Página 12 dos resultados de 1440 itens digitais encontrados em 0.157 segundos

‣ Escolha da via cirúrgica para tratamento das fraturas cervicais; The choice of surgical approach for treatment of cervical fractures; Elección de la vía quirúrgica para el tratamiento de las fracturas cervicales

LETAIF, Olavo Biraghi; DAMASCENO, Marcelo Loquette; CRISTANTE, Alexandre Fogaça; MARCON, Raphael Martus; IUTAKA, Alexandre Sadao; OLIVEIRA, Reginaldo Perilo; BARROS FILHO, Tarcísio Eloy Pessoa de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Coluna Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Coluna
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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OBJETIVO: definir características epidemiológicas da população vitimada, classificar as fraturas subaxiais e analisar como foram os tratamentos cirúrgicos, tendo como desfecho a via cirúrgica escolhida - anterior, posterior ou combinada - reunindo tais dados para observar padrões de tratamento para o melhor cuidado desses doentes. MÉTODOS: análise retrospectiva em prontuários médicos de 222 pacientes atendidos e tratados entre o ano de 2004 e o mês de Março de 2009 com fraturas, fraturas-luxações e luxações cervicais. Desses 222 pacientes, 163 correspondiam àqueles que tinham fraturas subaxiais classificáveis pelo método AO, ou seja, correspondiam a aproximadamente 73,4% do total. RESULTADOS: dentre os pacientes, 83% eram homens e aproximadamente 78% tinham entre 21 e 60 anos. Foram classificados como Tipo A 54 pacientes, e 50% foram operados - 85,18% via anterior, com corpectomia associada ou não à artrodese; foram classificados como Tipo B 77 pacientes, e 85,7% foram operados - 77,3% via posterior, considerando-se a lesão ligamentar; como Tipo C foram classificados 21 pacientes, e 81% foram operados - 94,1% via posterior; como Múltiplos Níveis foram considerados 11 pacientes, e 54,5% foram operados - 83,3% via posterior...

‣ Epidemiologic aspects of the malaria transmission cycle in an area of very low incidence in Brazil

Cerutti, Crispim ; Boulos, Marcos ; Coutinho, Arnídio F; Hatab, Maria do Carmo LD; Falqueto, Aloísio ; Rezende, Helder R; Duarte, Ana Maria RC; Collins, William ; Malafronte, Rosely S
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Abstract Background Extra-Amazonian autochthonous Plasmodium vivax infections have been reported in mountainous regions surrounded by the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Methods Sixty-five patients and 1,777 residents were surveyed between April 2001 and March 2004. Laboratory methods included thin and thick smears, multiplex-PCR, immunofluorescent assay (IFA) against P. vivax and Plasmodium malariae crude blood-stage antigens and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies against the P. vivax-complex (P. vivax and variants) and P. malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum circumsporozoite-protein (CSP) antigens. Results Average patient age was 35.1 years. Most (78.5%) were males; 64.6% lived in rural areas; 35.4% were farmers; and 12.3% students. There was no relevant history of travel. Ninety-five per cent of the patients were experiencing their first episode of malaria. Laboratory data from 51 patients were consistent with P. vivax infection...

‣ Epidemiologic aspects of the malaria transmission cycle in an area of very low incidence in Brazil

Junior, Crispim C; Boulos, Marcos; Coutinho, Arnídio F; Hatab, Maria d C L; Falqueto, Aloísio; Rezende, Helder R; Duarte, Ana M R; Collins, William; Malafronte, Rosely S
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Abstract Background Extra-Amazonian autochthonous Plasmodium vivax infections have been reported in mountainous regions surrounded by the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Methods Sixty-five patients and 1,777 residents were surveyed between April 2001 and March 2004. Laboratory methods included thin and thick smears, multiplex-PCR, immunofluorescent assay (IFA) against P. vivax and Plasmodium malariae crude blood-stage antigens and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies against the P. vivax -complex (P. vivax and variants) and P. malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum circumsporozoite-protein (CSP) antigens. Results Average patient age was 35.1 years. Most (78.5%) were males; 64.6% lived in rural areas; 35.4% were farmers; and 12.3% students. There was no relevant history of travel. Ninety-five per cent of the patients were experiencing their first episode of malaria. Laboratory data from 51 patients were consistent with P. vivax infection, which was determined by thin smear. Of these samples, 48 were assayed by multiplex-PCR. Forty-five were positive for P. vivax...

