Página 20 dos resultados de 1440 itens digitais encontrados em 0.032 segundos

‣ Comparison of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, radioimmunoassay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods for measurement of urinary estrogens

Faupel-Badger, Jessica M.; Fuhrman, Barbara J.; Xu, Xia; Falk, Roni T.; Keefer, Larry K.; Veenstra, Timothy D.; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Absolute and relative concentrations of estrogens and estrogen metabolites (EM) are important for clinical decisions, as well as for epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical research on hormonal carcinogenesis. Radioimmunoassays (RIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) are routinely used for measuring EM in blood and urine due to efficiency and low cost. Here we compare absolute and ranked concentrations of estrone, estradiol, and estriol measured by indirect RIA and of 2-hydroxyestrone and 16α-hydroxyestrone measured by ELISA to the concentrations obtained using a novel liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method which measures 15 EM concurrently. We used overnight urine samples collected from control women (362 premenopausal, 168 postmenopausal) participating in a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among Asian-American women ages 20–55 years. When comparing RIA or ELISA levels to LC-MS/MS, absolute concentrations for the five EM ranged from 1.6–2.9 and 1.4–11.8 times higher in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively, (all p<0.0001). However, LC-MS/MS measurements were highly correlated [Spearman r (rs) =0.8–0.9] with RIA and ELISA measurements in premenopausal women...

‣ Methods for Investigating Gene-Environment Interactions in Candidate Pathway and Genome-Wide Association Studies

Thomas, Duncan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/04/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Despite the considerable enthusiasm about the yield of novel and replicated discoveries of genetic associations from the new generation of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the proportion of the heritability of most complex diseases that have been studied to date remains small. Some of this “dark matter” could be due to gene-environment (G×E) interactions or more complex pathways involving multiple genes and exposures. We review the basic epidemiologic study design and statistical analysis approaches to studying G×E interactions individually and then consider more comprehensive approaches to studying entire pathways or GWAS data. In addition to the usual issues in genetic association studies, particular care is needed in exposure assessment and very large sample sizes are required. Although hypothesis-driven pathway-based and “agnostic” GWAS approaches are generally viewed as opposite poles, we suggest that the two can be usefully married using hierarchical modeling strategies that exploit external pathway knowledge in mining genome-wide data.

‣ Invited Commentary: Human Papillomavirus Infection and Risk of Cervical Precancer—Using the Right Methods to Answer the Right Questions

Franco, Eduardo L.; Tota, Joseph
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Epidemiologists are well aware of the negative consequences of measurement error in exposure and outcome variables to their ability to detect putative causal associations. However, empirical proof that remedying the misclassification problem improves estimates of epidemiologic effect is seldom examined in detail. Of all areas in cancer epidemiology, perhaps the best example of the consequences of misclassification and of the steps taken to circumvent them was the pursuit, beginning in the mid-1980s, of the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection–cervical cancer association. The stakes were high: Had the wrong conclusions been reached epidemiologists would have been led astray in the search for competing hypotheses for the sexually transmissible agent causing cervical cancer or in ascribing to HPV infection a mere ancillary role among many lifestyle, hormonal, and environmental factors. The article by Castle et al. in this issue of the Journal (Am J Epidemiol. 2010;171(2):155–163) provides a detailed account of the joint influences of improved HPV and cervical precancer measurements in gradually unveiling the strong magnitude of the underlying association between viral exposure and cervical lesion risk. In this commentary, the authors extend the findings of Castle et al. by providing additional empirical evidence in support of their arguments.

‣ A comparison of methods to estimate the hazard ratio under conditions of time-varying confounding and nonpositivity

Naimi, Ashley I.; Cole, Stephen R.; Westreich, Daniel J.; Richardson, David B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
In occupational epidemiologic studies, the healthy-worker survivor effect refers to a process that leads to bias in the estimates of an association between cumulative exposure and a health outcome. In these settings, work status acts both as an intermediate and confounding variable, and may violate the positivity assumption (the presence of exposed and unexposed observations in all strata of the confounder). Using Monte Carlo simulation, we assess the degree to which crude, work-status adjusted, and weighted (marginal structural) Cox proportional hazards models are biased in the presence of time-varying confounding and nonpositivity. We simulate data representing time-varying occupational exposure, work status, and mortality. Bias, coverage, and root mean squared error (MSE) were calculated relative to the true marginal exposure effect in a range of scenarios. For a base-case scenario, using crude, adjusted, and weighted Cox models, respectively, the hazard ratio was biased downward 19%, 9%, and 6%; 95% confidence interval coverage was 48%, 85%, and 91%; and root MSE was 0.20, 0.13, and 0.11. Although marginal structural models were less biased in most scenarios studied, neither standard nor marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models fully resolve the bias encountered under conditions of time-varying confounding and nonpositivity.

