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‣ On the Demand of Environmental Goods with Intertemporally Dependent Preferences

Belbute, José; Brito, Paulo
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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In this paper, we use a simple framework to analyze two issues relating the canonical model of environmental economics. The first is related with the consistency between the intertemporal and the instantaneous structure of the utility function. The second is related with to the specific stability and dynamic properties of the model and to its response to relative price and income exogenous changes. We find that, if there is bounded adjacent complementarity in demand for environmental goods, intertemporal independence in the demand for the other goods and if the utility function displays goods separability, then there will be short-run complementarity between the stock of tastes and the financial wealth. Increases in income will rise the long-run demand for environmental good while increases in the relative price will decrease it.

‣ Optimal timing problems in environmental economics

Pindyck, Robert S.
Fonte: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research Publicador: MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 29 p
Português
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Because of the uncertainties and irreversibilities that are often inherent in environmental degradation, its prevention, and its economic consequences, environmental policy design can involve important problems of timing. I use a simple two-period model to illustrate these optimal timing problems and their implications for environmental policy. I then lay out and solve a continuous-time model of policy adoption in which the policy itself entails sunk costs, and environmental damage is irreversible. The model has two stochastic state variables; one captures uncertainty over environmental change, and the other captures uncertainty over the social costs of environmental damage. Solutions of the model are used to show the implications of these two types of uncertainty for the timing of policy adoption.; Supported by the MIT Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.

‣ Strategic Environmental Assessment in Policy and Sector Reform : Conceptual Model and Operational Guidance

World Bank; University of Gothenburg; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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Around the world, it is increasingly being recognized that for sustainability goals to be reached, efforts need to go beyond complying with standards and mitigating adverse impacts, to identifying environmental sustainability as an objective of the development process. This approach requires the integration of environmental, sustainability, and climate change considerations into policy and sector reform. Because sector reform brings about significant policy change involving adjustments in laws, policies, regulations, and institutions, it is a sensitive political process often driven by strong economic interests. Policy makers are subject to a number of political pressures that originate in vested interests. The recommendations of environmental assessment are often of little relevance unless there are constituencies that support them and have sufficient political power to make their voices heard in the policy process. While strong constituencies are important during the design of sector reform, they are even more important during implementation. It follows that effective environmental assessment in policy and sector reform requires strong constituencies backing up recommendations...

‣ Designing Payments for Environmental Services in Theory and Practice: An Overview of the Issues

Engel, Stefanie; Pagiola, Stefano; Wunder, Sven
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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57.402%
Payments for environmental services (PES) have attracted increasing interest as a mechanism to translate external, non-market values of the environment into real financial incentives for local actors to provide environmental services (ES). In this introductory paper, we set the stage for the rest of this Special Issue of Ecological Economics by reviewing the main issues arising in PES design and implementation and discussing these in the light of environmental economics. We start with a discussion of PES definition and scope. We proceed to review some of the principal dimensions and design characteristics of PES programs and then analyze how PES compares to alternative policy instruments. Finally, we examine in detail two important aspects of PES programs: their effectiveness and their distributional implications. PES is not a silver bullet that can be used to address any environmental problem, but a tool tailored to address a specific set of problems: those in which ecosystems are mismanaged because many of their benefits are externalities from the perspective of ecosystem managers. PES is based on the beneficiary-pays rather than the polluter-pays principle, and as such is attractive in settings where ES providers are poor, marginalized landholders or powerful groups of actors. An important distinction within PES is between user-financed PES in which the buyers are the users of the ES...

‣ Environmental Economics in Sub-Saharan Africa : Towards Sustainable Development

Convery, Frank J.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Environmental concerns must be integrated into the development process, but African countries still face many challenges as they work to achieve development that is economically, socially, and environmentally sustainable. Many countries have already launched National Environmental Action Plans (NEAPs) and National Conservation Strategies; however, in preparing and implementing them, economics was used sparingly because techniques and skills available to do so were in short supply. This paper was written to fill this gap, to show how environmental economics could and should be used to improve the quality of decision making in the NEAP process. The paper is written for the practitioner in the field who needs to make immediate decisions and cannot wait for more data. After presenting the theory of environmental economics, the text goes on to show its practical application in Africa.