‣ Epidemiologic aspects of the malaria transmission cycle in an area of very low incidence in Brazil

Junior, Crispim C; Boulos, Marcos; Coutinho, Arnídio F; Hatab, Maria d C L; Falqueto, Aloísio; Rezende, Helder R; Duarte, Ana M R; Collins, William; Malafronte, Rosely S
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.607456%
Abstract Background Extra-Amazonian autochthonous Plasmodium vivax infections have been reported in mountainous regions surrounded by the Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo state, Brazil. Methods Sixty-five patients and 1,777 residents were surveyed between April 2001 and March 2004. Laboratory methods included thin and thick smears, multiplex-PCR, immunofluorescent assay (IFA) against P. vivax and Plasmodium malariae crude blood-stage antigens and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies against the P. vivax -complex (P. vivax and variants) and P. malariae/Plasmodium brasilianum circumsporozoite-protein (CSP) antigens. Results Average patient age was 35.1 years. Most (78.5%) were males; 64.6% lived in rural areas; 35.4% were farmers; and 12.3% students. There was no relevant history of travel. Ninety-five per cent of the patients were experiencing their first episode of malaria. Laboratory data from 51 patients were consistent with P. vivax infection, which was determined by thin smear. Of these samples, 48 were assayed by multiplex-PCR. Forty-five were positive for P. vivax...

‣ EpiDoc®: plataforma de comunicação em epidemiologia; EpiDoc® : a communication platform in epidemiology

Londoño, Humberto Reynales
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/04/2008 Português
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Introdução: EpiDoc® é um modelo para transferência de conhecimento na área de metodologia da pesquisa. Está baseado no conceito de estratégias de colaboração para a aprendizagem (learning communities ou communities of practice) mediante a união de esforços entre os interesses comuns de um grupo de profissionais. O objetivo deste projeto é desenvolver uma plataforma de comunicação para a transferência de conhecimento e desenvolvimento de competências em uma comunidade de prática de metodologia da pesquisa em saúde. Métodos:. A plataforma de comunicação está desenvolvido com a tecnologia de páginas de servidor ASP (Active Server Pages), interagindo com uma base de dados Microsoft SQL Server 2000. Na fase da avaliação, tomou-se uma amostra de 38 pessoas para responder a pesquisa de opinião de 84 perguntas que inclui as diferentes áreas a avaliar como são os conteúdos, a tecnologia, o ambiente educativo, os problemas e dificuldades, assim como os elementos positivos do processo de aprendizagem. Resultados: A plataforma divide-se basicamente em 2 zonas, uma pública e outra privada, e pode ser observado em inglês, espanhol e português. A plataforma conta com os seguintes módulos: Controle de acesso; biblioteca; administração de cursos; apresentações; assinatura de usuários para distribuição eletrônica de materiais educativos; correio eletrônico e correio massivo; salas virtuais de Chat; foros de discussão; manipulação de documentos entre tutores e usuários; aplicação de provas de avaliação para os usuários; geração automática de certificados; métricas e relatórios de atividades. A avaliação foi feita com uma amostra de 38 estudantes de um curso de Epidemiologia Clínica. O 94 % dos estudantes ficaram satisfeitos ou muito satisfeitos com a experiência de aprendizagem. O 95% considerou que tinha adquirido novas habilidades de comunicação e colaboração ao estudar por meio virtual. Para o 76% facilitou-se o trabalho em equipe...

‣ Discriminação de isolados de Mycobacterium bovis pelas técnicas de Spoligotyping, MIRU e ETR e suas aplicações epidemiológicas; Discrimination of Mycobacterium bovis isolates by Spoligotyping, MIRU, and ETR and their epidemiologic applications

Rocha, Vivianne Cambuí Mesquita
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/12/2009 Português
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O Mycobacterium bovis é o agente causador da tuberculose em bovinos, zoonose que produz prejuízos para a produção de carne e leite em muitos países. Para apoiar estudos epidemiológicos no âmbito dos programas de controle, recentemente surgiram vários métodos de discriminação molecular de isolados de M. bovis. Os mais utilizados são o Spoligotyping, Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units (MIRU) e Exact Tandem Repeat (ETR), que apresentam diferentes poderes de discriminação. No presente estudo calculou-se a diversidade alélica para cada locus de MIRU e de ETR e o índice discriminatório de Hunter-Gaston (HGI) para o Spoligotyping, 10 MIRU e 3 ETR em 116 amostras de M. bovis isoladas de bovinos. Além disso, verificou-se se a capacidade de detectar agrupamentos espaciais de focos aumenta na medida em que é aumentado o poder discriminatório das análises moleculares. Comparou-se a utilização dessas três técnicas moleculares em análises espaciais para verificação de agrupamentos de focos da doença. A análise da diversidade alélica indicou que os MIRU 16, 26 e 27 e os ETR A, B e C foram os que apresentaram maior diversidade dentre os ensaiados. O HGI para cada uma das técnicas foi de: Spoligotyping = 0,738381; MIRU = 0...

