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‣ Evaluation of Performance of Four Genotypic Methods for Studying the Genetic Epidemiology of Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates

Lasker, Brent A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2002 Português
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In the present investigation, 49 Aspergillus fumigatus isolates obtained from four nosocomial outbreaks were typed by Afut1 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and three PCR-based molecular typing methods: random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, sequence-specific DNA primer (SSDP) analysis, and polymorphic microsatellite markers (PMM) analysis. The typing methods were evaluated with respect to discriminatory power (D), reproducibility, typeability, ease of use, and ease of interpretation to determine their performance and utility for outbreak and surveillance investigations. Afut1 RFLP analysis detected 40 types. Thirty types were observed by RAPD analysis. PMM analysis detected 39 allelic types, but SSDP analysis detected only 14 types. All four methods demonstrated 100% typeability. PMM and RFLP analyses had comparable high degrees of discriminatory power (D = 0.989 and 0.988, respectively). The discriminatory power of RAPD analysis was slightly lower (D = 0.971), whereas SSDP analysis had the lowest discriminatory power (D = 0.889). Overall, SSDP analysis was the easiest method to interpret and perform. The profiles obtained by PMM analysis were easier to interpret than those obtained by RFLP or RAPD analysis. Bands that differed in staining intensity or that were of low intensity were observed by RAPD analysis...

‣ Paleoepidemiologic investigation of Legionnaires disease at Wadsworth Veterans Administration Hospital by using three typing methods for comparison of legionellae from clinical and environmental sources.

Edelstein, P H; Nakahama, C; Tobin, J O; Calarco, K; Beer, K B; Joly, J R; Selander, R K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1986 Português
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Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, monoclonal antibody typing for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, and plasmid analysis were used to type 89 L. pneumophila strains isolated from nosocomial cases of Legionnaires disease at the Veterans Administration Wadsworth Medical Center (VAWMC) and from the hospital environment. Twelve L. pneumophila clinical isolates, obtained from patients at non-VAWMC hospitals, were also typed by the same methods to determine typing specificity. Seventy-nine percent of 33 VAWMC L. pneumophila serogroup 1 clinical isolates and 70% of 23 environmental isolates were found in only one of the five monoclonal subgroups. Similar clustering was found for the other two typing methods, with excellent correlation between all methods. Enzyme electrophoretic typing divided the isolates into the greatest number of distinct groups, resulting in the identification of 10 different L. pneumophila types and 5 types not belonging to L. pneumophila, which probably constitute an undescribed Legionella species; 7 clinical and 34 environmental VAWMC isolates and 2 non-VAWMC clinical isolates were found to be members of the new species. Twelve different plasmid patterns were found; 95% of VAWMC clinical isolates contained plasmids. Major VAWMC epidemic-bacterial types were common in the hospital potable-water distribution system and cooling towers. Strains of L. pneumophila which persisted after disinfection of contaminated environmental sites were of a different type from the prechlorination strains. All three typing methods were useful in the epidemiologic analysis of the VAWMC outbreak.

‣ Using the Short Form-36 mental summary score as an indicator of depressive symptoms in patients with coronary heart disease

Tavella, R.; Air, T.; Tucker, G.; Adams, R.; Beltrame, J.; Schrader, G.
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publ Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publ
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Background: Depression is common in patients with cardiac disease; however, the use of depression-specific health instruments is limited by their increased responder and analyst burden. The study aimed to define a threshold value on the Short Form-36 (SF-36) mental component summary score (MCS) that identified depressed cardiac patients as measured by the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Methods: An optimal threshold was determined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves on SF-36 and CES-D data from a large cardiac cohort (N = 1,221). The performance of this threshold was evaluated in a further two cardiac populations. Results: In the index cohort, an SF-36 MCS score of ≤45 was revealed as an optimal threshold according to maximal Youden Index, with high sensitivity (77%, 95% CI = 74–80%) and specificity (73%, 95% CI = 69–77%). At this threshold, in a second sample of hospital cardiac patients, sensitivity was 93% (95% CI = 76–99%) and specificity was 64% (95% CI = 49–77%). In a final sample generated from a community population, specificity was 100% (95% CI = 85–100%) and sensitivity was 68% (95% CI = 61–74%) at the cut-off of 45. Conclusion: The SF-36 MCS may be a useful research tool to aid in the classification of cardiac patients according to the presence or absence of depressive symptoms.; Rosanna Tavella...

