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‣ Ascensão e queda dos CFCs: uma análise de periódicos científicos e de livros didáticos de química ambiental; Rise and fall of CFCs: an analysis of scientific journals and environmental chemistry textbooks

Viana, Helio Elael Bonini
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/08/2013 Português
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O presente trabalho tem como objetivo investigar os processos de ascensão e queda dos clorofluorocarbonetos (CFCs) como bens de consumo, bem como o desenvolvimento da percepção de risco da comunidade química em relação a esses compostos, que culminou com sua caracterização como agentes de risco ambiental global. Para isso, foi desenvolvido um estudo de caso histórico acerca do uso dos CFCs ao longo do século XX, de solução tecnológica ideal a protagonista de uma inédita dimensão de risco químico. Além disso, foi realizada uma análise de cartas enviadas por leitores, editoriais e resenhas de livros publicadas em cinco periódicos científicos: Chemical & Engineering News, Journal of Chemical Education, Environmental Science and Technology, Nature e Science, no período compreendido entre 1975 e 1991, e de livros didáticos de Química Ambiental publicados entre 1970 e 1995 - período marcado por intenso debate sobre a possibilidade de destruição da camada de ozônio estratosférica. A escolha desses periódicos e livros buscou contemplar diferentes seções da comunidade química, de modo a se ter uma amostra representativa de diferentes formas de pensamento dentro desse amplo espectro profissional que constitui a química. Para análise dessa amostra foi escolhida a Teoria Cultural de Douglas e Wildavsky...

‣ HSCI2012: proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Hands-on Science

Costa, Manuel F. M., ed. lit.; Vázquez Dorrío, José Benito, ed. lit.; Erdogan, Mehmet, ed. lit.; Erentay, Nilgun, ed. lit.; International Conference on Hands-on Science, 9, Antalya, 2012
Fonte: Hands-on Science Network Publicador: Hands-on Science Network
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Including 1st Childrens’ Summit on Hands-on Science & Environmental Education. The core topic of the 9th Hands-on Science Conference are “Science Education, Environment and Society" and "Reconnecting Society with Nature through Hands-on Science”.; Livro que reúne os trabalho extensos aceites para publicação nos proceedings da 9th HSCI conference

‣ 12.085 Seminar in Environmental Science, Fall 2005; Seminar in Environmental Science

Rothman, Daniel H.
Fonte: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Português
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Required for all Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences majors in the Environmental Science track, this course is an introduction to current research in the field. Stresses integration of central scientific concepts in environmental policy making and the chemistry, biology, and geology environmental science tracks. Revisits selected core themes for students who have already acquired a basic understanding of environmental science concepts. The topic for this term is Global Respiration.

‣ Eliciting and activating funds of knowledge in an environmental science community college classroom : an action research study

Van Niel, John J. ; Luehmann, April Lynn (1967 - ); Borasi, Raffaella
Fonte: University of Rochester. Publicador: University of Rochester.
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:ix, 219 leaves
Português
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Thesis (Ed. D)--University of Rochester. Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development, 2010.; Many non-traditional students are currently underperforming in college and yet may have untapped knowledge and skills that could support their academic success if appropriately utilized. Previous practices that students experience as a part of their lives are what Gonzales and other researchers call “funds of knowledge” (FOK). There is ample evidence to show that utilization of students’ FOK in K-12 instructional contexts can be beneficial. In contrast, little formal FOK research has been done with higher education students. To address this gap, this study explores how environmental college courses could be designed so as to better elicit and capitalize on students’ FOK, with the ultimate goal of increasing student engagement and learning. More specifically, using an action research paradigm, I designed, implemented and studied an intervention in two sections of the required environmental science course I taught in Fall 2009 at the community college where I am employed. The intervention consisted of two phases: (1) eliciting FOK from the students enrolled in one section of the course through a draft survey...