‣ Exploração de metodos de seleção de variaveis pela tecnica de regressão logistica para analise de dados epidemiologicos; Exploration of variable selection methods by logistic regression techniques for epidemiologic data analysis

Cleide Aparecida Moreira Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/02/2006 Português
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Neste trabalho foi discutida a aplicação de dois métodos distintos de seleção de variáveis e modelos na análise de regressão logística múltipla: modelo hierarquizado e modelo selecionado pelo critério stepwise. Em um estudo caso-controle não-pareado realizado para identificar fatores de risco para o óbito neonatal em Campinas-SP foram analisadas variáveis sócio-econômicas, de morbidade materna e relacionadas à atenção à saúde. Foram selecionados 117 casos e 234 controles e as informações adicionais obtidas por meio de entrevista domiciliar. Pela análise de regressão logística múltipla com modelo hierarquizado foram identificados como fatores de risco para o óbito neonatal a renda familiar, a naturalidade da mãe, o número de moradores do domicílio, presença de sangramento vaginal, parto antecipado por problema de saúde, o número de orientações recebidas durante o pré-natal, a escolha do hospital para o parto, o tempo entre a internação e o parto, a idade gestacional, baixo peso ao nascer e Apgar do quinto minuto. As diferenças encontradas no modelo selecionado pelo critério stepwise foram: renda familiar que se mostrou associada à escolha do hospital, internação por problemas de saúde associada ao sangramento vaginal e naturalidade da mãe...

‣ Os casos que não se confirmaram como dengue durante a epidemia de dengue no municipio de Campinas/SP, 2002; Unconfirmed dengue cases during the Campinas dengue epidemic of 2002

Brigina Kemp
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/02/2005 Português
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Em 2002, Campinas (São Paulo, Brasil) registrou a sua maior epidemia de dengue até então. O Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica Municipal recebeu cerca de 10 mil notificações de casos suspeitos de dengue. Mais de 70% dos casos foram descartados por critério laboratorial (MAC-ELISA). No pico da epidemia, na área de maior incidência, ocorreu um óbito em um indivíduo adulto. A suspeita inicial de dengue hemorrágico foi descartada depois de confirmada infecção por Rickettsia ssp, grupo da febre maculosa (Imunofluorescência indireta e PCR). Diante da grande proporção de casos não confirmados e da ocorrência de um óbito em razão da infecção por Rickettsia spp, duas hipóteses foram formuladas: a de uma epidemia, sobreposta ou a ocorrência de viés ou falha na confirmação laboratorial dos casos. Com o objetivo de avaliar essas hipóteses, a posteriori foram comparados os casos confirmados com os descartados, considerando o intervalo de tempo entre início dos sintomas e coleta de sorologia, de pacientes residentes no município, com data de início de sintomas de primeiro de janeiro até sete de outubro de 2002. A fonte foi o Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN). Os soros estocados, que resultaram negativos para dengue...

‣ Metodological issues in measuring the detection of emotional disorders by primary care physicians: a review of the literature

Iacoponi,Eduardo
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/1988 Português
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A series of studies in the field of Epidemiological Psychiatry have been performed over the last two decades, and these have focused on the ability of primary care physicians to detect emotional disorders in the patients that attend their practices. The scientific methodology utilized in these studies is the subject of this review, which contains a discussion concerning: a) interviewer awareness bias; b) accuracy of the instruments and c) medical and psychological concepts involved in defining minor emotional disorders. Suggestions for change in the methodology are made in each of the sections of the review.

‣ Methodology in the epidemiological research of respiratory diseases and environmental pollution

Barquera,Simón; Rico-Méndez,Favio G; Tovar,Víctor
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2002 Português
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There are complex and diverse methodological problems involved in the clinical and epidemiological study of respiratory diseases and their etiological factors. The association of urban growth, industrialization and environmental deterioration with respiratory diseases makes it necessary to pay more attention to this research area with a multidisciplinary approach. Appropriate study designs and statistical techniques to analyze and improve our understanding of the pathological events and their causes must be implemented to reduce the growing morbidity and mortality through better preventive actions and health programs. The objective of the article is to review the most common methodological problems in this research area and to present the most available statistical tools used.