‣ Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider

Blackburn, Brian G.; Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones
Fonte: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Publicador: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned.

‣ Recent advances in the genetic epidemiology and molecular genetics of substance use disorders

Kendler, Kenneth S; Chen, Xiangning; Dick, Danielle; Maes, Hermine; Gillespie, Nathan; Neale, Michael C; Riley, Brien
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/01/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
This article reviews current advances in the genetics of substance use disorders (SUDs). Both genetic and environmental sources of risk are required to develop a complete picture of SUD etiology. Genetic sources of risk for SUDs are not highly substance specific in their effects. Genetic and environmental risks for SUDs typically do not only add together but also interact with each other over development. Risk gene identification for SUDs has been difficult, with one recent success in identifying nicotinic receptor variants that affect risk for nicotine dependence. The impact of genetic variants on SUD risk will individually be small. Although genetic epidemiologic methods are giving us an increasingly accurate map of broad causal pathways to SUDs, gene discovery will be needed to identify the specific biological systems. Identifying these risk genes and understanding their action will require large clinical samples, and interaction between these studies and work in model organisms.

‣ Acute respiratory distress syndrome: epidemiology and management approaches

Walkey, Allan J; Summer, Ross; Ho, Vu; Alkana, Philip
Fonte: Dove Medical Press Publicador: Dove Medical Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/07/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Acute lung injury and the more severe acute respiratory distress syndrome represent a spectrum of lung disease characterized by the sudden onset of inflammatory pulmonary edema secondary to myriad local or systemic insults. The present article provides a review of current evidence in the epidemiology and treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, with a focus on significant knowledge gaps that may be addressed through epidemiologic methods.

‣ Molecular Epidemiologic Analysis and Antimicrobial Resistance of Helicobacter cinaedi Isolated from Seven Hospitals in Japan

Rimbara, Emiko; Mori, Shigetarou; Matsui, Mari; Suzuki, Satowa; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Shen, Zeli; Fox, James G.; Shibayama, Keigo
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Helicobacter cinaedi colonizes the colons of human and animals and can cause colitis, cellulitis, and sepsis in humans, with infections in immunocompromised patients being increasingly recognized. However, methods for analyzing the molecular epidemiology of H. cinaedi are not yet established. A genotyping method involving multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was developed and used to analyze 50 H. cinaedi isolates from Japanese hospitals in addition to 6 reference strains. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) results were also compared with the MLST results. Based on the genomic information from strain CCUG18818, 21 housekeeping genes were selected as candidates for MLST and were observed to have high homology (96.5 to 100%) between isolates. Following a comparison of the 21 housekeeping genes from 8 H. cinaedi isolates, 7 genes were chosen for MLST, revealing 14 sequence types (STs). The isolates from 3 hospitals belonged to the same STs, but the isolates from the other 4 hospitals belonged to different STs. Isolates belonging to ST6 were analyzed by PFGE and showed similar, but not identical, patterns between isolates. Isolates belonging to ST9, ST10, and ST11, which belonged to the same clonal complex, had the same pattern. All isolates were found to contain mutations in GyrA and the 23S rRNA gene that confer ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin resistance...

