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‣ Amniocentesis in HIV Pregnant Women: 16 Years of Experience

Simões, M; Marques, C; Gonçalves, A; Pereira, AP; Correia, J; Castela, J; Guerreiro, C
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A--women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B--women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures...

‣ Amniocentesis in HIV Pregnant Women: 16 Years of Experience

Simões, M; Marques, C; Gonçalves, A; Pereira, AP; Correia, J; Castela, J; Guerreiro, C
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
26.439268%
The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A--women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B--women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures...

‣ Epidemiologic Study of Retinoblastoma in Recife, Pernambuco - Brazil: January 1985 - July 1997

Abreu,Armando Anderson; Ventura,Liana O.; Abreu,Sunny Silveira; Regis,Lízia; Morais,Vera; Calheiros,Luis Mário C.
Fonte: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia Publicador: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/1999 Português
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Background: Retinoblastoma is by far the most frequent malignant intraocular tumor of childhood. This study was performed to characterize the clinical, diagnostic, treatment and prognostic aspects in patients with retinoblastoma in three reference centers for this pathology in the city of Recife, Pernambuco - Brazil. Methods: A consecutive series of 85 patients with retinoblastoma was reviewed. The authors selected 66 patients (77.6%) that fulfilled the inclusion criteria for these study. Results: Of a total of 66 patients with retinoblastoma, 4.5% had a previous history of the disease in the family. Males were more affected than females at a ratio (male/female) of 1.12. The mean age of appearance of the first symptoms was 23.8 months, with leukocoria and ocular hyperemia being the most frequent. The mean age at time of diagnosis was 31.7 months and for surgical treatment 32.8 months. The right eye was affected in 42.4% of the cases and the left was involved in 37.9% of cases. The tumor was unilateral in 80.3% and bilateral in 19.7% of the cases. There was extraocular involvement in 62.1%, and it was intraocular in 37.9% of the patients. Treatment was surgery combined with chemotherapy in 47.0% of the patients. 27.3% of the patients died and 19.7% abandoned the treatment. Conclusions: The data on the epidemiology of retinoblastoma found in our city resembles that of other developing countries...

‣ Superficial corneal foreign body: laboratory and epidemiologic aspects

Macedo Filho,Ednajar Tavares; Lago,Aline; Duarte,Karine; Liang,Shih Jung; Lima,Ana Luísa Höfling; Freitas,Denise de
Fonte: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia Publicador: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2005 Português
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PURPOSE: To determine by bacterioscopy and culture the microorganisms carried by corneal foreign body and their sensitivity to antibiotics by antibiotic sensitivity test. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out and information was collected on 101 patients who presented with corneal foreign body at the São Paulo Hospital Eye Emergency Service. Prior to any treatment, a sample of the ipsilateral inferior conjunctival fornix and the foreign body were collected and immersed in thioglycolate broth. Samples were sown on solid culture media including blood, chocolate and Sabouraud agar. Bacterioscopic examination using Gram and Giemsa staining and sensitivity test were performed. Positive foreign body culture results were compared to ipsilateral conjunctival fornix culture to exclude possible normal flora growth. RESULTS: Approximately 92% of patients were males with a mean age of 35 years and in 62.4% (95% confidence interval: 52.2 - 71.8%) had the right eye was affected. Foreign body positive cultures were achieved in 32.7% (95% confidence interval: 23.7 - 42.7%) of the cases. The microorganisms isolated from the foreign body culture were identified as: Streptococcus, alpha-hemolytic (n=4), Staphylococcus aureus (n=4), Staphylococcus...