‣ Imported and autochthonous cases in the dynamics of dengue epidemics in Brazil

Degallier,Nicolas; Favier,Charly; Boulanger,Jean-Philippe; Menkes,Christophe
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2009 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To estimate the basic reproduction number (R0) of dengue fever including both imported and autochthonous cases. METHODS: The study was conducted based on epidemiological data of the 2003 dengue epidemic in Brasília, Brazil. The basic reproduction number is estimated from the epidemic curve, fitting linearly the increase of initial cases. Aiming at simulating an epidemic with both autochthonous and imported cases, a "susceptible-infectious-resistant" compartmental model was designed, in which the imported cases were considered as an external forcing. The ratio between R0 of imported versus autochthonous cases was used as an estimator of real R0. RESULTS: The comparison of both reproduction numbers (only autochthonous versus all cases) showed that considering all cases as autochthonous yielded a R0 above one, although the real R0 was below one. The same results were seen when the method was applied on simulated epidemics with fixed R0. This method was also compared to some previous proposed methods by other authors and showed that the latter underestimated R0 values. CONCLUSIONS: It was shown that the inclusion of both imported and autochthonous cases is crucial for the modeling of the epidemic dynamics, and thus provides critical information for decision makers in charge of prevention and control of this disease.

‣ Epidemiologic characteristics of renal cell carcinoma in Brazil

Nardi,Aguinaldo C.; Zequi,Stenio de C.; Clark,Otavio A. C.; Almeida,Jose C.; Glina,Sidney
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2010 Português
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PURPOSE: In Brazil, National data regarding the epidemiology of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) are scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical, and pathologic characteristics of RCC diagnosed and treated by members of the SBU - Brazilian Society of Urology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, data were collected through an on line questionnaire available to the members of the Brazilian Society of Urology (SBU). Between May 2007 and May 2008, voluntary participant urologists collected data on demographic, clinical and pathological characteristics from patients diagnosed with RCC in their practice. RESULTS: Fifty SBU affiliated institutions contributed with patient information to the study. Of the 508 patients, 58.9% were male, 78.9% were white, and the mean age was 59.8 years. Smoking history, high blood pressure and a body mass index above 30 kg/m2 were present in 14.8%, 46.1% and 17.9% of the patients, respectively. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography were the main diagnostic methods. The majority of the cases were localized tumors and metastasis were presented in 9.5% of the patients; 98.4% underwent nephrectomy. Clear cell carcinoma was the most common histological type. In comparison with private institutions...

‣ Heterocyclic amines content of meat and fish cooked by Brazilian methods

Iwasaki, Motoki; Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Hamada, Gerson Shigeaki; Sharma, Sangita; Le Marchand, Loïc; Tsugane, Shoichiro
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/2010 Português
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Heterocyclic amine (HCA) concentrations were measured in meat and fish samples cooked by pan-frying, grilling and churrasco (Brazilian barbecue) to various levels of doneness in accordance with the cooking methods most commonly used in Brazil. HCAs were extracted by the Blue-rayon absorption method and measured by liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx) were sharply increased in very well-done meats and fish. HCA levels varied somewhat across cooking methods: levels of PhIP (ng/g) in very well-done, non-marinated samples were particularly high for churrasco (31.8 in the exterior of the sample), compared to lower levels for grilled (16.3), and pan-fried beef (0.58). On comparison across foods, chicken contained higher HCA levels than other non-marinated samples. For example, PhIP levels (ng/g) in very well-done pan-fried foods were 34.6 for chicken with the skin, 0.58 for beef, 7.25 for pork, 2.28 for sardines, and 7.37 for salmon cooked with the skin. HCA levels were lower in marinated meats and fish than in non-marinated samples, except for pan-fried salmon. This study provides valuable information which will allow the estimation of dietary HCA exposure using an epidemiologic questionnaire and the investigation of the association of HCA intake with cancer risk in Brazil.