‣ The education corner: updates on new and established core concepts and methods in epidemiology

Michels, K.B.; Saracci, R.; Lynch, J.; Pearce, N.
Fonte: Oxford University Press (OUP) Publicador: Oxford University Press (OUP)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Karin B Michels, Rodolfo Saracci, John Lynch, and Neil Pearce

‣ Epidemiologic Investigation of Foodborne Outbreaks in Pharmacies: A Pilot Study

Torre, Carla; Brazão, Roberto; Guerreiro, José; Gomes, Marta; Costa, Suzete; Oliveira, Luisa; Viegas, Silvia
Fonte: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge Publicador: Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em /04/2015 Português
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Introduction: The analysis of Foodborne Outbreaks (FBO) investigation data provides knowledge on food vehicles and contributive factors of human infections allowing their risk management. However, FBO are commonly underreported and alternative sources of information may prove useful. Purpose: To test the adequacy of Pharmacies as an information source to identify foods involved in FBO, their confection type and acquisition place as well as the main symptoms and medicines taken. Methods: Application of a FBO epidemiologic investigation inquiry to individuals with FBD suggestive symptoms that went to 249 Pharmacies all over Portugal looking for treatment, between 18th August and 15th de November 2014. Descriptive statistical analysis of the results was performed and absolute and relative frequencies measures of location and dispersion were calculated in the program SAS version 9.1. Results: From 270 validated inquiries collected online until 29 October, 72.9% of the individuals went to the Pharmacy as the first health resort (average age 44.1 years), 56.3% individuals reported moderate symptoms, namely diarrhea and 58.0% of individuals took anti-diarrheal. The most frequent place of consumption of the suspect food was home (51.5 %)...

‣ Hip Fractures in Portugal: 2006-2010 an epidemiologic analysis

Marques, Andréa Ascenção; Ferreira, Ricardo Jorge de Oliveira; Mendes, Aida Maria de Oliveira Cruz; Lourenço, Óscar Manuel Gonçalves; Silva, José António Petreira da
Fonte: Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra Publicador: Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Coimbra
Tipo: Outros
Publicado em 04/06/2013 Português
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Background: Hip fractures are considered to be the most devastating consequence of osteoporosis. They require long hospitalizations and high health-care costs and represent an important cause of morbidity, disability, and mortality, especially in the elderly. As patients are invariably hospitalized in most countries the epidemiology of hip fracture is well documented compared with other fracture outcomes and provides a surrogate for the total burden of osteoporosis. Objectives: To carry out an epidemiologic analyses of hip fractures incidence rates in Portugal. Methods: All cases of hip fracture occurred at 40 years of age or above from 2006 to 2010 were extracted from the Portuguese National Hospital Discharge Register. Age and gender-stratified population data was collected from the Institute for National Statistics. Average annual incidences were computed for age and gender groups along with the associated mortality, length of hospital stay and destination of the patient after discharge. Statistical differences between genders were assessed trough IBM SPSS® 20 with 0.05 as level of significance. Results: A total of 51701 hip fractures occurred in the period under analysis. Hip fracture incidence rates were higher in women than in men and increased with age. The lowest incidence was observed in the 40-44 age group (14.1 and 4.0 per 100...

‣ Epidemiologic associations with cerebral palsy

O'Callaghan, M.; MacLennan, A.; Gibson, C.; McMichael, G.; Haan, E.; Broadbent, J.; Goldwater, P.; Dekker, G.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To estimate epidemiologic risk factors for cerebral palsy. METHODS: Data were collected by linkage to state-based perinatal repositories and cerebral palsy registers and using a maternal questionnaire. The cohort included 587 individuals with cerebral palsy and 1,154 non-cerebral palsy controls. RESULTS: The following factors were associated with cerebral palsy: recorded maternal infection during pregnancy (41.4% patients compared with 31.3% controls; odds ratio [OR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.26-1.91), small for gestational age ([birth weight less than third customized centile] 43.9% patients compared with 6.3% controls; OR 11.75, 6.25-22.08), gestational age less than 32 weeks (29.3% patients compared with 0.7% controls; OR 59.20, 28.87-121.38), multiple birth (OR 6.62, 4.00-10.95), a relative with cerebral palsy (OR 1.61, 1.12-2.32), breech position (13.7% patients compared with 6.0% controls; OR 2.48, 1.76-3.49), bleeding at any time in pregnancy (29.3% patients compared with 16.9% controls; OR 2.04, 1.61-2.58), male sex (58.8% patients compared with 45.8% controls; OR 1.68, 1.38-2.06), multiple miscarriage (7.7% patients compared with 3.5% controls; OR 2.30, 1.38-3.82), smoking (14.0% patients compared with 10.6% controls; OR 1.37...

