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‣ Caracterização epidemiológica da malária autóctone do Espírito Santo; Study of the epidemiologic aspects of the indigenous malaria in Espírito Santo State

Cerutti Junior, Crispim
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/04/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Os diversos aspectos da cadeia de transmissão da malária autóctone são importantes para o estabelecimento de estratégias de intervenção. Entre abril de 2001 e março de 2004, 65 pacientes e 1.777 habitantes foram avaliados em nove municípios da região montanhosa do Espírito Santo. Foram realizados: gota espessa, esfregaço fino, PCR Multiplex, reação de imunofluorescência indireta (IFI) para detecção de anticorpos contra antígenos de estágios eritrocitários de Plasmodium e ELISA para detecção de anticorpos contra peptídeos sintetizados a partir da porção repetitiva da proteína circunsporozoíta (CSP) das variantes de P. vivax e do P. malariae. Foram capturados anofelíneos no peridomicílio, com pesquisa, por PCR Multiplex, de DNA de Plasmodium. O mesmo foi pesquisado também em alguns símios locais. Os pacientes tinham 35,11 + 16 anos, em média. A maioria era do gênero masculino (51 ou 78,5%), 42 (64,6%) residiam em área rural, 23 (35,4%) eram agricultores e oito (12,3%) estudantes. Não houve viagens relevantes. Sessenta e dois (95,4%) nunca haviam tido malária. Vinte e quatro (36,9%) declararam ter entrado na mata. Predominaram a febre, a cefaléia e os calafrios. A febre era episódica em 63 (96,9%)...

‣ Trends in the investigation of social determinants of health : selected themes and methods; Tendências na investigação dos determinantes sociais da saúde : métodos e temas selecionados

Celeste, Roger Keller
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.31592%
Analisam-se tendências bibliométricas de tópicos relevantes na pesquisa epidemiológica de determinantes sociais da saúde. Realizaram-se buscas no PubMed no período 1985-2007, sobre: fatores socioeconômicos, sexo, raça/etnia, discriminação/preconceito, capital/ suporte social, curso de vida, desigualdade de renda, estresse, pesquisa comportamental, efeitos contextuais, segregação residencial, modelo multinível, indicadores de desigualdade baseados em regressão e equações estruturais/ análise de caminhos/diagramas causais. A freqüência absoluta, e não a relativa, de publicações cresceu em todos os temas. O total de publicações aumentou 2,3 vezes no período, enquanto que o conjunto epidemiologia/saúde pública e os temas de epidemiologia social aumentaram 5,3 e 5,2 vezes, respectivamente. Efeitos contextuais e modelagem multinível apresentaram crescimento relativo acima do observado para epidemiologia/saúde pública. Conclui-se que existe espaço para a ampliação do uso das técnicas de análise existentes e para que novos métodos surjam, atendendo a necessidades teóricas específicas da área.; We analyze bibliometric trends of topics relevant to the epidemiologic research of social determinants of health. A search of the PubMed database...

‣ Trends in the investigation of social determinants of health: selected themes and methods

Celeste,Roger Keller; Bastos,João Luiz; Faerstein,Eduardo
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.31592%
We analyze bibliometric trends of topics relevant to the epidemiologic research of social determinants of health. A search of the PubMed database, covering the period 1985-2007, was performed for the topics: socioeconomic factors, sex, race/ethnicity, discrimination/prejudice, social capital/support, lifecourse, income inequality, stress, behavioral research, contextual effects, residential segregation, multilevel modeling, regression based indices to measure inequalities, and structural equation modeling/causal diagrams/path analysis. The absolute, but not the relative, frequency of publications increased for all themes. Total publications in PubMed increased 2.3 times, while the subsets of epidemiology/public health and social epidemiologic themes/methods increased by factors of 5.3 and 5.2, respectively. Only multilevel and contextual analyses had a growth over and above that observed for epidemiology/public health. We conclude that there is clearly room for wider use of established techniques, and for new methods to emerge when they satisfy theoretical needs.

‣ Georeferenced data in epidemiologic research

Werneck,Guilherme Loureiro
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.2649%
This paper reviews some conceptual and practical issues regarding the application of georeferenced data in epidemiologic research. Starting with the disease mapping tradition of geographical medicine, topics such as types of georeferenced data, implications for data analysis, spatial autocorrelation and main analytical approaches are heuristically discussed, relying on examples from the epidemiologic literature, most of them concerning mapping disease distribution, detection of disease spatial clustering, evaluation of exposure in environmental health investigation and ecological correlation studies. As for concluding remarks, special topics that deserve further development, including the misuses of the concept of space in epidemiologic research, issues related to data quality and confidentiality, the role of epidemiologic designs for spatial research, sensitivity analysis and spatiotemporal modeling, are presented.