‣ Comparison of the Sensitivity of Laboratory Diagnostic Methods from a Well-Characterized Outbreak of Mumps in New York City in 2009

Rota, Jennifer S.; Rosen, Jennifer B.; Doll, Margaret K.; McNall, Rebecca J.; McGrew, Marcia; Williams, Nobia; Lopareva, Elena N.; Barskey, Albert E.; Punsalang, Amado; Rota, Paul A.; Oleszko, William R.; Hickman, Carole J.; Zimmerman, Christopher M.; Bel
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2013 Português
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A mumps outbreak in upstate New York in 2009 at a summer camp for Orthodox Jewish boys spread into Orthodox Jewish communities in the Northeast, including New York City. The availability of epidemiologic information, including vaccination records and parotitis onset dates, allowed an enhanced analysis of laboratory methods for mumps testing. Serum and buccal swab samples were collected from 296 confirmed cases with onsets from September through December 2009. All samples were tested using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) capture IgM enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-PCR) that targets the short hydrophobic gene. A subset of the samples (n = 205) was used to evaluate 3 commercial mumps IgM assays and to assess the sensitivity of using an alternative target gene (nucleoprotein) in the rRT-PCR protocol. Among 115 cases of mumps with 2 documented doses of measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, the CDC capture IgM EIA detected IgM in 51% of serum samples compared to 9% to 24% using three commercial IgM assays. The rRT-PCR that targeted the nucleoprotein gene increased RNA detection by 14% compared to that obtained with the original protocol. The ability to detect IgM improved when serum was collected 3 days or more after symptom onset...

‣ Building Analytic Capacity, Facilitating Partnerships, and Promoting Data Use in State Health Agencies: A Distance-Based Workforce Development Initiative Applied to Maternal and Child Health Epidemiology

Rankin, Kristin M.; Kroelinger, Charlan D.; Rosenberg, Deborah; Barfield, Wanda D.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2012 Português
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The purpose of this article is to summarize the methodology, partnerships, and products developed as a result of a distance-based workforce development initiative to improve analytic capacity among maternal and child health (MCH) epidemiologists in state health agencies. This effort was initiated by the Centers for Disease Control’s MCH Epidemiology Program and faculty at the University of Illinois at Chicago to encourage and support the use of surveillance data by MCH epidemiologists and program staff in state agencies. Beginning in 2005, distance-based training in advanced analytic skills was provided to MCH epidemiologists. To support participants, this model of workforce development included: lectures about the practical application of innovative epidemiologic methods, development of multidisciplinary teams within and across agencies, and systematic, tailored technical assistance The goal of this initiative evolved to emphasize the direct application of advanced methods to the development of state data products using complex sample surveys, resulting in the articles published in this supplement to MCHJ. Innovative methods were applied by participating MCH epidemiologists, including regional analyses across geographies and datasets...

‣ Hunger in Canadian Adolescents: A Mixed Methods Study

HAQ, FARZANA
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Background: Children going to school or bed hungry due to lack of food at home is a public health concern in Canada. Hunger adversely affects child health and development. Social support can alleviate hunger among adults. However, limited literature exists on this in adolescents. There is a need to understand the concept of hunger and aspects of food insecurity from adolescents’ perspective in order to improve existing health promotion or nutrition programs. Objectives: This mixed methods study aims to: [1] assess qualitative content validity of the hunger item on the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) survey; [2] understand Canadian adolescents’ perspectives on the HBSC item and on hunger more broadly; [3] investigate the epidemiologic relationship between social support from parents and teachers and adolescent’s report of hunger. Methods: Manuscript 1: A qualitative exploratory study was conducted using adolescent focus groups across Ontario. Coding proceeded in three stages with codes, themes and overarching concepts identified. The relative importance of themes were determined through assessment of depth, immediacy and richness of interaction surrounding them, as well as their reoccurrence. Manuscript 2: Canadian 2009/2010 HBSC data were used to examine the relationship between social support and hunger using adjusted Poisson regression. Results: [1] Content validity assessment showed adolescents considered quantity...

‣ The Brazilian Football Association (CBF) model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries

Arliani, Gustavo Goncalves; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Runco, Jose Luiz; Cohen, Moisés
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a national methodological model for epidemiological studies on professional soccer player injuries and to describe the numerous relevant studies previously published on this topic. INTRODUCTION: The risk of injury in professional soccer is high. However, previous studies of injury risk in Brazil and other countries have been characterized by large variations in study design and data collection methods as well as definitions of injury, standardized diagnostic criteria, and recovery times. METHODS: A system developed by the Union of European Football for epidemiological studies on professional soccer players is being used as a starting point to create a methodological model for the Brazilian Football Association. To describe the existing studies on professional soccer player injuries, we developed a search strategy to identify relevant epidemiological studies. We included the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and Medline databases in our study. RESULTS: We considered 60 studies from Medline and 16 studies from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences in the final analysis. Twelve studies were selected for final inclusion in this review: seven from the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences and five from Medline. We identified a lack of uniformity in the study design...