‣ Exploring the epidemiological characteristics of cancers of unknown primary site in an Australian population: implications for research and clinical care

Luke, C.; Koczwara, B.; Karapetis, C.; Pittman, K.; Price, T.; Kotasek, D.; Beckmann, K.; Brown, M.; Roder, D.
Fonte: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc Publicador: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Objectives: To investigate incidence, mortality and case survival trends for cancer of unknown primary site (CUP) and consider clinical implications. Method: South Australian Cancer Registry data were used to calculate age-standardised incidence and mortality rates from 1977 to 2004. Disease-specific survivals, socio-demographic, histological and secular predictors of CUP, compared with cancers of known primary site, and of CUP histological types, using multivariable logistic regression were investigated. Results: Incidence and mortality rates increased approximately 60% between 1977-80 and 1981-84. Rates peaked in 1993-96. Male to female incidence and mortality rate ratios approximated 1.3:1. Incidence and mortality rates increased with age. The odds of unspecified histological type, compared with the more common adenocarcinomas, were higher for males than females, non-metropolitan residents, low socio-economic areas, and for 1977-88 than subsequent diagnostic periods. CUP represented a higher proportion of cancers in Indigenous patients. Case survival was 7% at 10 years from diagnosis. Factors predictive of lower case survival included older age, male sex, Indigenous status, lower socio-economic status, and unspecified histology type. Conclusion: Results point to poor CUP outcomes...

‣ "Fibrinogênio como marcador de trombose" ; Fibrinogen in the prediction of thrombosis

Almeida, Maria Antônia Campos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 25/05/2006 Português
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INTRODUÇÃO: Um grande número de estudos epidemiológicos têm demonstrado que o fibrinogênio é fator de risco consistente e independente para doença cardiovascular. O fibrinogênio, além de ser um determinante de trombose arterial foi considerado fator de risco de trombose venosa. Foram avaliados os níveis plasmáticos do fibrinogênio em indivíduos que apresentaram algum tipo de trombose não influenciada por reação de fase aguda ou resposta inflamatória. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo de caso-controle realizado entre julho de 2003 a abril de 2005 foram incluídos 39 pacientes, entre 25 e 65 anos, com diagnóstico objetivamente confirmado de trombose, sem antecedentes de neoplasia e colagenose. O tempo mínimo entre a evento e a coleta da amostra de sangue foi de 6 meses. O grupo controle foi constituído de doadores e funcionários voluntários do Hemocentro Regional de Juiz de Fora. A concentração plasmática de fibrinogênio e a medida da Proteína C Reativa foram realizados nos dois grupos. RESULTADOS:Os níveis médios de fibrinogênio foram significativamente maiores nos pacientes ( 316)que no grupo controle (259), p=0,0002. a média de idade foi 48,3 para os pacientes e 45,5 para o controle. A aplicação do teste qui quadrado demonstrou que não houve diferenças significativas nos grupos de pacientes e controles (30...

‣ Frequency of policy recommendations in epidemiologic publications.

Jackson, L W; Lee, N L; Samet, J M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1999 Português
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OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency and character of policy statements in epidemiologic reports. METHODS: The first author followed a standardized protocol and reviewed a random sample of articles selected from the American Journal of Epidemiology, Annals of Epidemiology, and Epidemiology. The second author reviewed all articles with policy statements and a 10% sample without such statements. RESULTS: Overall, 23.8% of the articles contained policy statements. Annals of Epidemiology and the American Journal of Epidemiology had similar frequencies of articles with policy statements (30% and 26.7%, respectively), while Epidemiology evidenced the lowest frequency (8.3%). The majority of policy statements (55%) pertained to public health practice; 27.5% involved clinical practice, and the remainder (17.5%) focused on corporate policies, regulatory actions, or undefined arenas. The frequency of policy statements differed according to first author's affiliation, type of publication, area of research, research design, and study population. CONCLUSIONS: Although a minority of publications included policy statements, the inclusion of a statement seemed to be influenced by specific study characteristics.

‣ Chronic exposure to sour gas emissions: meeting a community concern with epidemiologic evidence.