‣ Epidemiologic Profile of an Otolaryngologic Emergency Service

Prestes,Luciano; Hamerschmidt,Rogerio; Tenorio,Sergio; Moreira,Ana Tereza; Tambara,Elizabeth
Fonte: Fundação Otorrinolaringologia Publicador: Fundação Otorrinolaringologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12518%
Introduction According to current research, the number of patients seen in the emergency room is progressively increasing. There are few studies on the characteristics of ear, nose, and throat diseases treated in the emergency room. Objectives (1) To establish the epidemiologic profile of patients with these complaints treated at a referral emergency hospital in locoregional city Curitiba, and (2) to evaluate the calls that truly required emergency care. Methods This is a contemporary cross-study of urgent and emergency referrals to a hospital with otolaryngologic services during the year 2012. Data were collected and epidemiologic characteristics analyzed. Results We analyzed 1,067 patients: 312 presented in spring, 255 in summer, 253 in autumn, and 247 in winter. We found 17 diseases that were common during the year, with 244 (23.99%) upper respiratory tract infections being the most frequent disease. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of diseases, except that acute otitis media was most common during the summer (p = 0.02); distribution between the sexes was balanced. The predominant age group was adults. We found 9.27% cases were true emergencies. Conclusion Patients were 20 to 40 years, with upper respiratory tract infection the most incident disease; 9.27% of cases were emergencies.

‣ Infectious disease control in a long-term refugee camp: the role of epidemiologic surveillance and investigation.

Elias, C J; Alexander, B H; Sokly, T
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1990 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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This report demonstrates the role of epidemiologic surveillance and investigation in the control of infectious diseases in a long-term refugee camp. The applications of simple epidemiologic methods in a refugee camp on the Thai-Cambodian border are described for a one-year period. The development of a Health Information Office facilitated the collection of demographic and vital statistics data, administration of a disease surveillance system, regular monitoring of hospital and outpatient discharge diagnoses, and investigation of disease outbreaks. This office also organized community health education campaigns and disease control efforts. Examples of specific disease investigations are provided to demonstrate the utility of epidemiologic surveillance in the control of infectious disease. We conclude that simple epidemiologic methods play an important role in health planning in long-term refugee camps.

‣ Bone lead measured by X-ray fluorescence: epidemiologic methods.

Hu, H; Aro, A; Rotnitzky, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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In vivo X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement of bone lead concentration (XRF) has emerged as an important technique for future epidemiological studies of long-term toxicity. Several issues germane to epidemiologic methodology need to be addressed, however. First, sources of variability in measurements of bone lead need to be quantified, including imprecision related to the physical measurement itself and the variability of lead deposition over the two main compartments of bones (cortical vs. trabecular) and within each compartment. Imprecision related to the physical measurement can be estimated for each individual measurement based on the variability of the signal and background. Second, approaches to low-level data need to be debated. We argue for using the minimal detection limit (MDL) to compare instruments and interpret individual measurements; however, with regard to epidemiologic studies, we would abandon the MDL in favor of using all point estimates. In analyses using bone lead as an independent variable, statistical techniques can be used to adjust regression estimates based on estimates of measurement uncertainty and bone lead variability. Third, factors that can be expected to modify the relationship between bone lead and toxicity such as gravida history...

‣ Practical limitations of epidemiologic methods.

Lilienfeld, A M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1983 Português
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Epidemiologic methods can be categorized into demographic studies of mortality and morbidity and observational studies that are either retrospective or prospective. Some of the limitations of demographic studies are illustrated by a review of one specific mortality study showing possible relationship of nuclear fallout to leukemia. Problems of accuracy of diagnosis or causes of death on death certificates, estimates of population, migration from areas of study, and the issue of "ecological fallacy" are discussed. Retrospective studies have such problems as recall of previous environmental exposure, selection bias and survivor bias. In environmental epidemiology, prospective studies have been used. The problems associated with these studies are illustrated by reviewing some of the details of the study of effects of microwave radiation on embassy employees in Moscow. The study population had to be reconstructed, individuals had to be located and information on exposure status had to be obtained by questionnaire. The relatively small size of the exposed group permitted the detection of only fairly large relative risks. Despite these limitations, epidemiologic studies have been remarkably productive in elucidating etiological factors. They are necessary since "the proper study of man is man."