‣ India : Diagnostic Assessment of Select Environmental Challenges, Volume 1. An Analysis of Physical and Monetary Losses of Environmental Health and Natural Resources

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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This report provides estimates of social and financial costs of environmental damage in India from three pollution damage categories: (i) urban air pollution, including particulate matter and lead; (ii) inadequate water supply, poor sanitation, and hygiene; (iii) indoor air pollution; and four natural resource damage categories: (a) agricultural damage from soil salinity, water logging, and soil erosion; (b) rangeland degradation; (c) deforestation; and (d) natural disasters. The estimates are based on a combination of Indian data from secondary sources and on the transfer of unit costs of pollution from a range of national and international studies. The quantification and monetary valuation of environmental damage involves many scientific disciplines including environmental, physical, and biological and health sciences, epidemiology, and environmental economics. Estimates of the costs of degradation are generally reported as a percent of conventional gross domestic product (GDP). This provides a useful estimate of the importance of environmental damages but it should not be interpreted that GDP will increase by a given percent if the degradation were to be reduced to zero. Any measures to reduce environmental degradation will have a cost and the additional cost goes up the greater is the reduction that is made. Hence a program to remove all degradation can well result in a lower GDP. This report provides a measure of the overall damage relative to a benchmark...

‣ India : Diagnostic Assessment of Select Environmental Challenges, Volume 2. Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability, What Are the Tradeoffs?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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57.556133%
This report provides estimates of social and financial costs of environmental damage in India from three pollution damage categories: (i) urban air pollution, including particulate matter and lead; (ii) inadequate water supply, poor sanitation, and hygiene; (iii) indoor air pollution; and four natural resource damage categories: (a) agricultural damage from soil salinity, water logging, and soil erosion; (b) rangeland degradation; (c) deforestation; and (d) natural disasters. The estimates are based on a combination of Indian data from secondary sources and on the transfer of unit costs of pollution from a range of national and international studies. The quantification and monetary valuation of environmental damage involves many scientific disciplines including environmental, physical, and biological and health sciences, epidemiology, and environmental economics. Estimates of the costs of degradation are generally reported as a percent of conventional gross domestic product (GDP). This provides a useful estimate of the importance of environmental damages but it should not be interpreted that GDP will increase by a given percent if the degradation were to be reduced to zero. Any measures to reduce environmental degradation will have a cost and the additional cost goes up the greater is the reduction that is made. Hence a program to remove all degradation can well result in a lower GDP. This report provides a measure of the overall damage relative to a benchmark...

‣ India : Diagnostic Assessment of Select Environmental Challenges, Volume 3. Valuation of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in India

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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57.539136%
This report provides estimates of social and financial costs of environmental damage in India from three pollution damage categories: (i) urban air pollution, including particulate matter and lead; (ii) inadequate water supply, poor sanitation, and hygiene; (iii) indoor air pollution; and four natural resource damage categories: (a) agricultural damage from soil salinity, water logging, and soil erosion; (b) rangeland degradation; (c) deforestation; and (d) natural disasters. The estimates are based on a combination of Indian data from secondary sources and on the transfer of unit costs of pollution from a range of national and international studies. The quantification and monetary valuation of environmental damage involves many scientific disciplines including environmental, physical, and biological and health sciences, epidemiology, and environmental economics. Estimates of the costs of degradation are generally reported as a percent of conventional gross domestic product (GDP). This provides a useful estimate of the importance of environmental damages but it should not be interpreted that GDP will increase by a given percent if the degradation were to be reduced to zero. Any measures to reduce environmental degradation will have a cost and the additional cost goes up the greater is the reduction that is made. Hence a program to remove all degradation can well result in a lower GDP. This report provides a measure of the overall damage relative to a benchmark...

‣ Expectations of linear functions with respect to truncated multinormal distributions, with applications for uncertainty analysis in environmental modelling

Sharples, Jason J; Pezzey, John C.V
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 267740 bytes; 352 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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This paper discusses results concerning multivariate normal distributions that are subject to truncation by a hyperplane and how such results can be applied to uncertainty analysis in the environmental sciences. We present a suite of results concerning truncated multivariate normal distributions, some of which already appear in the mathematical literature. The focus here is to make these types of results more accesible to the environmental science community and to this end we include a conceptually simple alternative derivation of an important result. We illustrate how the theory of truncated multivariate normal distributions can be employed in the environmental sciences by means of an example from the economics of climate change control.; no