‣ Clinical and Epidemiologic Characteristics of Hospitalized Patients with 2009 H1N1 Influenza Infection

Nayman Alpat, Saygin; Usluer, Gaye; Ozgunes, Ilhan; Doyuk Kartal, Elif; Erben, Nurettin
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Objective. 2009 H1N1 virus is a new virus that was firstly detected in April 2009. This virus spreads from human to human and causes a worldwide disease. This paper aimed to review the clinical and epidemiological properties of patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza who were hospitalized and monitored at Eskisehir Osmangazi University Faculty of Medicine Hospital. Setting. A 1000-bed teaching hospital in Eskisehir, Turkey. Patients-Methods. Between 05 November 2009–01 February 2010, 106 patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza, who were hospitalized, were prospectively evaluated. Results. Out of 106 patients who were hospitalized and monitored, 99 (93.4%) had fever, 86 (81.1%) had cough, 48 (45.3%) had shortness of breath, 47 (44.3%) had sore throat, 38 (35.8%) had body pain, 30 (28.3%) had rhinorrhea, 17 (16%) had vomiting, 15 (14.2%) had headache, and 14 (13.2%) had diarrhea. When the patients were examined in terms of risk factors for severe disease, 83 (78.3%) patients had at least one risk factor. During clinical monitoring, pneumonia was the most frequent complication with a rate of 66%. While 47.2% of the patients were monitored in intensive care unit, 34% of them required mechanical ventilation support. Conclusion. Patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza...

‣ Design, Methods, and Population for a Study of PFOA Health Effects among Highly Exposed Mid-Ohio Valley Community Residents and Workers

Winquist, Andrea; Lally, Cathy; Shin, Hyeong-Moo; Steenland, Kyle
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Background: A cohort of community residents and workers is the basis for a series of epidemiologic studies of a Mid-Ohio Valley population with substantial perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) exposure due to releases from a chemical plant.

‣ Challenges for Standardization of Clostridium difficile Typing Methods

Huber, Charlotte A.; Foster, Niki F.; Riley, Thomas V.; Paterson, David L.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Typing of Clostridium difficile facilitates understanding of the epidemiology of the infection. Some evaluations have shown that certain strain types (for example, ribotype 027) are more virulent than others and are associated with worse clinical outcomes. Although restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis have been widely used in the past, PCR ribotyping is the current method of choice for typing of C. difficile. However, global standardization of ribotyping results is urgently needed. Whole-genome sequencing of C. difficile has the potential to provide even greater epidemiologic information than ribotyping.

‣ Urogenital Epithelial Cells as Simple Markers of Estrogen Response in Infants: Methods and Applications

Adgent, Margaret A.; Flake, Gordon P.; Umbach, David M.; Stallings, Virginia A.; Bernbaum, Judy C.; Rogan, Walter J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Exposure to estrogen-mimicking chemicals during critical periods of development, such as infancy, may have adverse effects. However, these effects can be difficult to characterize in most epidemiologic studies. For example, growth of reproductive organs may be susceptible to estrogenic chemicals, but measuring it requires skilled ultrasound examination; timing of pubertal onset may be altered, but observing it requires long-term follow up. To address the need for a simple marker of response to estrogenic exposures in infants, we propose a novel application of a classic marker of estrogen response in adult women: cytological evaluation of urogenital epithelial cells. In this cross-sectional study of 34 female and 41 male infants, we demonstrate that epithelial cells can be obtained from swabs of the vaginal introitus (females) and urethral meatus (males), as well as from spun urine, and that these cells respond to differential estrogenic conditions, as indicated by the relative abundance of the superficial epithelial cell type. To model varying estrogen exposure, we sampled from infants who were either newborn (highly exposed to maternal estrogens), or 12 weeks old (12W) (negligibly exposed to estrogen). Newborns had a higher percentage of superficial cells (%S)...

‣ Epidemiologic Methods of Assessing Asthma and Wheezing Episodes in Longitudinal Studies: Measures of Change and Stability

Soto-Ramírez, Nelís; Ziyab, Ali H.; Karmaus, Wilfried; Zhang, Hongmei; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh J.; Ewart, Susan; Arshad, Syed Hasan
Fonte: Japan Epidemiological Association Publicador: Japan Epidemiological Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/11/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%

‣ Interlaboratory Variability of Caspofungin MICs for Candida spp. Using CLSI and EUCAST Methods: Should the Clinical Laboratory Be Testing This Agent?