‣ Breast cancer in Mexican women: an epidemiological study with cervical cancer control

Tovar-Guzmán,Víctor; Hernández-Girón,Carlos; Lazcano-Ponce,Eduardo; Romieu,Isabelle; Hernández Avila,Mauricio
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2000 Português
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INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, breast cancer (BC) is one of the main causes of cancer deaths in women, with increasing incidence and mortality in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study is identify possible risk factors related to BC. METHODS: An epidemiological study of hospital cases of BC and controls with cervical uterine cancer (CUCA) was carried out at eight third level concentration hospitals in Mexico City. The total of 353 incident cases of BC and 630 controls with CUCA were identified among women younger than 75 years who had been residents of the metropolitan area of Mexico City for at least one year. Diagnosis was confirmed histologically in both groups. Variables were analyzed according to biological and statistical plausibility criteria. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Cases and controls were stratified according to the menopausal hormonal status (pre and post menopause). RESULTS: The factors associated with BC were: higher socioeconomic level (OR= 2.77; 95%CI = 1.77 - 4.35); early menarche (OR= 1.32; 95%CI= 0.88 - 2.00); old age at first pregnancy (>31 years: OR= 5.49; 95%CI= 2.16 - 13.98) and a family history of BC (OR= 4.76; 95% CI= 2.10 - 10.79). In contrast, an increase in the duration of the breastfeeding period was a protective factor (>25 months: OR= 0.38; 95%CI= 0.20 - 0.70). CONCLUSIONS: This study contributes to the identification of risk factors for BC described in the international literature...

‣ Performance of rubella suspect case definition: implications for surveillance

Oliveira,Solange Artimos de; Camacho,Luiz Antonio Bastos; Pereira,Antonio Carlos de Medeiros; Bulhões,Marília Mattos; Aguas,Angélica Fortes; Siqueira,Marilda Mendonça
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2006 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of the rubella suspect case definition among patients with rash diseases seen at primary care units. METHODS: From January 1994 to December 2002, patients with acute rash, with or without fever, were seen at two large primary health care units and at a public general hospital in the municipality of Niterói, metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Data from clinical and serologic assessment were used to estimate the positive predictive values of the definition of rubella suspect case from the Brazilian Ministry of Health and other combination of signs/symptoms taking serologic status as the reference. Serum samples were tested for anti-rubella virus IgM using commercially available enzyme immunoassays. Positive predictive values and respective 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 1,186 patients with an illness characterized by variable combinations of rash with fever, arthropathy and lymphadenopathy were studied. Patients with rash, regardless of other signs and symptoms, had 8.8% likelihood of being IgM-positive for rubella. The Brazilian suspect case definition (fever and lymphadenopathy in addition to rash) had low predictive value (13.5%). This case definition would correctly identify 42.3% of the IgM-positive cases...

‣ Metabolic changes associated with antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients

Almeida,Sabrina Esteves de Matos; Borges,Michele; Fiegenbaum,Marilu; Nunes,Cynara Carvalho; Rossetti,Maria Lucia Rosa
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2009 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate metabolic changes associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-positive patients, and to identify risk factors associated. METHODS: Retrospective study that included 110 HIV-positive patients who where on HAART in the city of Porto Alegre (Southern Brazil) between January 2003 and March 2004. Data on demographic variables, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, stage of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy and HCV coinfection were collected. General linear models procedure for repeated measures was used to test the interaction between HAART and HCV coinfection or protease inhibitor treatment. RESULTS: Total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose levels significantly increased after receiving HAART (p<0.001 for all variables), but no interaction with protease inhibitors was seen for total cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels (interaction treatment*protease inhibitors p=0.741, p=0.784, and p=0.081, respectively). An association between total cholesterol levels and HCV coinfection was found both at baseline and follow-up (effect of HCV coinfection, p=0.011). Glucose levels were increased by HAART (treatment effect, p=0.036), but the effect was associated to HCV coinfection (treatment*HCV effect...

