Página 15 dos resultados de 1440 itens digitais encontrados em 0.016 segundos

‣ Transição epidemiológica da mortalidade por doenças circulatórias no Brasil; Epidemiologic transition in mortality rate from circulatory diseases in Brazil; Transición epidemiológica de la mortalidad por enfermedades circulatorias en Brasil

MANSUR, Antonio de Padua; LOPES, Adriano Ibrahim A.; FAVARATO, Desidério; AVAKIAN, Solange Desirée; CÉSAR, Luíz Antonio M.; RAMIRES, José Antonio F.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia - SBC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
FUNDAMENTO: As doenças circulatórias (DC) são as principais causas de morte no Brasil, com predomínio das doenças cerebrovasculares (DCbV). Nos países desenvolvidos, predominam as doenças isquêmicas do coração (DIC). OBJETIVO: Analisar a relação entre DCbV/DIC em homens e mulheres a partir de 30 anos. MÉTODOS: As estimativas da população e os dados de mortalidade para DC, DIC e DCbV foram obtidos do Ministério da Saúde para o período entre 1980 e 2005. O risco de morte por DIC e DCbV por 100.000 habitantes e a relação entre DCbV/DIC foram analisados nas faixas etárias decenais a partir de 30 anos. O risco de morte foi ajustado pelo método direto, usando como população padrão a população mundial de 1960. RESULTADOS: Observou-se aumento exponencial do risco de morte por DIC e DCbV, com o aumento da faixa etária. DCbV foi a principal causa de morte no Brasil até 1996, quando passou a predominar a DIC. Foi observada redução de 33,25% no risco de morte por DC na população brasileira. Na região metropolitana de São Paulo, houve uma diminuição de 45,44%, entre 1980 e 2005. A relação DCbV/DIC foi maior nas mulheres mais jovens: de 2,53 em 1980 e 2,04 em 2005 para a população brasileira, e de 2,76 em 1980 e 1...

‣ Hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease in Brazil, 2004 - 2006; Hospitalizações por doença pneumocócica no Brasil, 2004 - 2006; Hospitalizaciones por enfermedad neumocócica en Brasil, 2004-2006

NOVAES, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; SARTORI, Ana Marli Christovam; SOÁREZ, Patricia Coelho de
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease based on the Brazilian Hospital Information System (SIH). METHODS: Descriptive study based on the Hospital Information System of Brazilian National Health System data from January 2004 to December 2006: number of hospitalizations and deaths for pneumococcal meningitis, pneumococcal sepsis, pneumococcal pneumonia and Streptococcus pneumoniae as the cause of diseases reported in Brazil. Data from the 2003 Brazilian National Household Survey were used to estimate events in the private sector. Pneumococcal meningitis cases and deaths reported to the Notifiable Diseases Information System during the study period were also analyzed. RESULTS: Pneumococcal disease accounted for 34,217 hospitalizations in the Brazilian National Health System (0.1% of all hospitalizations in the public sector). Pneumococcal pneumonia accounted for 64.8% of these hospitalizations. The age distribution of the estimated hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease showed a "U"-shape curve with the highest rates seen in children under one (110 to 136.9 per 100,000 children annually). The highest hospital case-fatality rates were seen among the elderly, and for sepsis and meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: PD is a major public health problem in Brazil. The analysis based on the SIH can provide an important input to pneumococcal disease surveillance and the impact assessment of immunization programs.; OBJETIVO: Estimar as hospitalizações por doença pneumocócica com base em dados do Sistema de Informações Hospitalares (SIH). MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo com base em dados do SIH de janeiro de 2004 a dezembro de 2006: números de hospitalizações e mortes por meningite pneumocócica...