Espinel-Ingroff, A.; Arendrup, M. C.; Pfaller, M. A.; Bonfietti, L. X.; Bustamante, B.; Canton, E.; Chryssanthou, E.; Cuenca-Estrella, M.; Dannaoui, E.; Fothergill, A.; Fuller, J.; Gaustad, P.; Gonzalez, G. M.; Guarro, J.; Lass-Flörl, C.; Lockhart, S. R.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Although Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) clinical breakpoints (CBPs) are available for interpreting echinocandin MICs for Candida spp., epidemiologic cutoff values (ECVs) based on collective MIC data from multiple laboratories have not been defined. While collating CLSI caspofungin MICs for 145 to 11,550 Candida isolates from 17 laboratories (Brazil, Canada, Europe, Mexico, Peru, and the United States), we observed an extraordinary amount of modal variability (wide ranges) among laboratories as well as truncated and bimodal MIC distributions. The species-specific modes across different laboratories ranged from 0.016 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. albicans and C. tropicalis, 0.031 to 0.5 μg/ml for C. glabrata, and 0.063 to 1 μg/ml for C. krusei. Variability was also similar among MIC distributions for C. dubliniensis and C. lusitaniae. The exceptions were C. parapsilosis and C. guilliermondii MIC distributions, where most modes were within one 2-fold dilution of each other. These findings were consistent with available data from the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) (403 to 2,556 MICs) for C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis. Although many factors (caspofungin powder source...

‣ Transportation noise and annoyance related to road traffic in the French RECORD study

Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frédérique; Karusisi, Noëlla; Chaix, Basile
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Road traffic and related noise is a major source of annoyance and impairment to health in urban areas. Many areas exposed to road traffic noise are also exposed to rail and air traffic noise. The resulting annoyance may depend on individual/neighborhood socio-demographic factors. Nevertheless, few studies have taken into account the confounding or modifying factors in the relationship between transportation noise and annoyance due to road traffic. In this study, we address these issues by combining Geographic Information Systems and epidemiologic methods. Street network buffers with a radius of 500 m were defined around the place of residence of the 7290 participants of the RECORD Cohort in Ile-de-France. Estimated outdoor traffic noise levels (road, rail, and air separately) were assessed at each place of residence and in each of these buffers. Higher levels of exposure to noise were documented in low educated neighborhoods. Multilevel logistic regression models documented positive associations between road traffic noise and annoyance due to road traffic, after adjusting for individual/neighborhood socioeconomic conditions. There was no evidence that the association was of different magnitude when noise was measured at the place of residence or in the residential neighborhood. However...

‣ Pregnancy characteristics and maternal breast cancer risk: a review of the epidemiologic literature

Nechuta, Sarah; Paneth, Nigel; Velie, Ellen M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
The short- and long-term effects of pregnancy on breast cancer risk are well documented. Insight into potential biological mechanisms for these associations may be gained by studying breast cancer risk and pregnancy characteristics (e.g., preeclampsia, twining), which may reflect hormone levels during pregnancy. To date, no review has synthesized the published literature for pregnancy characteristics and maternal breast cancer using systematic search methods. We conducted a systematic search to identify all published studies. Using PUBMED (to 31 July 2009), 42 relevant articles were identified. Several studies suggest that multiple births may be associated with a lowered breast cancer risk of about 10–30%, but results were inconsistent across 18 studies. The majority of 13 studies suggest about a 20–30% reduction in risk with preeclampsia and/or gestational hypertension. Six of seven studies reported no association for infant sex and breast cancer risk. Data are sparse and conflicting for other pregnancy characteristics such as gestational age, fetal growth, pregnancy weight gain, gestational diabetes, and placental abnormalities. The most consistent findings in a generally sparse literature are that multiple births and preeclampsia may modestly reduce breast cancer risk. Additional research is needed to elucidate associations between pregnancy characteristics...

‣ Antiretroviral Treatment Interruption and Loss to Follow-Up in Two HIV Cohorts in Australia and Asia: Implications for ‘Test and Treat’ Prevention Strategy