Spitzer, W O; Dales, R E; Schechter, M T; Suissa, S; Tousignant, P; Steinmetz, N; Hutcheon, M E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/1989 Português
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For 25 years residents of a rural area in southwestern Alberta have complained of health problems attributed to sour gas emissions from nearby natural gas refineries. We undertook a large epidemiologic study of the current health status and the selected morbidity rates among 2152 people in the exposed area. We established two comparison groups: one was a demographically similar unexposed population and the other a demographically different group also exposed to sour gas emissions in another region. The methods included a cross-sectional survey of current residents and separate historical cohort studies involving registry linkage to investigate cancer incidence and all-cause mortality. The cross-sectional survey involved a comprehensive health questionnaire, standardized clinical examinations by physicians blinded to the subjects' symptoms and concerns, and several laboratory tests. We were able to contact just under 60% of the people who we knew had moved from each area since 1958 and found no evidence of selective migration for health reasons. Although the residents of the exposed area reported an excess number of symptoms and health problems there were no significant differences in the mortality rate, incidence of cancer, reproductive problems...

‣ Child and adolescent violent deaths: an epidemiologic investigation.

McGowan, Angela Kay; Crosby, Alex E.; La Hasbrouck, Mar; Boulton, Matthew L.; Kanluen, Sawait; Maseru, Noble A. W.
Fonte: National Medical Association Publicador: National Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2006 Português
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OBJECTIVES: An apparent increase in violent deaths among children and adolescents in Detroit, MI in 2002 prompted a coordinated epidemiologic investigation involving federal, state and local organizations. METHODS: A descriptive analysis of cases and violent deaths (homicide, suicide or firearm-related) among juveniles <17 years was conducted, along with a case-control study using records from the medical examiner, police, schools and social service agencies. RESULTS: Twenty-nine cases were identified. Median age was 10 years (range 1 day-16 years), and 15 (52%) were male. There were 25 homicides, two suicides and two unintentional firearm-related deaths. Nine (31%) homicides resulted from child abuse and neglect, and eight (28%) were among bystanders. The most common mechanism of fatal injury was firearm (63%). Victims' families were more likely to have a history of familial violence, prior contact with the state social services agency, > or = 2 adults and > or = 4 persons in the household (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The 2002 deaths did not represent a statistically significant increase from previous years. Several findings were remarkable: the proportion of deaths among bystanders, females and children age <5.

‣ Epidemiologic study on penile cancer in Brazil

Favorito,Luciano A.; Nardi,Aguinaldo C.; Ronalsa,Mario; Zequi,Stenio C.; Sampaio,Francisco J. B.; Glina,Sidney
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2008 Português
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OBJECTIVES: To assess epidemiologic characteristics of penile cancer in Brazil. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From May 2006 to June 2007, a questionnaire was distributed to all Brazilian urologists. Their patients' clinical and epidemiological data was analyzed (age, race, place of residence, history of sexually transmitted diseases, tobacco smoking, performance of circumcision, type of hospital service), as well as the time between the appearance of the symptoms and the diagnosis, the pathological characteristics of the tumor (histological type, degree, localization and size of lesion, stage of disease), the type of treatment performed and the present state of the patient. RESULTS: 283 new cases of penile cancer in Brazil were recorded. The majority of these cases occurred in the north and northeast (53.02%) and southeast (45.54%) regions. The majority of patients (224, or 78.96%) were more than 46 years of age while only 21 patients (7.41%) were less than 35 years of age. Of the 283 patients presenting penile cancer, 171 (60.42%) had phimosis with the consequent impossibility to expose the glans. A prior medical history positive for HPV infection was reported in 18 of the 283 cases (6.36%). In 101 patients (35.68%) tobacco smoking was reported. The vast majority of the cases (n = 207; 73.14%) presented with tumors localized in the glans and prepuce. In 48 cases (16.96%) the tumor affected the glans...

‣ Epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS in a region of Southern Brazil where the subtype C of HIV-1 infection predominates