‣ Perfil clínico e epidemiológico de recém-natos prematuros com muito baixo peso no Rio de Janeiro: estudo de 152 pacientes; Clinic and epidemiologic profile of preterm infants with very low birth weight in Rio de Janeiro: 152 patients study

PORTES, André Luís Freire; BARAÚNA, Helisa; JEVEAUX, Giancarlos; MONTEIRO, Mário Luiz Ribeiro
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Oftalmologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência, frequência e distribuição dos estágios evolutivos da retinopatia da prematuridade (ROP) realizado num hospital de nível terciário no Rio de Janeiro. Identificar fatores de risco sistêmicos associados ao seu aparecimento e progressão, descrever o tratamento instituído e evolução dos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional de coorte, entre março de 2005 e fevereiro de 2007. Foram examinados 152 recém-natos(RN) prematuros com 32 semanas ou menos de idade gestacional(IG), e ou 1500gramas ou menos de peso ao nascimento(PN). Uma revisão simultânea dos prontuários foi realizada procurando correlação dos fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento da ROP com a clínica encontrada. Foram feitas análises estatísticas descritiva, intervalo de confiança e multivariados (Anova / pós-teste:Tukey). RESULTADOS: Dos 302 olhos examinados, 72,19% estavam normais e 27,81% desenvolveram ROP. O estágio 2 com 29 (9,60%) de olhos acometidos foi o mais prevalente. O tratamento foi indicado em 6,57% dos RN triados, com regressão em 90% dos casos. Houve diferença estatística significativa entre a média dos principais fatores de risco pesquisados de acordo com apresentação clínica da ROP. CONCLUSÃO: O perfil epidemiológico dos RN prematuros no nosso hospital foi definido ao longo desses 2 anos. O APGAR de 1 minuto deve ser levado em consideração nos RN que desenvolveram a ROP e o seu acompanhamento feito com cautela. Os dados referentes aos RN prematuros nesse tipo de estudo são sempre dinâmicos e variáveis...

‣ Onicomicose por Scytalidium spp.: estudo clínico-epidemiológico em um hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil; Onycomychosis due to Scytalidium spp.: a clinical and epidemiologic study at a University Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

CURSI, Ígor Brum; FREITAS, Letícia Bastos da Cunha Rodrigues de; NEVES, Maria de Lourdes Palermo Fernandes; SILVA, Ione Carlos da
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
FUNDAMENTOS: O Scytalidium spp. é fungo filamentoso, saprobio do solo e plantas, considerado, atualmente, patógeno primário das unhas. A prevalência das infecções ungueais causadas por este fungo vem aumentando nas últimas décadas, embora ainda sejam poucos os trabalhos publicados sobre sua epidemiologia. OBJETIVO: Estudo clínico-epidemiológico dos pacientes portadores de onicomicose por Scytalidium spp. em um hospital universitário do Rio de Janeiro. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados os dados clínico-epidemiológicos de 30 pacientes com onicomicose por Scytalidium spp. por meio do estudo observacional de 1.295 pacientes que se submeteram a exame micológico ungueal no período de 16 meses. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo feminino (66,6%), a média de idade foi de 56,7 anos e 63,3% eram não-brancos. O nível de escolaridade em 53,3% dos pacientes era o ensino fundamental e a renda familiar predominante foi de 3 a 5 salários mínimos em 36,6% dos entrevistados. Em 90% dos casos, as unhas dos pododáctilos foram acometidas, sendo a alteração clínica mais comum a onicólise (18 pacientes) e em 66,6% dos casos observou-se melanoníquia. O tempo de evolução da doença foi maior do que cinco anos em 43,3% dos casos. Dezenove pacientes (63...

‣ Long-acting injectable risperidone in partially adherent and nonadherent patients with schizophrenia

LOUZA, Mario Rodrigues; ELKIS, Helio; RUSCHEL, Sandra; OLIVEIRA, Irismar Reis de; BRESSAN, Rodrigo Affonseca; BELMONTE-DE-ABREU, Paulo; GRABOWSKI, Hamilton; APPOLINARIO, Jose Carlos
Fonte: DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD Publicador: DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Background: Long-acting injectable antipsychotics may improve medication adherence, thereby improving overall treatment effectiveness. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of risperidone long-acting injection in schizophrenic patients switched from oral antipsychotic medication. Methods: In a 12-month, multicenter, open-label, noncomparative study, symptomatically stable patients on oral antipsychotic medication with poor treatment adherence during the previous 12 months received intramuscular injections of risperidone long-acting injection (25 mg starting dose) every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score. Results: Of the 60 patients who were screened, 53 received at least one injection (safety population), and 51 provided at least one postbaseline assessment. Mean PANSS total scores improved significantly throughout the study and at endpoint. Significant improvements were also observed in Clinical Global Impression of Severity, Personal and Social Performance, and Drug Attitude Inventory scales. Risperidone long-acting injection was safe and well-tolerated. Severity of movement disorders on the Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale was reduced significantly. The most frequently reported adverse events were insomnia (22.6%)...

