Página 21 dos resultados de 1440 itens digitais encontrados em 0.014 segundos

‣ Examining Targets for HIV Prevention: Intravaginal Practices in Urban Lusaka, Zambia

Alcaide, Maria L; Chisembele, Maureen; Mumbi, Miriam; Malupande, Emeria; Jones, Deborah
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/2014 Português
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Intravaginal practices (IVP) are the introduction of products inside the vagina for hygienic, health, or sexuality reasons. The influence of men and Alengizis, traditional marriage counselors for girls, in promoting IVP has not been explored. We conducted gender-concordant focus groups and key informant interviews with Alengizis. The responses were conducted grouped into three themes: (1) cultural norms, (2) types and reasons for IVP, and (3) health consequences. We found that IVP were used by all participants in our sample and were taught from generation to generation by friends, relatives, or Alengizis. The reasons for women to engage in IVP were hygienic, though men expect women to engage in IVP to enhance sexual pleasure. Approximately 40% of women are aware that IVP can facilitate genital infections, but felt they would not feel clean discontinuing IVP. All men were unaware of the vaginal damage caused by IVP, and were concerned about the loss of sexual pleasure if women discontinued IVP. Despite the health risks of IVP, IVP continue to be widespread in Zambia and an integral component of hygiene and sexuality. The frequency of IVP mandates exploration into methods to decrease or ameliorate their use as an essential component of HIV prevention.

‣ Carrier Frequency of the c.525delT Mutation in the SGCG Gene and Estimated Prevalence of Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2C Among the Moroccan Population

El Kerch, Fatiha; Ratbi, Ilham; Sbiti, Aziza; Laarabi, Fatima-Zohra; Barkat, Amina; Sefiani, Abdelaziz
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2014 Português
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Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (AR-LGMDs) are characterized by clinical and genetic heterogeneity. LGMD type 2C, or γ-sarcoglycanopathy, is the most frequent in North African populations as a result of the founder c.525delT mutation in the SGCG gene. Its epidemiology is poorly known in Morocco, and its prevalence among the Moroccan population has never been evaluated. This study screened 26 patients with a LGMD2C and 45 patients with an AR-LGMD phenotype for the c.525delT mutation. DNA extracted from umbilical cord blood samples of 250 newborns was tested for the same mutation. Molecular epidemiologic methods were used to calculate the frequency of heterozygotes for this mutation in Moroccan newborns and to estimate the prevalence of LGMD2C in the Moroccan population. The carrier frequency was estimated to be 1/250, which would imply that the prevalence of LGMD2C would be approximately 1/20,492 considering the effect of consanguinity. The homozygous c.525delT mutation was found in 65% of all patients with AR-LGMDs. These findings suggest that AR-LGMDs are prevalent in the Moroccan population and LGMD2C is one of the most common forms. This information might be useful for the development of diagnostic strategies on a large scale for better management of patients with AR-LGMD and genetic counseling of families.

‣ What to do with chronically sick animals? Pastoralists’ management strategies in the far north region of Cameroon

Profitós, Jessica M Healy; Moritz, Mark; Garabed, Rebecca B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/03/2013 Português
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While the goal of African pastoralists is health and longevity of herd and household, some of their management strategies appear to counter this long-term goal. Pastoralists in the far north region of Cameroon, for example, do not always remove chronically sick animals from their herds, even though chronic diseases, such as brucellosis, are contagious and have the potential to cause fertility problems in the herd. We used ethnographic and epidemiologic methods to understand why pastoralists do not remove chronically sick animals and whether their management strategies have an impact on herd fertility. We used semi-structured interviews to collect data on pastoralists’ understandings of disease and its impacts on fertility as well as data on herd management. We compared these data with disease prevalence and herd fertility data to measure the effect of management strategies on herd fertility. We found that the percentage of chronically sick animals in a herd negatively correlated with herd fertility, but this was not true for the prevalence of brucellosis. Thus, preliminary examination of disease costs and benefits suggests that herders’ decisions to keep sick animals in their herds may lower herd fertility, but this is not due to brucellosis alone. The results of this study underline the complexity of infectious disease ecology in pastoral systems and the need for holistic and comprehensive studies of the ecology of infectious diseases in pastoral systems.