‣ The Epidemiologic Transition: Changing Patterns of Mortality and Population Dynamics

McKeown, Robert E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The epidemiologic transition describes changing patterns of population age distributions, mortality, fertility, life expectancy, and causes of death. A number of critiques of the theory have revealed limitations, including an insufficient account of the role of poverty in determining disease risk and mortality, a failure to distinguish adequately the risk of dying from a given cause or set of causes from the relative contributions of various causes of death to overall mortality, and oversimplification of the transition patterns, which do not fit neatly into either historical periods or geographic locations. Recent developments in epidemiologic methods reveal other limitations. A life course perspective prompts examination of changes in causal pathways across the life span when considering shifts in the age distribution of a population as described by the epidemiologic transition theory. The ecological model assumes multiple levels of determinants acting in complex and interrelated ways, with higher level determinants exhibiting emergent properties. Development, testing, and implementation of innovative approaches to reduce the risks associated with the sedentary lifestyle and hyper nutrition in developed countries should not overshadow the continuing threat from infectious diseases...

‣ Using Epidemiologic Methods to Test Hypotheses Regarding Causal Influences on Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders

Lahey, Benjamin B.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Waldman, Irwin D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Epidemiology uses strong sampling methods and study designs to test refutable hypotheses regarding the causes of important health, mental health, and social outcomes. Epidemiologic methods are increasingly being used to move developmental psychopathology from studies that catalogue correlates of child and adolescent mental health to designs that can test rival hypotheses regarding causal genetic and environmental influences. A two-part strategy is proposed for the next phase of epidemiologic research. First, to facilitate the most informed tests of causal hypotheses, it is necessary to develop and test models of the structure of hypothesized genetic and environmental influences on mental health phenotypes. This will involve testing the related hypotheses that there are both (a) dimensions of psychopathology that are distinct in the sense of having at least some unique genetic and/or environmental influences, and (b) higher-order domains of correlated dimensions that are all apparently influenced in part by the same genetic and/or environmental factors. The resulting causal taxonomy would organize tests of causal hypotheses regarding both factors that may broadly increase risk for multiple dimensions of psychopathology and factors that may specifically increase risk for each individual dimension. Second...

‣ Epidemiologic Methods Lessons Learned from Environmental Public Health Disasters: Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville, South Carolina

Svendsen, Erik R.; Runkle, Jennifer R.; Dhara, Venkata Ramana; Lin, Shao; Naboka, Marina; Mousseau, Timothy A.; Bennett, Charles
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Background: Environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants may have devastating effects. While much is known about their immediate devastation, far less is known about long-term impacts of these disasters. Extensive latent and chronic long-term public health effects may occur. Careful evaluation of contaminant exposures and long-term health outcomes within the constraints imposed by limited financial resources is essential. Methods: Here, we review epidemiologic methods lessons learned from conducting long-term evaluations of four environmental public health disasters involving hazardous contaminants at Chernobyl, the World Trade Center, Bhopal, and Graniteville (South Carolina, USA). Findings: We found several lessons learned which have direct implications for the on-going disaster recovery work following the Fukushima radiation disaster or for future disasters. Interpretation: These lessons should prove useful in understanding and mitigating latent health effects that may result from the nuclear reactor accident in Japan or future environmental public health disasters.

‣ Regional Epidemiologic Assessment of Prevalent Periodontitis Using an Electronic Health Record System

Acharya, Amit; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Waring, Stephen C.; Miller, Aaron W.; Fuehrer, Jay T.; Nycz, Gregory R.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06709%
An oral health surveillance platform that queries a clinical/administrative data warehouse was applied to estimate regional prevalence of periodontitis. Cross-sectional analysis of electronic health record data collected between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, was undertaken in a population sample residing in Ladysmith, Wisconsin. Eligibility criteria included: 1) residence in defined zip codes, 2) age 25–64 years, and 3) ≥1 Marshfield dental clinic comprehensive examination. Prevalence was established using 2 independent methods: 1) via an algorithm that considered clinical attachment loss and probe depth and 2) via standardized Current Dental Terminology (CDT) codes related to periodontal treatment. Prevalence estimates were age-standardized to 2000 US Census estimates. Inclusion criteria were met by 2,056 persons. On the basis of the American Academy of Periodontology/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention method, the age-standardized prevalence of moderate or severe periodontitis (combined) was 407 per 1,000 males and 308 per 1,000 females (348/1,000 males and 269/1,000 females using the CDT code method). Increased prevalence and severity of periodontitis was noted with increasing age. Local prevalence of periodontitis was consistent with national estimates. The need to address potential sample selection bias in future electronic health record–based periodontitis research was identified by this approach. Methods outlined herein may be applied to refine oral health surveillance systems...