‣ Increasing trends of sleep complaints in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil

SANTOS-SILVA, Rogerio; BITTENCOURT, Lia Rita Azeredo; PIRES, Maria Laura Nogueira; MELLO, Marco Tulio de; TADDEI, Jose Augusto; BENEDITO-SILVA, Ana Amelia; POMPEIA, Celine; TUFIK, Sergio
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of sleep habits and complaints and to estimate the secular trends through three population-based surveys carried out in 1987, 1995, and 2007 in the general adult population of the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Surveys were performed using the same three-stage cluster-sampling technique in three consecutive decades to obtain representative samples of the inhabitants of Sao Paulo with respect to gender, age (20-80 years), and socio-economic status. Sample sizes were 1000 volunteers in 1987 and 1995 surveys and 1101 in a 2007 survey. In each survey, the UNIFESP Sleep Questionnaire was administered face-to-face in each household selected. Results: For 1987, 1995, and 2007, respectively, difficulty initiating sleep (weighted frequency %; 95% CI) [(13.9; 11.9-16.2), (19.15; 16.8-21.6), and (25.0; 22.5-27.8)], difficulty maintaining sleep [(15.8; 13.7-18.2), (27.6; 24.9-30.4), and (36.5; 33.5-39.5)], and early morning awakening [(10.6; 8.8-12.7), (14.2; 12.2-16.5), and (26.7; 24-29.6)] increased in the general population over time, mostly in women. Habitual snoring was the most commonly reported complaint across decades and was more prevalent in men. There was no statistically significant difference in snoring complaints between 1987 (21.5; 19.1-24.2) and 1995 (19.0; 16.7-21.6)...

‣ A practical approach to assess depression risk and to guide risk reduction strategies in later life

ALMEIDA, Osvaldo P.; ALFONSO, Helman; PIRKIS, Jane; KERSE, Ngaire; SIM, Moira; FLICKER, Leon; SNOWDON, John; DRAPER, Brian; BYRNE, Gerard; GOLDNEY, Robert; LAUTENSCHLAGER, Nicola T.; STOCKS, Nigel; SCAZUFCA, Marcia; HUISMAN, Martijn; ARAYA, Ricardo; PFAFF
Fonte: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS Publicador: CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Background: Many factors have been associated with the onset and maintenance of depressive symptoms in later life, although this knowledge is yet to be translated into significant health gains for the population. This study gathered information about common modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for depression with the aim of developing a practical probabilistic model of depression that can be used to guide risk reduction strategies. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken of 20,677 community-dwelling Australians aged 60 years or over in contact with their general practitioner during the preceding 12 months. Prevalent depression (minor or major) according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) assessment was the main outcome of interest. Other measured exposures included self-reported age, gender, education, loss of mother or father before age 15 years, physical or sexual abuse before age 15 years, marital status, financial stress, social support, smoking and alcohol use, physical activity, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and prevalent cardiovascular diseases, chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Results: The mean age of participants was 71.7 +/- 7.6 years and 57.9% were women. Depression was present in 1665 (8.0%) of our subjects. Multivariate logistic regression showed depression was independently associated with age older than 75 years...

‣ Latent class analysis of manic and depressive symptoms in a population-based sample in Sao Paulo, Brazil