‣ "Don't breathe the air": Air pollution and the evolution of environmental policy and politics in the United States, 1945-1970

Dewey, Scott Hamilton
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 741 p.; application/pdf
Português
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This thesis discusses the rise of air pollution to become a major public and official concern in America during the 25 years after 1945. What had been largely ignored as a sporadic local smoke nuisance was seen as a nationwide crisis demanding federal intervention by 1970. Although air pollution was among the most salient issues creating a sense of environmental crisis and facilitating the emergence of environmentalism before Earth Day, 1970, recent environmental history studies have largely overlooked it, focusing instead on traditional conservation and wilderness preservation organizations and often criticizing these for their white, male, affluent, "elitist" character. However, the public-health/antipollution wing of early environmentalism drew broader support from women, minorities, and the working class as well, as citizens mobilized regarding real threats, not mere amenities or linguistic constructs. Air pollution was an issue in England, Continental Europe, and America long before 1945 due to health worries and economic damage, yet local government and industry throughout the industrial world long persisted in constructing the issue as merely an aesthetic nuisance, aided by quietist scientific and medical experts. Even after 1945...

‣ American extreme: An ethnography of astronautical visions and ecologies

Olson, Valerie A.
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: application/pdf
Português
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This dissertation is a coordinated ethnographic case study of environmental science, medicine, technology, and design in an American human spaceflight program. Its goal is to investigate how astronautics contributes to shaping "the environment" as an extensive contemporary category of knowledge, politics, and social action. Based on fieldwork conducted primarily at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)'s Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas from 2005 --- 2008, the study argues that, in practical and meaningful ways, ecology and cosmology are co-constituting in American astronautics. Using participant observation and archival data, the study evaluates how astronautics practitioners know and work with "the human environment" on a scope that includes vehicle habitats and the heliosphere and on scales ranging from the molecular to the cosmic. In this work, people shore up and break down unusual human/environment boundaries, making sense of what it means to do so in technoscientific as well as sociopolitical, symbolic, and transcendental terms. The four cases analyzed are: (1) how space analogue missions operate as simulations but also make arguments that extreme environments foster progress through confrontation with adversity...

‣ Planning and Management in Eastern Ontario’s Protected Spaces: How do science and public participation guide policy?

Smith, Simon
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Providing opportunities for outdoor recreation and maintaining ecological integrity are primary management objectives for protected spaces in the public domain, but as visitation and visitor expectations change, a balance must be maintained between environmental and visitor use that is consistent with management goals. There is an increasing dependence on public participation in protected area management to compensate for an increasing budgetary gap between desired and actual management states. The Investigator explores how science, public perception, and collaborative relationships with stakeholders influence management planning and what the effect has been on management action. How has that balance between visitor use and environmental preservation objectives been affected? Three case study sites were selected in eastern Ontario: a national park, a provincial park, and a municipal forest. For each site, semi-structured interviews with staff and stakeholders were conducted, guiding legislation and supporting documents were analysed, and site observational evidence was collected. The data was analyzed using methodological triangulation and McCracken’s (1988) four-part method of inquiry. The results identified each site’s management goals and the management planning and action utilized to achieve those goals. The integration of environmental science and the role of public perception and participation are described as well as the nature of the management response. The discussion identifies management trends across the three governmental levels...

‣ Regulatory competition and the politics of environmental enforcement

Konisky, David M
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 258 p.; 16976978 bytes; 16994704 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
Português
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Does interstate economic competition result in states weakening their environmental regulation? Scholars have long been interested in this question. Of particular concern, is whether this type of behavior leads to a "race to the bottom" in U.S. state environmental regulatory behavior. Although there is a mature theoretical literature investigating the conditions under which regulators will use environmental measures as competitive instruments vis-a.-vis other states for attracting economic investment, the empirical literature has lagged far behind in testing the direct predictions of the race to the bottom argument. The purpose of this project is test the applicability of the race to the bottom argument in U.S. state environmental regulation. To test the race to the bottom argument, I examine both behavioral' and attitudinal evidence. Specifically, I estimate a series of strategic interaction models which aim to detect whether state enforcement of three federal pollution control programs - the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act - follows a pattern consistent with regulatory competition theory generally, and the race to the bottom argument specifically. I also conduct a nationwide survey of senior officials working in state environmental agencies.; (cont.) This elite level survey helps to validate the behavioral evidence studied in the statistical analysis...