‣ Environmental valuation damage schedules

Quah, Euston; Tan, Khye Chong; Choa, Edward
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 61187 bytes; 349 bytes; 349 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream; application/octet-stream
Português
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Increasing concerns over environmental degradation have amplified the role of environmental economics and the valuation of non-pecuniary environmental resources as tools of analysis to facilitate the design of policies. To date, however, environmental valuation methods have continued to be unreliable, misleading and contentious as a guide to resource allocations and damage compensations. Damage schedules, however, offer several advantages over most current post-incident economic valuation methods. One such advantage is predictability by stipulating damage or compensation awards and remedies in advance instead of waiting until the damage has taken place. In this paper, a damage schedule is developed based on the scales of relative importance translated from people’s judgments about values of various environmental damages or losses. The variance stable rank method is applied to the paired comparison responses to obtain the scale values as well as the importance of rankings. Statistical tests of significance are used to determine the level of the agreement among the survey respondents and the degree of correspondence between different respondent groups. This will determine the number of relative importance scales required to adequately represent the responses from all respondents. The scales of relative importance will then be translated into damage schedules.; no

‣ Industrial Environmental Performance in China; The Impact of Inspections

Dasgupta, Susmita; Laplante, Benoit; Namingi, Nlandu; Wang, Hua
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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Little empirical research has been done on monitoring and enforcement issues in environmental economics, especially to analyze the impact of monitoring and enforcement on polluters' environmental performance. No studies have been done in developing economies. The authors explore the impact of inspections, and the potential impact of pollution charges and citizens' complaints, on the environmental performance of polluters in China. Their analysis of plant-level data from the city of Zhenjiang shows that: 1) Inspections have a statistically significant impact on firms environmental performance. 2) Pollution charges do not have a statistically significant effect on firms performance - although the lack of variation in pollution charges in Zhenjiang precludes effectively capturing their impact. 3) Complaints have a significant impact on inspections and therefore on pollution control. Currently available data do not allow analysis of whether the cost of additional inspections is justified, but it is reasonable to speculate that additional inspections would improve social welfare in Zhenjiang...

‣ Environmental Economics at the World Bank; Review of Environmental Economics and Policy

Dasgupta, Susmita; Hamilton, Kirk; Pagiola, Stefano; Wheeler, David
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
Português
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In this paper, we examine several channels through which environmental economics has affected the World Bank's development agenda. We also describe the evolution of environmental economics at the Bank. At the macro level, we examine the growing influence of resource and environmental accounting in the Bank's policy work. From the micro perspective, we consider the role of environmental valuation in project analysis, the assessment of environmental damage, and the development of innovative environmental policies based on insights from environmental economics. We also describe the influence of economic analysis on environmental resource allocation decisions in the World Bank and its affiliate, the Global Environment Facility. Throughout the paper, we document the growth, scope, and impact of the Bank's contribution to economic policy research on environmental issues.

‣ Environmental Policy and Economies of Scope in Facility-Level Environmental Practices; Environmental Economics and Policy Studies

Johnstone, Nick; Labonne, Julien; Thevenot, Celinc
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Journal Article; Journal Article
Português
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In order to abate pollution, manufacturing facilities can either change their production processes (CPP) or introduce end-of-pipe technologies (EOP). The decision to undertake CPP rather than EOP is a reflection of the existence of economies of scope between production of the facility's conventional output and abatement of pollution. While this is determined by sectoral technological opportunities, facility size and other factors, environmental management practices, and public policy also play a role. Our results suggest that flexible instruments are more likely to result in CPP. We also provide insights on the role of environmental management, with the mainstreaming of environmental management within the firm leading to more integrated abatement strategies.

‣ Environmental benefit-cost analysis in the US : risk-based regulation and the role of the National Center for Environmental Economics