Guy, Rebecca; Wand, Handan; McManus, Hamish; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Woolley, Ian; Honda, Miwako; Read, Tim; Sirisanthana, Thira; Zhou, Julian; Carr, on behalf of Australia HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and Treat Asia HIV Observation Database (TAHOD), And
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Both antiretroviral treatment interruption (TI) and cessation have been strongly discouraged since 2006. We describe the incidence, duration, and risk factors for TI and loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) rates across 13 countries. All 4689 adults (76% men) in two large HIV cohorts in Australia and Asia commencing combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to March 2010 were included. TI was defined by ART cessation >30 days, then recommencement, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) by no visit since 31 March 2009 and no record of death. Survival analysis and Poisson regression methods were used. With median follow-up of 4.4 years [interquartile range (IQR):2.1–6.5], TI incidence was 6.7 per 100 person years (PY) (95% CI:6.1–7.3) pre-2006, falling to 2.0 (95% CI:1.7–2.2) from 2006 (p<0.01). LTFU incidence was 3.5 per 100 PY (95% CI:3.1–3.9) pre-2006, and 4.1 (95% CI:3.5–4.9) from 2006 (p=0.22). TIs accounted for 6.4% of potential time on ART pre-2006 and 1.2% from 2006 (p<0.01), and LTFU 4.7% of potential time on ART pre-2006 and 6.6% from 2006 (p<0.01). Median TI duration was 163 (IQR: 75–391) days pre-2006 and 118 (IQR: 67–270) days from 2006 (p<0.01). Independent risk factors for the first TI were: Australia HIV Observational Database participation; ART initiation pre-2006; ART regimens including stavudine and didanosine; three nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors; ≥7 pills per day; and ART with food restrictions (fasting or with food). In conclusion...

‣ Epidemiologic methods for investigating male fecundity

Olsen, Jørn; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst
Fonte: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd Publicador: Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Fertility is a couple concept that has been measured since the beginning of demography, and male fecundity (his biological capacity to reproduce) is a component of the fertility rate. Unfortunately, we have no way of measuring the male component directly, although several indirect markers can be used. Population registers can be used to monitor the proportion of childless couples, couples who receive donor semen, trends in dizygotic twinning, and infertility diagnoses. Studies using time-to-pregnancy (TTP) may identify couple subfecundity, and TTP data will correlate with sperm quality and quantity as well as sexual activity and a number of other conditions. Having exposure data available for couples with a fecund female partner would make TTP studies of interest in identifying exposures that may affect male fecundity. Biological indicators such as sperm quality and quantity isolate the male component of fertility, and semen data therefore remain an important source of information for research. Unfortunately, often over half of those invited to provide a sperm sample will refuse, and the study is then subject to a selection that may introduce bias. Because the most important time windows for exposures that impair semen production could be early fetal life...

‣ Right-sided infective endocarditis: recent epidemiologic changes

Yuan, Shi-Min
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Background: Infective endocarditis (IE) has been increasingly reported, however, little is available regarding recent development of right-sided IE. Methods: Right-sided IE was comprehensively analyzed based on recent 5⅓-year literature. Results: Portal of entry, implanted foreign material, and repaired congenital heart defects were the main predisposing risk factors. Vegetation size on the right-sided valves was much smaller than those beyond the valves. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that predisposing risk factors, and vegetation size and locations were independent predictive risks of patients’ survival. Conclusions: Changes of right-sided IE in the past 5⅓ years included younger patient age, and increased vegetation size, but still prominent Staphylococcus aureus infections. Complication spectrum has changed into more valve insufficiency, more embolic events, reduced abscess formation, and considerably decreased valve perforations. With effective antibiotic regimens, prognoses of the patients seemed to be better than before.

‣ Brief Sexual Histories and Routine HIV/STD Testing by Medical Providers

Lanier, Yzette; Castellanos, Ted; Barrow, Roxanne Y.; Jordan, Wilbert C.; Caine, Virginia; Sutton, Madeline Y.
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
245.81158%
Clinicians who routinely take patient sexual histories have the opportunity to assess patient risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and make appropriate recommendations for routine HIV/STD screenings. However, less than 40% of providers conduct sexual histories with patients, and many do not receive formal sexual history training in school. After partnering with a national professional organization of physicians, we trained 26 (US and US territory-based) practicing physicians (58% female; median age=48 years) regarding sexual history taking using both in-person and webinar methods. Trainings occurred during either a 6-h onsite or 2-h webinar session. We evaluated their post-training experiences integrating sexual histories during routine medical visits. We assessed use of sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. All participating physicians reported improved sexual history taking and increases in documented sexual histories and routine HIV/STD screenings. Four themes emerged from the qualitative evaluations: (1) the need for more sexual history training; (2) the importance of providing a gender-neutral sexual history tool; (3) the existence of barriers to routine sexual histories/testing; and (4) unintended benefits for providers who were conducting routine sexual histories. These findings were used to develop a brief...