‣ Meta-epidemiology

Bae, Jong-Myon
Fonte: Korean Society of Epidemiology Publicador: Korean Society of Epidemiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/09/2014 Português
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The concept of meta-epidemiology has been introduced with considering the methodological limitations of systematic review for intervention trials. The paradigm of meta-epidemiology has shifted from a statistical method into a new methodology to close gaps between evidence and practice. Main interest of meta-epidemiology is to control potential biases in previous quantitative systematic reviews and draw appropriate evidences for establishing evidence-base guidelines. Nowadays, the network meta-epidemiology was suggested in order to overcome some limitations of meta-epidemiology. To activate meta-epidemiologic studies, implementation of tools for risk of bias and reporting guidelines such as the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT) should be done.

‣ Detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in clinical samples: Evolving methods and strategies for the accurate determination of HPV status of head and neck carcinomas

Westra, William H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Much recent attention has highlighted a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) related to human papillomavirus (HPV) that has an epidemiologic, demographic, molecular and clinical profile which is distinct from non-HPV-related HNSCC. The clinical significance of detecting HPV in a HNSCC has resulted in a growing expectation for HPV testing of HNSCCs. Although the growing demand for routine testing is understandable and appropriate, it has impelled an undisciplined approach that has been largely unsystematic. The current state of the art has now arrived at a point where a better understanding of HPV-related tumorigenesis and a growing experience with HPV testing can now move wide scale, indiscriminant and non-standardized testing towards a more directed, clinically relevant and standardized approach. This review will address the current state of HPV detection; and will focus on why HPV testing is important, when HPV testing is appropriate, and how to test for the presence of HPV in various clinical samples. As no single test has been universally accepted as a best method, this review will consider the strengths and weaknesses of some of the more commonly used assays, and will emphasize some emerging techniques that may improve the efficiency of HPV testing of clinical samples including cytologic specimens.

‣ Overdiagnosis: epidemiologic concepts and estimation

Bae, Jong-Myon
Fonte: Korean Society of Epidemiology Publicador: Korean Society of Epidemiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/02/2015 Português
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Overdiagnosis of thyroid cancer was propounded regarding the rapidly increasing incidence in South Korea. Overdiagnosis is defined as ‘the detection of cancers that would never have been found were it not for the screening test’, and may be an extreme form of lead bias due to indolent cancers, as is inevitable when conducting a cancer screening programme. Because it is solely an epidemiological concept, it can be estimated indirectly by phenomena such as a lack of compensatory drop in post-screening periods, or discrepancies between incidence and mortality. The erstwhile trials for quantifying the overdiagnosis in screening mammography were reviewed in order to secure the data needed to establish its prevalence in South Korea.

‣ Sex-Differences in Lung Cancer Cell-Types? An Epidemiologic Study in Ireland

Clancy, Luke; Kabir, Zubair; Connolly, Gregrory N.
Fonte: The Ulster Medical Society Publicador: The Ulster Medical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Objective: This study assesses the epidemiological pattern of lung cancer cell-types in Ireland, with identification of any underlying gender variations. Methods: Lung cancer incidence data, including the major cell-types: squamous-cell-carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma (AC), small-cell-lung-carcinoma (SCLC) and large-cell-carcinoma (LCC) were obtained from the national cancer registry (1994–2000), together with individual characteristics, such as age, gender, smoking status, and the year of diagnosis. Age-standardised incidence rates (ASIR), male-to-female (M: F) rate ratios (RR) of ASIR for SCC and AC, as well as RR of AC: SCC according to smoking status for both sexes, were estimated. Estimated-annual-percent-changes for each of the cell-types were calculated. Results: AC incidence in females is rising annually (8.5%, p=0.008) from 1994 to 2000, while SCC is declining (−5.4%, p=0.01) in males. M: F ratios of ASIR are consistently greater than ‘one’, but converging recently. RR of AC: SCC is also approaching ‘unity’ across both sexes, irrespective of the smoking status. Conclusions: An apparent increase in lung AC incidence in females was observed in Ireland that might indicate some local environmental risk factors, in addition to changing smoking habits. The study findings do not support the hypothesis that females in general are at higher risk for lung cancer development...