MORENO, Doris Hupfeld; ANDRADE, Laura Helena
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Background: Current diagnostic criteria cannot capture the full range of bipolar spectrum. This study aims to clarify the natural co-segregation of manic-depressive symptoms occurring in the general population. Methods: Using data from the Sao Paulo Catchment Area Study, latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to eleven manic and fourteen depressive symptoms assessed through CIDI 1.1 in 1464 subjects from a community-based study in Sao Paulo, Brazil. All manic symptoms were assessed, regardless of presence of euphoria or irritability, and demographics, services used, suicidality and CIDI/DSM-IIIR mood disorders used to external validate the classes. Results: The four obtained classes were labeled Euthymics (EU; 49.1%), Mild Affectives (MA; 31.1%), Bipolars (BIP; 10.7%), and Depressives (DEP; 9%). BIP and DEP classes represented bipolar and depressive spectra, respectively. Compared to DEP class, BIP exhibited more atypical depressive characteristics (hypersomnia and increase in appetite and/or weight gain), risk of suicide, and use of services. Depressives had rates of atypical symptoms and suicidality comparable to oligosymptomatic MA class subjects. Limitations: The use of lay interviewers and DSM-IIIR diagnostic criteria, which are more restrictive than the currently used DSM-IV TR. Conclusions: Findings of high prevalence of bipolar spectrum and of atypical symptoms and suicidality as indicators of bipolarity are of great clinical importance...

‣ Post-polio syndrome: epidemiologic and prognostic aspects in Brazil

CONDE, M. T. R. P.; OLIVEIRA, A. S. B.; QUADROS, A. A. J.; MOREIRA, G. A.; SILVA, H. C. A.; PEREIRA, R. D. B.; SILVA, T. M. e; TUFIK, S.; WALDMAN, E. A.
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Objectives - To describe the clinical and epidemiological aspects of post-polio syndrome (PPS) and identify predictors of its severity. Materials and methods - 132 patients with PPS were selected at the Neuromuscular Disease Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of Sao Paulo. Descriptive analysis was carried out and predictors of PPS severe forms were investigated using an unconditional logistic regression. Results - The average age at onset was 39.4 years. The most common symptoms were fatigue (87.1%), muscle pain (82.4%) and joint pain (72.0%); 50.4% of the cases were severe. The following were associated with PPS severity: a < 4-year period of neurological recovery (OR 2.8), permanent damage in two limbs (OR 3.6) and residence at the time of acute polio in a city with more advanced medical assistance (OR 2.5). Conclusions - Health professionals should carefully evaluate polio survivors for PPS and be aware of the implications of muscle overuse in the neurological recovery period.; Associacao Fundo de Incentivo Psicofarmacologia (AFIP, Psychopharmacology Incentive Fund)

‣ Multilevel analysis of hepatitis A infection in children and adolescents: a household survey in the Northeast and Central-west regions of Brazil

XIMENES, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; MARTELLI, Celina Maria Turchi; MERCHAN-HAMANN, Edgar; MONTARROYOS, Ulisses Ramos; BRAGA, Maria Cynthia; LIMA, Maria Luiza Carvalho de; CARDOSO, Maria Regina Alves; TURCHI, Marilia Dalva; COSTA, Marcelo Abrahao; ALENCAR,
Fonte: OXFORD UNIV PRESS Publicador: OXFORD UNIV PRESS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Background The objectives were to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis A among children and adolescents from the Northeast and Midwest regions and the Federal District of Brazil and to identify individual-, household- and area-levels factors associated with hepatitis A infection. Methods This population-based survey was conducted in 20042005 and covered individuals aged between 5 and 19 years. A stratified multistage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used to select 1937 individuals aged between 5 and 19 years living in the Federal capital and in the State capitals of 12 states in the study regions. The sample was stratified according to age (59 and 10- to 19-years-old) and capital within each region. Individual- and household-level data were collected by interview at the home of the individual. Variables related to the area were retrieved from census tract data. The outcome was total antibodies to hepatitis A virus detected using commercial EIA. The age distribution of the susceptible population was estimated using a simple catalytic model. The associations between HAV infection and independent variables were assessed using the odds ratio and corrected for the random design effect and sampling weight. Multilevel analysis was performed by GLLAMM using Stata 9.2. Results The prevalence of hepatitis A infection in the 59 and 1019 age-group was 41.5 and 57.4...