‣ Hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease in Brazil, 2004 - 2006

Novaes,Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Sartori,Ana Marli Christovam; Soárez,Patricia Coelho de
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To estimate hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease based on the Brazilian Hospital Information System (SIH). METHODS: Descriptive study based on the Hospital Information System of Brazilian National Health System data from January 2004 to December 2006: number of hospitalizations and deaths for pneumococcal meningitis, pneumococcal sepsis, pneumococcal pneumonia and Streptococcus pneumoniae as the cause of diseases reported in Brazil. Data from the 2003 Brazilian National Household Survey were used to estimate events in the private sector. Pneumococcal meningitis cases and deaths reported to the Notifiable Diseases Information System during the study period were also analyzed. RESULTS: Pneumococcal disease accounted for 34,217 hospitalizations in the Brazilian National Health System (0.1% of all hospitalizations in the public sector). Pneumococcal pneumonia accounted for 64.8% of these hospitalizations. The age distribution of the estimated hospitalization rates for pneumococcal disease showed a "U"-shape curve with the highest rates seen in children under one (110 to 136.9 per 100,000 children annually). The highest hospital case-fatality rates were seen among the elderly, and for sepsis and meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: PD is a major public health problem in Brazil. The analysis based on the SIH can provide an important input to pneumococcal disease surveillance and the impact assessment of immunization programs.

‣ Spatial analysis of leprosy incidence and associated socioeconomic factors

Cury,Maria Rita de Cassia Oliveira; Paschoal,Vania Del´Arco; Nardi,Susilene Maria Tonelli; Chierotti,Ana Patrícia; Rodrigues Júnior,Antonio Luiz; Chiaravalloti-Neto,Francisco
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2012 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To identify clusters of the major occurrences of leprosy and their associated socioeconomic and demographic factors. METHODS: Cases of leprosy that occurred between 1998 and 2007 in São José do Rio Preto (southeastern Brazil) were geocodified and the incidence rates were calculated by census tract. A socioeconomic classification score was obtained using principal component analysis of socioeconomic variables. Thematic maps to visualize the spatial distribution of the incidence of leprosy with respect to socioeconomic levels and demographic density were constructed using geostatistics. RESULTS: While the incidence rate for the entire city was 10.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants annually between 1998 and 2007, the incidence rates of individual census tracts were heterogeneous, with values that ranged from 0 to 26.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Areas with a high leprosy incidence were associated with lower socioeconomic levels. There were identified clusters of leprosy cases, however there was no association between disease incidence and demographic density. There was a disparity between the places where the majority of ill people lived and the location of healthcare services. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial analysis techniques utilized identified the poorer neighborhoods of the city as the areas with the highest risk for the disease. These data show that health departments must prioritize politico-administrative policies to minimize the effects of social inequality and improve the standards of living...

‣ Factors associated to breastfeeding in the first hour of life: systematic review

Esteves,Tania Maria Brasil; Daumas,Regina Paiva; Oliveira,Maria Inês Couto de; Andrade,Carlos Augusto de Ferreira de; Leite,Iuri Costa
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 Português
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OBJECTIVE To identify independent risk factors for non-breastfeeding within the first hour of life. METHODS A systematic review of Medline, LILACS, Scopus, and Web of Science electronic databases, till August 30, 2013, was performed without restrictions on language or date of publishing. Studies that used regression models and provided adjusted measures of association were included. Studies in which the regression model was not specified or those based on specific populations regarding age or the presence of morbidities were excluded. RESULTS The search resulted in 155 articles, from which 18 met the inclusion criteria. These were conducted in Asia (9), Africa (5), and South America (4), between 1999 and 2013. The prevalence of breastfeeding within the first hour of life ranged from 11.4%, in a province of Saudi Arabia, to 83.3% in Sri Lanka. Cesarean delivery was the most consistent risk factor for non-breastfeeding within the first hour of life. “Low family income”, “maternal age less than 25 years”, “low maternal education”, “no prenatal visit”, “home delivery”, “no prenatal guidance on breastfeeding” and “preterm birth” were reported as risk factors in at least two studies. CONCLUSIONS Besides the hospital routines...