‣ The Matthew Effect in Environmental Science Publication: A Bibliometric Analysis of Chemical Substances in Journal Articles

Grandjean, Philippe; Eriksen, Mette L.; Ellegaard, Ole; Wallin, Johan A.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: While environmental research addresses scientific questions of possible societal relevance, it is unclear to what degree research focuses on environmental chemicals in need of documentation for risk assessment purposes. Methods: In a bibliometric analysis, we used SciFinder to extract Chemical Abstract Service (CAS) numbers for chemicals addressed by publications in the 78 major environmental science journals during 2000-2009. The Web of Science was used to conduct title searches to determine long-term trends for prominent substances and substances considered in need of research attention. Results: The 119,636 journal articles found had 760,056 CAS number links during 2000-2009. The top-20 environmental chemicals consisted of metals, (chlorinated) biphenyls, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, and ethanol and contributed 12% toward the total number of links- Each of the top-20 substances was covered by 2,000-10,000 articles during the decade. The numbers for the 10-year period were similar to the total numbers of pre-2000 articles on the same chemicals. However, substances considered a high priority from a regulatory viewpoint, due to lack of documentation, showed very low publication rates. The persistence in the scientific literature of the top-20 chemicals was only weakly related to their publication in journals with a high impact factor...

‣ Duke University and the Nicholas School: Encouraging today's youth through environmental education

Greene, Chaquetta
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 23/04/2013 Português
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Environmental education programs and curriculum have been a crucial part of earth and science education since the mid-1970s. With the increasing scope of environmental issues in the US and worldwide, it is important to prepare our youth to solve pressing environmental problems. This study documents K-12 environmental education initiatives in Durham county public schools sponsored by the Duke University community, including and earth science departments and the Nicholas School of the Environment. The scope, pedagogical approach, and process of development of these initiatives are noted. Moreover, this study offers recommendations for both Duke and the Nicholas School of the Environment based on current academic literature and similar outreach programs at other universities such as the inclusion of training and enhanced professional development for in-service teachers and increased emphasis on service-learning and nature based instructional approaches.

‣ Evaluating Conservation International's Marine Management Area Science Program

Hastings, Jesse
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Environmental non-governmental organizations are now major players in environmental science and conservation. The largest now produce applied conservation science and work on local, national, and international scales and across scales to conserve marine and terrestrial ecosystems and connect local level environmental issues to international economic and political processes. However, despite the growing role of these organizations, there is still a lack of comprehensive examinations of their programs with a full analysis of programmatic design, structure, processes, and outcomes.

To fill this gap in both conservation practice and academic theory, I conducted a multi-scalar examination of Conservation International's Marine Management Area Science initiative. This $12.5 million initiative, lasting from 2005 until 2010 and funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, had four main nodes of research and conservation work: Fiji, Belize, Eastern Tropical Pacific Seascape, and Brazil. Using non-governmental organization and science and technology studies literature as a theoretical framework, I endeavored to determine what factors affect how environmental non-governmental organizations manage the boundaries across multiple scales and between science and policy in international marine management area science initiatives. Drawing upon methodological approaches in multi-sited ethnography and participant action research...

‣ Environmental science in middle school curricula: A Pilot project in the Dominican Republic

Tejeda, Laura
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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The Dominican Republic's (DR) public investment in education by 2010 was 2% of the GNP; falling behind the 6% minimum established by UNESCO in 2010 as a requirement to achieve quality education. The DR has not developed an Environmental Education policy. The DR's Environment Law 64-00 dictates Environmental Education to be introduced as one of the cross-cutting themes called "transverse axis" into the general curricula of all schools. However; due to lack of time and teachers able to integrate these axes into lesson plans, they were seldom implemented. This pilot project took place at The Community for Learning School (TCFL). Their 5th - 8th grade science curricula were enhanced with four activities (Composting, School Garden, Garbage Project and Energy Audit) designed to connect with current themes in the school year 2011-2012. Assessing students' knowledge gain with pre and post-tests data, assessing changes in attitude towards the activities and assessing changes in behavior post implementation were the evaluations used. In the quantitative analyses, codified data helped built 95% Confidence Intervals, Chi-Square tests of association, clustered bar-graphs and Non-parametric (Mann-Whitney) tests for small samples. For the qualitative analyses...