‣ A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red and processed meat, meat cooking methods, heme iron, heterocyclic amines and prostate cancer

Bylsma, Lauren C.; Alexander, Dominik D.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Text
Publicado em 21/12/2015 Português
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Prostate cancer remains a significant public health concern among men in the U.S. and worldwide. Epidemiologic studies have generally produced inconclusive results for dietary risk factors for prostate cancer, including consumption of red and processed meats. We aimed to update a previous meta-analysis of prospective cohorts of red and processed meats and prostate cancer with the inclusion of new and updated cohort studies, as well as evaluate meat cooking methods, heme iron, and heterocyclic amine (HCA) intake exposure data. A comprehensive literature search was performed and 26 publications from 19 different cohort studies were included. Random effects models were used to calculate summary relative risk estimates (SRREs) for high vs. low exposure categories. Additionally, meta-regression analyses and stratified intake analyses were conducted to evaluate dose-response relationships. The SRREs for total prostate cancer and total red meat consumption, fresh red meat consumption, and processed meat consumption were 1.02 (95 % CI: 0.92–1.12), 1.06 (95 % CI: 0.97–1.16), and 1.05 (95 % CI: 1.01–1.10), respectively. Analyses were also conducted for the outcomes of non-advanced, advanced, and fatal prostate cancer when sufficient data were available...

‣ Uso de teorias e modelos em artigos de um periódico latino-americano em saúde pública, 2000 a 2004; Uso de teorías y modelos en artículos de una revista latinoamericana de salud pública, 2000-2004; Use of theories and models on papers of a Latin-American journal in public health, 2000 to 2004

Cabrera Arana, Gustavo Alonso
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
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OBJETIVO: Caracterizar a freqüência e tipo de uso de teorias ou modelos citados em artigos publicados em uma revista latino-americana de saúde pública entre os anos 2000 e 2004. MÉTODOS: A Revista de Saúde Pública foi escolhida por sua história de publicação ininterrupta e atual impacto na comunicação científica da área. Foi aplicado um procedimento padrão para ler e classificar os artigos de acordo com tipologia de quatro níveis, segundo a profundidade de uso dado aos referenciais teóricos ou modelos citados nos textos para descrever assuntos ou problemas abordados, formular métodos e discutir a rigor os achados comunicados. RESULTADOS: Foram lidos 482 artigos: 421 (87%) investigações, 42 (9%) revisões ou especiais e 19 (4%) textos de opinião ou reflexão. Nas 421 investigações, 286 (68%) tiveram enfoque quantitativo, 110 (26%) qualitativo e 25 (6%) mistos. A menção a teorias ou modelos não foi freqüente; apenas 90 (19%) dos artigos revisados citavam alguma teoria ou modelo. Segundo a profundidade de uso, 29 (6%) dos 90 foram tipo I, 9 (1,9%) tipo II, 6 (1,3%) tipo III e 46 (9,5%), tipo IV. CONCLUSÕES: A citação de modelos foi nove vezes mais freqüente do que de alguma teoria; o uso ideal, de tipo IV...

‣ Second-generation HIV surveillance: better data for decision-making

Rehle,Thomas; Lazzari,Stefano; Dallabetta,Gina; Asamoah-Odei,Emil
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2004 Português
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This paper seeks to outline the key elements of the expanded surveillance efforts recommended by the second-generation HIV surveillance approach. Second-generation systems focus on improving and expanding existing surveillance methods and combine them in ways that have the greatest explanatory power. The main elements of this approach include: considering biological surveillance - HIV, AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) - and behavioural surveillance as integral components, targeting surveillance efforts at segments of the population where most new infections are concentrated - which might differ depending on the stage and type of the epidemic - and providing the rationale for the optimal use of data generated for monitoring the HIV epidemic and evaluating national AIDS control programmes. The paper emphasizes improvements in existing surveillance methodologies and discusses in detail crucial issues such as the validity of HIV prevalence data measured in pregnant women and linking HIV surveillance and behavioural data collection. In addition, a strategic partnership between second-generation surveillance and AIDS programme evaluation is proposed that stresses the complementary roles of these data collection activities in determining the effectiveness of prevention and care programmes and explaining the epidemiological trend data collected by sentinel serosurveillance systems. In conclusion...