Teodorovicz, Thomaz, 1991-
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Paraná Publicador: Universidade Federal do Paraná
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 177 f. : il. algumas color., grafs., tabs.; application/pdf
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Orientador : Prof. Dr. Victor Manoel Alvarez; Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor de Ciencias Sociais Aplicadas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Políticas Públicas. Defesa : 25/03/2015; Inclui referências : fls. 155-177; Resumo: O desenvolvimento do marco regulatório ambiental dos EUA começou a ficar em evidência a partir da criação da Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) em 1970, agência responsável por estabelecer regulações de emissão de poluentes e determinar o uso de tecnologias para seu controle. Contudo, a partir de meados da década de 1970, em um ambiente político-econômico marcado pela crise energética e voltado à priorização da produtividade e do desempenho econômico, um ferramental específico tornou-se proeminente no processo de avaliação a respeito de regulações (tanto gerais como ambientais): a análise custo-benefício (ACB). A ACB foi introduzida nos EUA, por meio de uma série de Executive Orders (EO) emitidas pelo poder executivo estadunidense, especialmente a partir do governo Reagan, sob o argumento de proporcionar uma análise regulatória consistente, objetiva, neutra e em sintonia com o desenvolvimento econômico. A ACB foi mantida e reforçada em governos subsequentes...

‣ Essays in empirical environmental economics : GIS-econometric analysis of Indonesia's fires, Bolivia's deforestation and Mexico's trade with the U.S.

Rabindran Gamper, Shanti, 1970-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 140 p.; 13902674 bytes; 13902431 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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by Shanti Rabindran Gamper.; Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dept. of Economics, 2001.; Includes bibliographical references (p. 114-116).

‣ Essays in development and environmental economics

Hanna, Rema
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 120, [9] p.
Português
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This thesis is a collection of three empirical essays on economic development and environmental economics. Chapter 1 measures the response of U.S. based multinational firms to the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), which dramatically strengthened U.S. environmental regulation. Using a panel of firm-level data over the period 1966-1999, I estimate the effect of regulation on a multinational's foreign production decisions. The CAAA induced substantial variation in the degree of regulation faced by firms, allowing for the estimation of econometric models that control for firm-specific characteristics and industrial trends. I find that the CAAA caused regulated multinational firms to increase their foreign assets by 5.3% and their foreign output by 9%. In aggregate, this increase represents approximately 0.6% of the stock of multinationals' domestic assets in polluting industries. Contrary to common beliefs, I find that heavily regulated firms did not disproportionately increase foreign investment in developing countries. Finally, this paper presents limited evidence that U.S. based multinationals increased imports of highly polluting goods when faced with tougher U.S. environmental regulation. Overall, these results are consistent with the view that U.S. environmental regulations cause U.S. firms to move capital and jobs abroad.; (cont.) Chapter 2 looks at the teacher absence. In the rural areas of developing countries...

‣ Environmental and ecological economics: a citation analysis

Ma, C; Stern, David
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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57.509834%
This study looks at two distinct questions: 'What have been the most influential journal articles in environmental economics and ecological economics over the 10-year period 1994-2003?'; and 'How much overlap is there between the fields of environmental a

‣ Environmental economics and the Murray-Darling river system

Quiggin, John
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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57.152065%
Much concern about the negative environmental consequences of agricultural development in Australia, including salinisation, waterlogging and algal blooms, has focused on the problems of the Murray-Darling Basin. The aim of this article is to provide an o

‣ Australasian Environmental Economics: Contributions, Conflicts and Cop-Outs

Bennett, Jeffrey
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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57.31761%
Australian and New Zealand environmental economists have played a significant role in the development of concepts and their application across three fields within their sub-discipline: non-market valuation, institutional economics and bioeconomic modelling. These contributions have been spurred on by debates within and outside the discipline. Much of the controversy has centred on the validity of valuations generated through the application of stated preference methods such as contingent valuation. Suggestions to overcome some shortcomings in the work of environmental economists include the commissioning of a sequence of non-market valuation studies to fill existing gaps to improve the potential for benefit transfer.

‣ Environmental economics and modeling marketable permits

Taschini, Luca
Fonte: Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy and Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment Publicador: Centre for Climate Change Economics and Policy and Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2010 Português
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This paper reviews fundamental concepts in environmental economics and explores theoretical results regarding the choice of the key policy instruments for the control of externalities: taxes, subsidies and marketable permits. The paper explains why today market mechanisms are increasingly being used as a tool for allocating unpriced rights and scarce resources. We survey how significant market imperfections, a pre-existing regulatory environment and concentration in both permit and output markets can impede the proper functioning of a permit system. The main factors that affect the effectiveness of marketable permits are then discussed. Given the importance of understanding the emission permit price formation, we overview recent attempts at developing valid price models for emission permits, taking into account banking and borrowing opportunities, pollution abatement measures, strategic trading interactions and the presence of asymmetric information in the permit market.