‣ Epidemiologic aspects of toxoplasmosis and evaluation of its seroprevalence in pregnant women

Fonseca,Amanda Luiza; Silva,Reysla Andrade; Fux,Blima; Madureira,Ana Paula; Sousa,Fabrizio Furtado de; Margonari,Carina
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2012 Português
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INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to analyze the exposure to risk factors for toxoplasmosis disease and the level of knowledge in pregnant women who were treated by the Public Health Care System (SUS) from October 2007 to September 2008 in Divinópolis City, Brazil. METHODS: We analyzed 2,136 prenatal exams of pregnant women that were treated from October 2007 to September 2008. RESULTS: Out of the 2,136 pregnant women evaluated, 200 answered a quantitative questionnaire; 49.5% were seropositive for immunoglobulin (Ig) G and 3.6% for IgM. Comparative analysis of congenital toxoplasmosis cases were evaluated in 11 regions and showed an irregular distribution (p < 0.01). This difference was also observed among the pregnant women observed in each location. The results from the questionnaire show that 93% of the pregnant women had no knowledge about toxoplasmosis, and 24% presented with positive serology, but no clinical manifestation. Analysis for pregnant IgG-positive women and the presence of pets showed a statistically significant correlation (p < 0.05), suggesting that the transmission of this disease might occur in the domestic environment. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest the implementation of a triage program for pregnant women and health education to encourage their use of SUS services.

‣ Paracoccidioidomycosis in a western Brazilian Amazon State: Clinical-epidemiologic profile and spatial distribution of the disease

Vieira,Gabriel de Deus; Alves,Thaianne da Cunha; Lima,Sônia Maria Dias de; Camargo,Luís Marcelo Aranha; Sousa,Camila Maciel de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 Português
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Introduction: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a systemic infection caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. PCM is considered one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Methods: This is a clinical, epidemiological, retrospective, quantitative study of PCM cases in patients attending the National Health Service in the State of Rondônia in 1997-2012. The examined variables included sex, age group, year of diagnosis, education level, profession, place of residence, diagnostic test, prior treatment, medication used, comorbidities and case progress. Results: During the study period, 2,163 PCM cases were registered in Rondônia, and the mean annual incidence was 9.4/100,000 people. The municipalities with the highest rates were located in the southeastern region of Rondônia, and the towns of Pimenteiras do Oeste and Espigão do Oeste had the highest rates in the state, which were 39.1/100,000 and 37.4/100,000 people, respectively. Among all cases, 90.2% and 9.8% were observed in men and women, respectively, and most cases (58.2%) were observed in patients aged between 40 and 59 years. Itraconazole was used to treat 91.6% (1,771) of cases, followed by sulfamethoxazole in combination with trimethoprim (4.4% [85] of cases). One hundred thirty-one (6%) patients died. Conclusions: The State of Rondônia has a high incidence of PCM...

‣ Epidemiological risk sratification of malaria in the Américas

Castillo-Salgado,Carlos
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/1992 Português
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During the last years, malaria had a significant increase in Latin America, emerging again as one critical health problem in the Region of the Americas. More than 1.04 million new cases were reported in 1990. This resurgence of malaria needed a comprehensive strategy for its prevention and control. National malaria control programs recognized the epidemiological stratification of malaria as a valuable method to assist them in the recognition of local variations and factors that specifically contribute to the level and intensity of transmission in critical malarious areas. Also it serves as a useful instrument for the selection of needed malaria prevention and control activities. The principal feature of this approach is to provide a dynamic and ongoing process for assessing in the epidemiological importance of different risk factors (socio-economic, ecological, organizatuion of health services) in malaria transmission. health interventions are based on this assesment and are aimed directly at the reduction or elimination of the identified risk factors operating at the local level. Intersectorial co-participation and the integration of malaria programs in local health services are also important aspects of this public health approach.