‣ Dietary calcium intake and overweight: An epidemiologic view

BUENO, Milena Baptista; CESAR, Chester Luis Galvao; MARTINI, Ligia A.; FISBERG, Regina M.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Objective: We evaluated the relation between overweight and calcium intake in adults living in the municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional population-based Study on a sample of 1459 adults that was obtained by multistage cluster sampling. Dietary intake was measured by the 24-h recall method. Poisson`s and linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relation between overweight and quartiles of calcium intake adjusted for energy. Results: The prevalence of overweight was 43.1% and the average adjusted calcium intake was 448.6 mg. In the linear regression. analyses, the regression coefficient for adjusted calcium was significant and negative (P = 0.019, beta(1) = -0.0001). Although evaluated by quartiles, the prevalence ratio for overweight in the first quartile of calcium intake was 1.24 (95% confidence interval 1.00-1.54) and that in the second quartile was 1.24 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.49). Conclusion: In the present study, calcium intake showed a significant negative association with body mass index. (C) 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

‣ Prior history of sexually transmitted diseases in women living with AIDS in Sao Paulo, Brazil

Pinto, Valdir Monteiro; Tancredi, Mariza Vono; Golub, Jonathan Eric; Coelho, Ariane de Castro; Tancredi Neto, Antonio; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa
Fonte: CONTEXTO; SALVADOR Publicador: CONTEXTO; SALVADOR
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Objectives: To describe the epidemiological profile, risk behaviors, and the prior history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in women living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: Cross-sectional study, performed at the Centro de Referencia e Treinamento em DST/AIDS of Sao Paulo. The social, demographic, behavioral, and clinical data such as age, schooling, marital status, age at first sexual intercourse, number of sexual partners, parity, use of drugs, time of HIV diagnosis, CD4 count, and viral load determination were abstracted from the medical records of women living with AIDS who had gynecological consultation scheduled in the period from June 2008 to May 2009. Results: Out of 710 women who were scheduled to a gynecological consultation during the period of the study, 598 were included. Previous STD was documented for 364 (60.9%; 95% CI: 56.9%-64.8%) women. The associated factors with previous STDs and their respective risks were: human development index (HDI) <0.50 (ORaj = 5.5; 95% CI: 2.8-11.0); non-white race (ORaj = 5.2; 95% CI: 2.5-11.0); first sexual intercourse at or before 15 years of age (ORaj = 4.4; 95% CI: 2.3-8.3); HIV infection follow-up time of nine years or more (ORaj = 4.2; 95% CI: 2.3-7.8)]; number of sexual partners during the entire life between three and five partners (ORaj = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.6)...

‣ Suicide rates and income in Sao Paulo and Brazil: a temporal and spatial epidemiologic analysis from 1996 to 2008

Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Brunoni, André Russowsky; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Lotufo, Paulo A.
Fonte: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD; LONDON Publicador: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD; LONDON
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Background: In a classical study, Durkheim noted a direct relation between suicide rates and wealth in the XIX century France. Since that time, several studies have verified this relationship. It is known that suicide rates are associated with income, although the direction of this association varies worldwide. Brazil presents a heterogeneous distribution of income and suicide across its territory; however, evaluation for an association between these variables has shown mixed results. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between suicide rates and income in Brazil, State of Sao Paulo (SP), and City of SP, considering geographical area and temporal trends. Methods: Data were extracted from the National and State official statistics departments. Three socioeconomic areas were considered according to income, from the wealthiest (area 1) to the poorest (area 3). We also considered three regions: country-wide (27 Brazilian States and 558 Brazilian micro-regions), state-wide (645 counties of SP State), and city-wide (96 districts of SP city). Relative risks (RR) were calculated among areas 1, 2, and 3 for all regions, in a cross-sectional approach. Then, we used Joinpoint analysis to explore the temporal trends of suicide rates and SaTScan to investigate geographical clusters of high/low suicide rates across the territory. Results: Suicide rates in Brazil...

‣ Income inequality and elderly self-rated health in Sao Paulo, Brazil

Porto Chiavegatto Filho, Alexandre Dias; Lebrao, Maria Lucia; Kawachi, Ichiro
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC; NEW YORK Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC; NEW YORK
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Purpose: To test the association between income inequality and elderly self-rated health and to propose a pathway to explain the relationship. Methods: We analyzed a sample of 2143 older individuals (60 years of age and over) from 49 distritos of the Municipality of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Bayesian multilevel logistic models were performed with poor self-rated health as the outcome variable. Results: Income inequality (measured by the Gini coefficient) was found to be associated with poor self-rated health after controlling for age, sex, income and education (odds ratio, 1.19; 95% credible interval, 1.01-1.38). When the practice of physical exercise and homicide rate were added to the model, the Gini coefficient lost its statistical significance (P>.05). We fitted a structural equation model in which income inequality affects elderly health by a pathway mediated by violence and practice of physical exercise. Conclusions: The health of older individuals may be highly susceptible to the socioeconomic environment of residence, specifically to the local distribution of income. We propose that this association may be mediated by fear of violence and lack of physical activity. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