‣ A Comparison of Three Methods to Measure Asthma in Epidemiologic Studies: Results from the Danish National Birth Cohort

Hansen, Susanne; Strøm, Marin; Maslova, Ekaterina; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Granström, Charlotta; Olsen, Sjurdur F.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.232922%
Asthma is a heterogeneous outcome and how the condition should be measured to best capture clinically relevant disease in epidemiologic studies remains unclear. We compared three methods of measuring asthma in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n>50.000). When the children were 7 years old, the prevalence of asthma was estimated from a self-administered questionnaire using parental report of doctor diagnoses, ICD-10 diagnoses from a population-based hospitalization registry, and data on anti-asthmatic medication from a population-based prescription registry. We assessed the agreement between the methods using kappa statistics. Highest prevalence of asthma was found using the prescription registry (32.2%) followed by the self-report (12.0%) and the hospitalization registry (6.6%). We found a substantial non-overlap between the methods (kappa = 0.21–0.38). When all three methods were combined the asthma prevalence was 3.6%. In conclusion, self-reported asthma, ICD-10 diagnoses from a hospitalization registry and data on anti-asthmatic medication use from a prescription registry lead to different prevalences of asthma in the same cohort of children. The non-overlap between the methods may be due to different abilities of the methods to identify cases with different phenotypes...

‣ An Overview of Methods for Monitoring Social Disparities in Cancer with an Example Using Trends in Lung Cancer Incidence by Area-Socioeconomic Position and Race-Ethnicity, 1992-2004

Harper, S.; Lynch, J.; Meersman, S.; Breen, N.; Davis, W.; Reichman, M.
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Inc Publicador: Oxford Univ Press Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.69555%
The authors provide an overview of methods for summarizing social disparities in health using the example of lung cancer. They apply four measures of relative disparity and three measures of absolute disparity to trends in US lung cancer incidence by area-socioeconomic position and race-ethnicity from 1992 to 2004. Among females, measures of absolute and relative disparity suggested that area-socioeconomic and race-ethnic disparities increased over these 12 years but differed widely with respect to the magnitude of the change. Among males, the authors found substantial disagreement among summary measures of relative disparity with respect to the magnitude and the direction of change in disparities. Among area-socioeconomic groups, the index of disparity increased by 47% and the relative concentration index decreased by 116%, while for race-ethnicity the index of disparity increased by 36% and the Theil index increased by 13%. The choice of a summary measure of disparity may affect the interpretation of changes in health disparities. Important issues to consider are the reference point from which differences are measured, whether to measure disparity on the absolute or relative scale, and whether to weight disparity measures by population size. A suite of indicators is needed to provide a clear picture of health disparity change.; Sam Harper...

‣ Vigilância epidemiológica e avaliação da assistência às meningites; Epidemiologic surveillance and evaluation of meningitis hospital care

Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade; Madruga, Roberto; Dias, Hellen Gruezo; Braga, Ricardo Cerqueira; Azevedo, Otília Pimenta
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.12518%
OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil clínico-epidemiológico dos casos de meningite internados em hospital público e os fatores associados à evolução hospitalar. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 694 casos confirmados, notificados e investigados pelo serviço de epidemiologia de um hospital público de 1986 a 2002. Os dados foram coletados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Sinan), como parte da rotina local de vigilância epidemiológica. Foi realizada análise multivariada por regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Etiologias mais freqüentes: criptocócica (12,3%; letalidade =37,7%); meningocócica (8,7%; letalidade =13,3%); pneumocócica (7,2%; letalidade =46%); tuberculosa (6,1%; letalidade =40,5%); estafilocócica (5,2%; letalidade =38,9%), viral (5,5%; letalidade =7,9%); hemófilo (2,9%; letalidade =20%). 38,8% dos casos apresentavam etiologia não especificada (letalidade =36%) e 17,3% estavam associados à infecção pelo HIV. Observou-se meningite hospitalar em 27,1% e seqüelas em 9,2% dos casos com alta hospitalar. Variáveis associadas a uma maior chance de óbito: etiologia (referência viral) - tuberculose, criptococo, estafilococo, meningococo, não especificada, outros gram negativos, cândida e pneumococo; infecção pelo HIV; coma. A tríade febre...