‣ A study of multimedia in an environmental science course

Stefano, Matthew
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Master's Project Formato: 4842118 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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This study examined the use of sign movies, content movies, and adjunct questions in an instructional unit for Deaf students taking an environmental science course. Pre and post tests of factual recall as well as an attitude measure were administered to detennine if web-based technology benefits Deaf students taking environmental science courses. The results indicate that deaf students learning through web-based technology benefit from embedded American Sign Language explanations and questions as adjunct instructional aids. Implications of using webbased technology are discussed for science teachers having deaf students in their classes.

‣ Attitudes toward the environment: a curriculum evaluation project on promoting deaf students' awareness of environmental issues

Schultz, Joy
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Masters Project Formato: 17084704 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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With the increasing importance being placed on the awareness of the environment in today's society, one wonders how Deaf students' attitudes toward the environment are influenced by their experiences or by taking a course on the environment. This Master's Project provides a rationale for the need for Environmental Science courses in Deaf Education. The study examined whether the attitudes of postsecondary Deaf students may be influenced by an academic course. Seventeen students enrolled in an Environmental Science course at NTID took a pre and post survey to study the change in attitudes. Students completed the Environmental Science course as a treatment in between surveys. The results of this study showed that students benefited from the course with a statistically significant increase in the mean scores for the evaluation of their attitudes toward the environment. This study showed how increased knowledge of issues related to environmental science can lead to the development of more positive attitudes. Knowledge about the environment should be everyone's concern, not just a topic for the classroom. This project provides support for the view that a well-designed course with effective instruction can make a difference in both learning and attitudes. In turn...

‣ An investigation into student engagement with an online collaboration platform (Edmodo) in a high school environmental science course

Olson, Peter G.
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Dagher, Zoubeida R.; The purpose of this investigation was to examine student engagement with the online collaboration platform (Edmodo) by analyzing the quality and quantity of their online posts while assessing their performance and attitudes toward its use within an introductory high school Environmental Science class as they participated in two webquests. Students from one College Preparatory class consisting of mixed level abilities and consisting primarily of 9 th and 10th graders participated in this investigation. All students participated in teacher provided instructional interventions between the first and last webquests while completing the same webquests and unit exams. Data sources included: student online communication, pre - post data from an attitude survey and student performance on final unit exams. Analysis of the data consisted of an examination of the quality and quantity of student communication (online posts) during the completion of these units. I used three existing analytical frameworks (rubrics) to analyze the quality and quantity of the student online posts. Noting that none of them accounted for some student posts noted in this study, I adapted Uzuner's rubric (2007) by adding three additional indicators. The new indicators were: Content Information Resources for Computer Links...

‣ Integrated research: Concepts of connection in environmental science and policy

van Kerkhoff, Lorrae
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The idea of integration in research has risen rapidly in both environmental science and public environmental policy since the mid-1990s, and has encouraged innovative relationships between scientists and practitioners in a range of contexts. Yet the concept of integration is broad and ambiguous, which inhibits efforts to learn from these innovations. In this paper, I review the different concepts of integration that currently exist in international and Australian science and environmental policy contexts. Drawing on comprehensive examples, I identify 12 thematic categories of integration. The themes encompass integration within science, as well as integration between scientific and non-scientific partners. They also include integration focused on activities, and on the organisational or institutional structures that govern research activity. These groupings reflect significant differences in the ways science-policy relationships are understood, and the main problems integration is intended to overcome. They serve as a foundation for a framework that researchers, policy-makers and other partners can use to compare and learn from different integrative research approaches. This is a first step towards building a comprehensive understanding of how integration can contribute to better environmental outcomes.

‣ Translating Environmental Science into Policy and Action

Lee M. Talbot
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
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Background/Question/Methods: Many ecologists are skilled at identifying environmental problems and defining solutions, but not at achieving concrete action to implement those insights. The question, then, is how to help ecologists translate environmental science into policy and action. Most ecologists' education and training do not prepare them to be effective in the policy arena, much less in ways to achieve action. Ecologists find disincentives in the form of the academic attitude that somehow the application of science is inferior to so-called "pure science." This ivory tower holdover has been largely discredited in the context of environmental issues, and the discipline of conservation biology exists explicitly to foster applications of science, but the attitude remains a potent obstacle, especially for younger ecologists seeking academic acceptance and tenure. Even when ecologists ignore or overcome this obstacle there are few resources available to provide guidance for achieving action. For example, most textbooks that describe the policy process present an academic picture that bears little relationship to the messy real world process. One approach to providing such guidance has been developed in the Department of Environmental Science and Policy at George Mason University...