‣ Use of alcohol and other drugs among Brazilian college students: effects of gender and age

de Andrade, Arthur Guerra; Arruda Vieira Duarte, Paulina do Carmo; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Nishimura, Raphael; Alberghini, Denis Guilherme; de Oliveira, Lucio Garcia
Fonte: ASSOC BRASILEIRA PSIQUIATRIA; SAO PAULO Publicador: ASSOC BRASILEIRA PSIQUIATRIA; SAO PAULO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Objective: To assess the frequency of drug use among Brazilian college students and its relationship to gender and age. Methods: A nationwide sample of 12,721 college students completed a questionnaire concerning the use of drugs and other behaviors. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST-WHO) criteria were used to assess were used to assess hazardous drug use. A multivariate logistic regression model tested the associations of ASSIST-WHO scores with gender and age. The same analyses were carried out to measure drug use in the last 30 days. Results: After controlling for other sociodemographic, academic and administrative variables, men were found to be more likely to use and engage in the hazardous use of anabolic androgenic steroids than women across all age ranges. Conversely, women older than 34 years of age were more likely to use and engage in the hazardous use of amphetamines. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with results that have been reported for the general Brazilian population. Therefore, these findings should be taken into consideration when developing strategies at the prevention of drug use and the early identification of drug abuse among college students.; Secretaria Nacional de Politicas sobre Drogas (Brazilian Secretariat for Drug Policies - SENAD); Secretaria Nacional de Politicas sobre Drogas (Brazilian Secretariat for Drug Policies SENAD); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (Research Support Foundation of Sao Paulo - FAPESP) [08/55550-7]; Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (Research Support Foundation of Sao Paulo FAPESP)

‣ Suicide rates and income in São Paulo and Brazil: a temporal and spatial epidemiologic analysis from 1996 to 2008

Bando, Daniel H; Brunoni, André Russowsky; Benseñor, Isabela M; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Abstract Background In a classical study, Durkheim noted a direct relation between suicide rates and wealth in the XIX century France. Since that time, several studies have verified this relationship. It is known that suicide rates are associated with income, although the direction of this association varies worldwide. Brazil presents a heterogeneous distribution of income and suicide across its territory; however, evaluation for an association between these variables has shown mixed results. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between suicide rates and income in Brazil, State of São Paulo (SP), and City of SP, considering geographical area and temporal trends. Methods Data were extracted from the National and State official statistics departments. Three socioeconomic areas were considered according to income, from the wealthiest (area 1) to the poorest (area 3). We also considered three regions: country-wide (27 Brazilian States and 558 Brazilian micro-regions), state-wide (645 counties of SP State), and city-wide (96 districts of SP city). Relative risks (RR) were calculated among areas 1...

‣ Laboratorial training of examiners for using a visual caries detection system in epidemiological surveys

Piovesan, Chaiana; Moro, Bruna LP; Lara, Juan S; Ardenghi, Thiago M; Guedes, Renata S; Haddad, Ana Estela; Braga, Mariana M; Mendes, Fausto M
Fonte: London Publicador: London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Background: In epidemiological surveys, a good reliability among the examiners regarding the caries detection method is essential. However, training and calibrating those examiners is an arduous task because it involves several patients who are examined many times. To facilitate this step, we aimed to propose a laboratory methodology to simulate the examinations performed to detect caries lesions using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) in epidemiological surveys. Methods: A benchmark examiner conducted all training sessions. A total of 67 exfoliated primary teeth, varying from sound to extensive cavitated, were set in seven arch models to simulate complete mouths in primary dentition. Sixteen examiners (graduate students) evaluated all surfaces of the teeth under illumination using buccal mirrors and ball-ended probe in two occasions, using only coronal primary caries scores of the ICDAS. As reference standard, two different examiners assessed the proximal surfaces by direct visual inspection, classifying them in sound, with non-cavitated or with cavitated lesions. After, teeth were sectioned in the bucco-lingual direction, and the examiners assessed the sections in stereomicroscope, classifying the occlusal and smooth surfaces according to lesion depth. Inter-examiner reproducibility was evaluated using weighted kappa. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated at two thresholds: all lesions and advanced lesions (cavitated lesions in proximal surfaces and lesions reaching the dentine in occlusal and smooth surfaces). Conclusion: The methodology purposed for training and calibration of several examiners designated for epidemiological surveys of dental caries in preschool children using the ICDAS is feasible...

