular to that on nuclear new build and other assessments of large infrastructure projects. Several examples at the Federal level are identified that demonstrate that the nuclear industry has evolved to a stage where it requires a focus on the power of actions at a more localised (state) level in order to re-ignite the industry. The research concludes that there remains a misunderstanding of the issue of project management for complex construction projects, and it is highly arguable whether many of its issues have been resolved. Further, the research asserts that the economics of nuclear energy are not the most nfluential reason for no nuclear new build in the US.