‣ Environmental psychology and the future: geopolitical reflections on environmental policy; Psychologie environnementale et futur: réflexions géopolitiques sur la politique environnementale; Psicologia Ambiental e futuro: reflexões geopolíticas sobre Política Ambiental

Tassara, Eda Terezinha de Oliveira
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Instituto de Psicologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2005 Português
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À partir d'une estimation d'environnement fournie par les géographes Milton Santos et Aziz Ab'Saber, et afin d'aboutir à une vraie Politique Environnementale, à savoir, à la construction intentionnelle du futur, l'auteur propose un nouveau paradigme scientifique transdisciplinaire - Science Environnementale prospective. Ce paradigme devrait permettre de mettre en rapport, dans ses projets de connaissance et d'intervention, la science, la philosophie, l'histoire et la politique, en configurant, pour la Psychologie Environnementale, en tant qu'objet d'étude, les relations entre la subjectivité humaine et la conscience environnementale dans l'histoire et dans la géographie.; Based on a conception of environment offered by the geographers Milton Santos and Aziz Ab'Saber, this article proposes, so that we can achieve a true Environmental Policy, that is, the intentional construction of the future, a new scientific transdisciplinary paradigm - prospective Environmental Science. This paradigm should be able to relate, in their projects of knowledge and intervention, science, philosophy, history, and politics, establishing, as the object of study of Environmental Psychology, relations between human subjectivity and environmental conscience...

‣ Los estudios sobre el ambiente y la ciencia ambiental

Giannuzzo, Amelia Nancy
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2010 Português
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La existencia de la ciencia ambiental es reconocida en libros, revistas de publicación científica y carreras de grado y posgrado. Sin embargo, se desconoce su existencia en forma literal o indirecta, al no ser considerado su aporte, por ejemplo, en los planteos referidos sobre la ciencia y la tecnología de la sustentabilidad. En este trabajo se presentan estos antecedentes, relacionándolos con el objetivo del mismo, que es el de aportar a la dilucidación de la existencia y conformación de la ciencia ambiental. Para esto, se analiza la relación de las disciplinas con la dimensión compleja del ambiente como objeto de estudio y aspectos metodológicos derivados. A los fines de aportar al esclarecimiento conceptual, se identifican las distintas acepciones de ambiente comúnmente referidas en la bibliografía. Además, se discuten aspectos relacionados de multidisciplinariedad, interdisciplinariedad y transdisciplinariedad, y sobre el status epistémico de la ciencia ambiental. Se concluye que una mayor precisión conceptual embasada en un marco compartido por las disciplinas que estudian el ambiente, incluida la ciencia ambiental, y los distintos actores involucrados en las problemáticas ambientales, favorecerá el refinamiento de las metodologías tendientes a disminuir la fragmentación de las investigaciones concernientes y las aplicaciones para su resolución.; The existence of an environmental science is recognized in books...

‣ Theorising international environmental law

Humphreys, Stephen; Otomo, Yoriko
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2014 Português
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From The Oxford Handbook of International Legal Theory (Florian Hoffmann and Anne Orford, eds, Oxford UP, forthcoming 2014). --- This paper, part of a larger work on international law theory, sketches some early lines of inquiry towards a theoretical understanding of international environmental law. As the body of international law regulating human interaction with the natural world, one might expect this branch of law to be a cornerstone of the international system. Yet in practice, international environmental law's reach is strikingly circumscribed. Little of the governance of natural resources, for example, is 'environmental'. Subsisting at the periphery, environmental law focuses on conserving particular (rare, exotic) species and 'ecosystems', and curbing certain kinds of pollution. Its principles are vague, peppering the margins of rulings within other judicial fora: it is quintessential soft law. In this paper, we suggest that international environmental law's dilemmas are due to two competing heritages. On one hand, this law enshrines the peculiar pantheism of the European romantic period, positing the 'natural world' as sacred, inviolable, redemptive. On the other, its main antecedents are found in colonial era practices...