Manenti,Sandra Aparecida; Galato Júnior,João; Silveira,Elizângela da Silva; Oenning,Roberto Teixeira; Simões,Priscyla Waleska Targino de Azevedo; Moreira,Jeverson; Fochesato,Celine Maria; Brígido,Luís Fernando de Macedo; Rodrigues,Rosângela; Romão
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2011 Português
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Southern Brazil has the highest prevalence rate of AIDS in the country and is the only region in the Americas where HIV-1 subtype C prevails. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS in the South region of Santa Catarina, Brazil. METHODS: All pregnant women with HIV infection attending the obstetric outpatient clinic of Criciúma, State of Santa Catarina, in 2007 (n = 46) were invited to participate. Data of 36 eligible participants were obtained through a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: The great majority were young, with a steady partner, low family income, low education level and referring early first sexual intercourse. Many reported use of illicit non-injecting drugs (55.5%) and unprotected sex with partners that were HIV-positive (57.7%), injecting drug user (22.2%), male inmate (19.4%), truck driver (13.8%), with history of sexually transmitted disease (11.1%) or men who have sex with men (MSM) (2.8%). Most (66.7%) of the participants had their HIV diagnosis done during the pregnancy, 7 (19.4%) had a previous history of HIV mother-to-child transmission. Therapy based on highly active antiretroviral therapy (94%) was initiated at 19.3 weeks on average and 33% showed irregular antiretroviral adherence. CONCLUSION: These results confirm previous data on HIV epidemiology in Brazil and suggest that the women partners' sexual behavior and unprotected sexual intercourse are important aspects of HIV epidemic. Additional efforts in education...

‣ Protocol for the modeling the epidemiologic transition study: a longitudinal observational study of energy balance and change in body weight, diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk

Luke, Amy; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Schoeller, Dale A.; Dugas, Lara R.; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Shoham, David; Cooper, Richard S.; Brage, S?ren; Ekelund, Ulf; Steyn, Nelia
Fonte: Universidade de Cambridge Publicador: Universidade de Cambridge
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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RIGHTS : This article is licensed under the BioMed Central licence at http://www.biomedcentral.com/about/license which is similar to the 'Creative Commons Attribution Licence'. In brief you may : copy, distribute, and display the work; make derivative works; or make commercial use of the work - under the following conditions: the original author must be given credit; for any reuse or distribution, it must be made clear to others what the license terms of this work are.; Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity has increased in societies of all socio-cultural backgrounds. To date, guidelines set forward to prevent obesity have universally emphasized optimal levels of physical activity. However there are few empirical data to support the assertion that low levels of energy expenditure in activity is a causal factor in the current obesity epidemic are very limited. Methods/Design The Modeling the Epidemiologic Transition Study (METS) is a cohort study designed to assess the association between physical activity levels and relative weight, weight gain and diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in five population-based samples at different stages of economic development. Twenty-five hundred young adults, ages 25-45, were enrolled in the study; 500 from sites in Ghana...

‣ Differences in onset and abuse/dependence episodes between prescription opioids and heroin: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

Wu, LT; Woody, GE; Yang, C; Mannelli, P; Blazer, DG
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 77 - 88
Publicado em /05/2011 Português
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OBJECTIVES: To examine patterns of onset and abuse/dependence episodes of prescription opioid (PO) and heroin use disorders in a national sample of adults, and to explore differences by gender and substance abuse treatment status. METHODS: Analyses of data from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 43,093). RESULTS: Of all respondents, 5% (n = 1815) reported a history of nonmedical PO use (NMPOU) and 0.3% (n = 150) a history of heroin use. Abuse was more prevalent than dependence among NMPOUs (PO abuse, 29%; dependence, 7%) and heroin users (heroin abuse, 63%; dependence, 28%). Heroin users reported a short mean interval from first use to onset of abuse (1.5 years) or dependence (2.0 years), and a lengthy mean duration for the longest episode of abuse (66 months) or dependence (59 months); the corresponding mean estimates for PO abuse and dependence among NMPOUs were 2.6 and 2.9 years, respectively, and 31 and 49 months, respectively. The mean number of years from first use to remission from the most recent episode was 6.9 years for PO abuse and 8.1 years for dependence; the mean number of years from first heroin use to remission from the most recent episode was 8.5 years for heroin abuse and 9.7 years for dependence. Most individuals with PO or heroin use disorders were remitted from the most recent episode. Treated individuals...

‣ Aspectos epidemiológicos da gonorréia na clientela do Centro de Saúde "Geraldo H. de Paula Souza", da Faculdade de Saúde Pública de Universidade de São Paulo (1974-1978); Epidemiologic aspects of gonorrhea in patients of the Geraldo H. de Paula Souza Health Center of the School of Public Health, University of S. Paulo (1974-1978)