‣ Using the two-source capture-recapture method to estimate the incidence of acute flaccid paralysis in Victoria, Australia

Whitfield,Kathryn; Kelly,Heath
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.06709%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence and the completeness of ascertainment of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Victoria, Australia, in 1998-2000 and to determine its common causes among children aged under 15 years. METHODS:: The two-source capture-recapture method was used to estimate the incidence of cases of AFP and to evaluate case ascertainment in the routine surveillance system. The primary and secondary data sources were notifications from this system and inpatient hospital records, respectively. FINDINGS: The routine surveillance system indicated that there were 14 cases and the hospital record review identified 19 additional cases. According to the two-source capture-recapture method, there would have been 40 cases during this period (95% confidence interval (CI) = 29-51), representing an average annual incidence of 1.4 per 100 000 children aged under 15 years (95% CI = 1.1- 1.7). Thus case ascertainment based on routine surveillance was estimated to be 35% complete. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the commonest single cause of AFP. CONCLUSIONS: Routine surveillance for AFP in Victoria was insensitive. A literature review indicated that the capture-recapture estimates obtained in this study were plausible. The present results help to define a target notification rate for surveillance in settings where poliomyelitis is not endemic.

‣ Georeferenced data in epidemiologic research

Werneck,Guilherme Loureiro
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.2649%
This paper reviews some conceptual and practical issues regarding the application of georeferenced data in epidemiologic research. Starting with the disease mapping tradition of geographical medicine, topics such as types of georeferenced data, implications for data analysis, spatial autocorrelation and main analytical approaches are heuristically discussed, relying on examples from the epidemiologic literature, most of them concerning mapping disease distribution, detection of disease spatial clustering, evaluation of exposure in environmental health investigation and ecological correlation studies. As for concluding remarks, special topics that deserve further development, including the misuses of the concept of space in epidemiologic research, issues related to data quality and confidentiality, the role of epidemiologic designs for spatial research, sensitivity analysis and spatiotemporal modeling, are presented.

‣ Urban upgrading and its impact on health: a “quasi-experimental” mixed-methods study protocol for the BH-Viva Project

Friche,Amélia Augusta de Lima; Dias,Maria Angélica de Salles; Reis,Priscila Brandão dos; Dias,Cláudia Silva; Caiaffa,Waleska Teixeira
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
46.749766%
Abstract There is little scientific evidence that urban upgrading helps improve health or reduce inequities. This article presents the design for the BH-Viva Project, a “quasi-experimental”, multiphase, mixed-methods study with quantitative and qualitative components, proposing an analytical model for monitoring the effects that interventions in the urban environment can have on residents’ health in slums in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A preliminary analysis revealed intra-urban differences in age-specific mortality when comparing areas with and without interventions; the mortality rate from 2002 to 2012 was stable in the “formal city”, increased in slums without interventions, and decreased in slums with interventions. BH-Viva represents an effort at advancing methodological issues, providing learning and theoretical backing for urban health research and research methods, allowing their application and extension to other urban contexts.

‣ Trends in the investigation of social determinants of health: selected themes and methods

Celeste,Roger Keller; Bastos,João Luiz; Faerstein,Eduardo
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.31592%
We analyze bibliometric trends of topics relevant to the epidemiologic research of social determinants of health. A search of the PubMed database, covering the period 1985-2007, was performed for the topics: socioeconomic factors, sex, race/ethnicity, discrimination/prejudice, social capital/support, lifecourse, income inequality, stress, behavioral research, contextual effects, residential segregation, multilevel modeling, regression based indices to measure inequalities, and structural equation modeling/causal diagrams/path analysis. The absolute, but not the relative, frequency of publications increased for all themes. Total publications in PubMed increased 2.3 times, while the subsets of epidemiology/public health and social epidemiologic themes/methods increased by factors of 5.3 and 5.2, respectively. Only multilevel and contextual analyses had a growth over and above that observed for epidemiology/public health. We conclude that there is clearly room for wider use of established techniques, and for new methods to emerge when they satisfy theoretical needs.

‣ Male reproduction and environmental and occupational exposures: a review of epidemiologic methods

Golden,Anne L.; Moline,Jacqueline M.; Bar-Chama,Natan
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/1999 Português
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47.31592%
Concerns that chemical exposures in the environment have been detrimental to male sexual development and fertility have been heightened by reports of declining sperm counts over the past 50 years. Marked geographic variation has been found in semen quality and in the incidence of testicular cancer and certain urogenital defects. Debate continues over the existence, magnitude and significance of these trends, and how best to evaluate the hypothesis that in utero and childhood exposures to estrogenic compounds may be to blame. Epidemiologic methods for assessing the impact of hazardous substances on male reproductive health have been developed mainly in the area of occupational medicine, and this paper will review the currently recommended methods. These include questionnaires to determine reproductive history and sexual function; reproductive hormone profiles; and semen analyses such as sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. New research tools that show significant promise from the fields of clinical reproductive medicine and reproductive toxicology are discussed as possible additions to epidemiologic studies, including assays of sperm function and genetic integrity, and biomarkers of DNA damage. For population-based studies involving occupational groups or communities with environmental exposures...