‣ Schistosomiasis mansoni: follow-up of control program based on parasitologic and serologic methods in a Brazilian community of low endemicity

Burlandy-Soares,Lanny Cristina; Dias,Luiz Cândido de Souza; Kanamura,Hermínia Yohko; Oliveira,Edward José de; Ciaravolo,Ricardo Mario
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2003 Português
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A field survey on schistosomiais was carried out in 1998, in the municipality of Pedro de Toledo, a low endemic area in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. According to the parasitologic Kato-Katz method, the prevalence rate was 1.6%, with an infection intensity of 40.9 eggs per gram of stool. By the immunofluorescence test (IFT) for detection of IgG and IgM antibodies in the serum, IgG-IFT and IgM-IFT, respectively, prevalence indices of 33.2% and 33.5% were observed. To assess the impact of the schistosomiasis control program in the area, parasitologic and serologic data obtained in 1998, analyzed according to the age, sex, and residence zone, were compared to previous data obtained in a epidemiologic study carried out in 1980, when prevalence indices were of 22.8% and 55.5%, respectively by Kato-Katz and IgG-IFT. A significant fall of the prevalence was observed, indicating that the control measures were effective. Nonetheless, residual transmission was observed, demonstrating the need for a joint effort to include new approaches for better understanding the real situation and improving the control of the disease in low endemic areas.

‣ Development of a food frequency questionnaire in a probabilistic sample of adults from Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Anjos,Luiz Antonio dos; Wahrlich,Vivian; Vasconcellos,Mauricio Teixeira Leite de; Souza,Danielle Ribeiro de; Olinto,Maria Teresa Anselmo; Waissmann,William; Henn,Ruth Liane; Rossato,Sinara Laurini; Lourenço,Ana Eliza Port; Bressan,Ana Weigert
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2010 Português
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With the purpose of generating a list of foods for a food-frequency questionnaire, data from 24h dietary recalls on a typical day from a probabilistic sample of 1,724 adults of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were analyzed. The frequency of food intake, the total intake of energy and macronutrients and the relative contribution of each food item to total energy and macronutrient intake were calculated. The most frequently reported food items (> 50% of adults) were rice, coffee, beans, refined canesugar, and bread. Whole milk was consumed more frequently then skimmed milk or semi-skimmed milk. Beef was consumed by more adults than chicken, pork or fish. Approximately 90% of energy and macronutrients intake was explained by 65 food items. The list of food items generated in the present analysis is similar to those found in other samples of adults from urban areas in Brazil. It may be possible to generate a core list of common foods with addition of regional foods to be used nationally in urban areas of the country.

‣ Fundamental steps in experimental design for animal studies

Aguilar-Nascimento,José Eduardo de
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2005 Português
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Animal studies continue to have a vital role in science development. The aim of this review is to provide to new investigators an overview of the important steps involved in experimental designs and also to suggest some practical information that is commonly associated with this process. Investigators should adhere to the ethical procedure and follow strictly the scientific method. Both the aims and well-formulated hypothesis are essential and practical. In this regard a profound literature search and the aid of an experienced statistician is encouraged. The need of randomization, blinding, and attempting to minimize variation is discussed and recommended. The choosing of good control groups and the employment of pilot studies are useful. Finally, the formulation of new questions to be further responded is expected.

‣ Basal cell carcinoma: an updated epidemiological and therapeutically profile of an urban population

Bariani,Roberta Lopes; Nahas,Fábio Xerfan; Barbosa,Marcus Vinícius Jardini; Farah,Andréia Bufoni; Ferreira,Lydia Masako
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2006 Português
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PURPOSE: To describe the epidemiological profile of basal cell carcinoma patients at a private hospital in São Paulo and to evaluate the treatment adopted. METHODS: A prospective study of 202 patients, on which 253 lesions were diagnosed for histopathological exam as basal cell carcinoma within the period of January 2001 to September 2003, in the Plastic Surgery Residency Program at the Hospital Jaraguá. The susceptibility factor of the host, the environment variables, the characteristics of the lesions and the efficacy of the treatment were examined. The data were statistically evaluated. RESULTS: The incidence of basal cell carcinoma was 126 cases per 100,000 patients in a period of 32 months (36 cases per 100,000 patients/year). The patients were evenly distributed in terms of sex: 48% male and 52% female. The greater incidence was in patients between the ages of 60 and 80 years and the average was 64 years. The survey revealed susceptibility factors such as white race and phototypes I and II in 95.5% of the patients. Exposition to ultraviolet radiation was reported by 77% of the patients and the most frequent location of tumors was on the face (71.2% of the cases). Actinic keratosis and a history of skin cancer were reported in 43.6% and in 25% of the cases...