Lombardi, Clovis; Belda, Walter; Fagundes, Luiz Jorge; Marucci, Daniel; Siqueira, Luiz Fernando de Goes; Araújo Filho, Oscar Egidio de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/1980 Português
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São descritos os caracteres epidemiológicos de 708 casos de gonorréia aguda, em pacientes de ambos os sexos, atendidos num período de 5 anos no Centro de Saúde "Geraldo H. de Paula Souza" da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil. São relatadas as distribuições por: sexo, idade, cor, estado civil, ocupação, presença ou não de antecedentes venéreos e de tratamento prévio, além do período de incubação, do tempo decorrido entre o início da sintomatologia e a procura do serviço e das características da fonte de contágio. Sob um ponto de vista operacional, são descritos ainda os métodos de diagnóstico e o esquema terapêutico utilizados, com especial referência à proporção de casos que apresentaram associação com tricomoníase, ao exame direto a fresco da secreção.; The epidemiologic aspects of 708 cases of acute gonorrhea in patients of both sexes attended at the Health Center of the School of Public Health, University of S. Paulo, S. Paulo, Brazil, from 1974-1978 were described. Statistics were calculated for the following: sex, age, race, marital status, occupation, venereal antecedents, and prior treatment, if any. The incubation period, the time between the initial symptomatology and the patient's procuring medical help...

‣ An epidemiological study of RSV infection in the Gambia

Weber,Martin W.; Milligan,Paul; Sanneh,Mariama; Awemoyi,Agnes; Dakour,Raduwan; Schneider,Gisela; Palmer,Ayo; Jallow,Mariatou; Oparaogu,Anslem; Whittle,Hilton; Mulholland,E. Kim; Greenwood,Brian M.
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2002 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in a developing country. METHODS: The work was carried out in three hospitals for primary cases and in the community for secondary cases in the western region of the Gambia, West Africa. RSV infection was diagnosed by immunofluorescence of nasopharyngeal aspirate samples in children younger than two years admitted to hospital with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). Routine records of all children with ALRI were analysed, and the incidence rates of ALRI, severe RSV-associated respiratory illness and hypoxaemic RSV infections were compared. A community-based study was undertaken to identify secondary cases and to obtain information about spread of the virus. FINDINGS: 4799 children with ALRI who were younger than two years and lived in the study area were admitted to the study hospitals: 421 had severe RSV-associated respiratory illness; 55 of these were hypoxaemic. Between 1994 and 1996, the observed incidence rate for ALRI in 100 children younger than one year living close to hospital was 9.6 cases per year; for severe RSV-associated respiratory illness 0.83; and for hypoxaemic RSV-associated respiratory illness 0.089. The proportion of all ALRI admissions due to RSV was 19%. Overall...

‣ A framework for examining social stress and susceptibility to air pollution in respiratory health

Clougherty,Jane Ellen; Kubzansky,Laura Diane
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 Português
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There is growing interest in disentangling the health effects of spatially clustered social and physical environmental exposures and in exploring potential synergies among them, with particular attention directed to the combined effects of psychosocial stress and air pollution. Both exposures may be elevated in lower-income urban communities, and it has been hypothesized that stress, which can influence immune function and susceptibility, may potentiate the effects of air pollution in respiratory disease onset and exacerbation. In this paper, we review the existing epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence on synergistic effects of stress and pollution, and describe the physiologic effects of stress and key issues related to measuring and evaluating stress as it relates to physical environmental exposures and susceptibility. Finally, we identify some of the major methodologic challenges ahead as we work toward disentangling the health effects of clustered social and physical exposures and accurately describing the interplay among these exposures. As this research proceeds, we recommend careful attention to the relative temporalities of stress and pollution exposures, to nonlinearities in their independent and combined effects, to physiologic pathways not elucidated by epidemiologic methods...

‣ For a General Theory of Health: preliminary epistemological and anthropological notes

Almeida Filho,Naomar de
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2001 Português
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In order to conduct a preliminary evaluation of the conditions allowing for a General Theory of Health, the author explores two important structural dimensions of the scientific health field: the socio-anthropological dimension and the epistemological dimension. As a preliminary semantic framework, he adopts the following definitions in English and Portuguese for two series of meanings: disease = patologia, disorder = transtorno, illness = enfermidade, sickness = doença, and malady = moléstia. He begins by discussing some sociological theories and biomedical concepts of health-disease, which, despite their limitations, can be used as a point of departure for this undertaking, given the dialectical and multidimensional nature of the disease-illness-sickness complex (DIS). Second, he presents and evaluates some underlying socio-anthropological theories of disease, taking advantage of the opportunity to highlight the semeiologic treatment of health-disease through the theory of "signs, meanings, and health practices". Third, he analyzes several epistemological issues relating to the Health theme, seeking to justify its status as a scientific object. Finally, the author focuses the discussion on a proposal to systematize various health concepts as an initial stage for the theoretical construction of the Collective Health field.