‣ "Análise clínico-epidemiológica das gestantes inadvertidamente vacinadas contra a rubéola" ; Clinical and epidemiological analysis of pregnant women accidentally vaccinated against rubella

Kashiwagi, Néa Miwa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/08/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
INTRODUÇÃO: Em 1999 e 2000, a ocorrência de surtos de rubéola, com maior acometimento entre adultos jovens, refletiu no aumento da síndrome da rubéola congênita. Como estratégia de controle da doença, foram realizadas campanhas de vacinação contra a rubéola em mulheres em idade fértil em vários Estados do País. Em razão das controvérsias existentes na literatura geradas quanto ao emprego da vacina de vírus vivos atenuados em gestantes, não se recomendou sua utilização durante a gravidez e até um mês após a aplicação da vacina. No entanto, 6.473 mulheres foram inadvertidamente vacinadas no Estado de São Paulo, sendo encaminhadas a serviços de referência para acompanhamento dessas gestações, dentre eles, o HCFMUSP. OBJETIVO: Este estudo buscou descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas das gestantes atendidas no HCFMUSP e obter os resultados dessas gestações. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo epidemiológico descritivo, utilizando-se como fonte de dados as notificações das gestantes inadvertidamente vacinadas contra a rubéola e atendidas no HCFMUSP entre novembro de 2001 a dezembro de 2002. Para obter o desfecho das gestações, utilizou-se a base de dados dos nascidos vivos do Município de São Paulo (SINASC). RESULTADOS: No HCMFUSP...

‣ Imported and autochthonous cases in the dynamics of dengue epidemics in Brazil

Degallier,Nicolas; Favier,Charly; Boulanger,Jean-Philippe; Menkes,Christophe
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
251.16498%
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the basic reproduction number (R0) of dengue fever including both imported and autochthonous cases. METHODS: The study was conducted based on epidemiological data of the 2003 dengue epidemic in Brasília, Brazil. The basic reproduction number is estimated from the epidemic curve, fitting linearly the increase of initial cases. Aiming at simulating an epidemic with both autochthonous and imported cases, a "susceptible-infectious-resistant" compartmental model was designed, in which the imported cases were considered as an external forcing. The ratio between R0 of imported versus autochthonous cases was used as an estimator of real R0. RESULTS: The comparison of both reproduction numbers (only autochthonous versus all cases) showed that considering all cases as autochthonous yielded a R0 above one, although the real R0 was below one. The same results were seen when the method was applied on simulated epidemics with fixed R0. This method was also compared to some previous proposed methods by other authors and showed that the latter underestimated R0 values. CONCLUSIONS: It was shown that the inclusion of both imported and autochthonous cases is crucial for the modeling of the epidemic dynamics, and thus provides critical information for decision makers in charge of prevention and control of this disease.

‣ Methodology in the epidemiological research of respiratory diseases and environmental pollution

Barquera,Simón; Rico-Méndez,Favio G; Tovar,Víctor
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2002 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
251.16498%
There are complex and diverse methodological problems involved in the clinical and epidemiological study of respiratory diseases and their etiological factors. The association of urban growth, industrialization and environmental deterioration with respiratory diseases makes it necessary to pay more attention to this research area with a multidisciplinary approach. Appropriate study designs and statistical techniques to analyze and improve our understanding of the pathological events and their causes must be implemented to reduce the growing morbidity and mortality through better preventive actions and health programs. The objective of the article is to review the most common methodological problems in this research area and to present the most available statistical tools used.