‣ Social and environmental factors associated with the hospitalization of tuberculosis patients

Oliveira,Nathália França de; Gonçalves,Maria Jacirema Ferreira
Fonte: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto / Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2013 Português
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OBJECTIVE: to identify social and environmental factors associated with hospitalization of tuberculosis (TB) patients in Manaus, Amazonas, during 2010. METHODS: this is a quantitative cross-sectional epidemiological study, with primary data collection and analysis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), based on seropositive status. RESULTS: Among social factors for TB-HIV co-infection, the association between alcohol use and dependence was significant for employed workers; among non-co-infections, the association between income less than one minimum wage (U.S. $200) and retired people, Bolsa Família Program [Family Allowance]/other social benefits was significant. Regarding environmental factors, the association was significant for TB-HIV co-infection among those not having their own house, having masonry housing and daily garbage collection; and among non-co-infection, owning their own house, no masonry housing and lack of daily garbage collection was significant. CONCLUSION: The findings indicated that not only social factors, but also environmental ones are associated with hospitalization of tuberculosis patients, and such associations differ according to TB-HIV co-infection. Findings revealed that the non-biological factors associated with hospitalization of tuberculosis patients should be considered when caring patients with this disease.

‣ Epidemiologic study of ankle fractures in a tertiary hospital

Sakaki,Marcos Hideyo; Matsumura,Bruno Akio Rodrigues; Dotta,Thiago De Angelis Guerra; Pontin,Pedro Augusto; Santos,Alexandre Leme Godoy dos; Fernandes,Tulio Diniz
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Ortopedia e Traumatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Ortopedia e Traumatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
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OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the epidemiology of ankle fractures surgically treated at the Instituto de Ortopedia e Traumatologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo. METHODS: Medical records of patients admitted with foot and ankle fractures between 2006 and 2011 were revised. Seventy three ankle fractures that underwent surgical treatment were identified. The parameters analyzed included age, gender, injured side, AO and Gustilo & Anderson classification, associated injuries, exposure, need to urgent treatment, time to definitive treatment and early post-operative complications. Study design: retrospective epidemiological study. RESULTS: Male gender was predominant among subjects and the mean age was 27.5 years old. Thirty nine fractures resulted from traffic accidents and type B fracture according to AO classification was the most common. Twenty one were open fractures and 22 patients had associated injuries. The average time to definitive treatment was 6.5 days. Early post-operative complications were found in 21.3% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Ankle fractures treated in a tertiary hospital of a large city in Brazil affect young people victims of high-energy accidents and present significant rates of associated injuries and post-operative complications. Level of Evidence IV...

‣ An overview of a diagnostic and epidemiologic reappraisal of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran

Farahmand,Mahin; Nahrevanian,Hossein; Shirazi,Hasti Atashi; Naeimi,Sabah; Farzanehnejad,Zahra
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2011 Português
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a widespread tropical infection which has a high incidence rate in Iran. Leishmania tropica, the causative agent of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), and Leishmania major, which causes zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), are endemic in various parts of Iran with a high incidence rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reappraisal of the diagnosis and epidemiology of CL in Iran, by different clinical, parasitological and molecular assays among patients suspected of CL referred to the Department of Parasitology, at the Pasteur Institute of Iran during 2006-2009. Two hundred samples from patients with ulcerative skin lesions were collected, clinical analyses were applied, data questionnaire was completed and samples were examined for CL by using both direct microscopic and culture methods. Moreover, PCR assay was applied for detection of Leishmania species in CL isolates resulting from parasitological assay. Clinical observation revealed that the majority (58%) of lesions was single; double lesions were observed in 22% of patients, and only 20% of CL had multiple lesions. Out of 200 patients, Leishman body was observed in 77 samples (38.5%) by direct smear and 40% by cultivation assay. Most patients (21.3%) had a travel history to the Isfahan province...