‣ The Zelnorm Epidemiologic Study (ZEST): A Cohort Study Evaluating Incidence of Abdominal and Pelvic Surgery Related to Tegaserod Treatment

Quinn, Sherry; Earnest, David L; Rivero, Elena; Seeger, John; Lembo, Anthony J.; Kuo, Braden; Walker, Alexander M.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Pre-marketing clinical studies of tegaserod suggested an increased risk of abdominal surgery, particularly cholecystectomy. We sought to quantify the association between tegaserod use and the occurrence of abdominal or pelvic surgery, including cholecystectomy. Methods: This cohort study was conducted within an insured population. Tegaserod initiators and similar persons who did not initiate tegaserod were followed for up to six months for the occurrence of abdominal or pelvic surgery. Surgical procedures were identified from health insurance claims validated by review of medical records. The incidence of confirmed outcomes was compared using both as-matched and as-treated analyses. Results: Among 2,762 tegaserod initiators, there were 94 abdominal or pelvic surgeries (36 gallbladder): among 2,762 comparators there were 134 abdominal or pelvic surgeries (37 gallbladder) (hazard ratio HR] = 0.70, 95% confidence interval [C.I.] = 0.54-0.91 overall, HR = 0.98, 95% C.I. = 0.62-1.55 for gallbladder). Current tegaserod exposure compared to nonexposure was associated with a rate ratio [RR] of 0.68 (95% C.I. = 0.48-0.95) overall, while the RR was 0.99 (95% C.I. = 0.56-1.77) for gallbladder surgery. Conclusions: In this study, tegaserod use was not found to increase the risk of abdominal or pelvic surgery nor the specific subset of gallbladder surgery.

‣ Skin cancer screening participation and impact on melanoma incidence in Germany – an observational study on incidence trends in regions with and without population-based screening

Waldmann, A; Nolte, S; Weinstock, M A; Breitbart, E W; Eisemann, N; Geller, Alan Charles; Greinert, R; Volkmer, B; Katalinic, A
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: The SCREEN (Skin Cancer Research to provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) project involved population-wide skin cancer screening with whole-body examination by general physicians and dermatologists. It was conducted in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein (July 2003–June 2004), but not in the German state of Saarland. Methods: The population-based registries of Schleswig-Holstein and Saarland provided data on melanoma incidence before, during, and after SCREEN to assess the association of skin cancer screening with incidence. Results: Approximately 19% of the Schleswig-Holstein population participated in SCREEN (women: 27%, men: 10%). A total of 52% of all melanomas diagnosed during SCREEN in Schleswig-Holstein were detected as part of the project. Melanoma incidence increased during SCREEN (invasive melanoma in women: +8.9 per 100 000 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 6.1; 11.7); men: +4.0 per 100 000 (95% CI: 1.6; 6.4)) and decreased afterwards (women: −10.6 per 100 000 (95% CI: −13.3; −7.9); men: −4.1 per 100 000 (95% CI: −6.5; −1.7)). Similar changes were not observed in Saarland that had no such project. The differences between the two states were greatest among women, the group with the greater SCREEN participation. Conclusion: The SCREEN project had a substantial impact on melanoma incidence. This is consistent with the impact of effective screening for other cancers.

‣ Multivariate epidemiologic analysis of type 2 diabetes mellitus risks in the Lebanese population

Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Deeb, Mary; Salloum, Angelique K; Mouzaya, Francis; Haber, Marc; Al-Sarraj, Yasser; Chami, Youssef; Akle, Yasmine; Hirbli, Kamal; Nemr, Rita; Ahdab, Rechdi; Platt, Daniel E; Abchee, Antoine B; El-Shanti, Hatem; Zalloua, Pierre
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: The burden of diabetes in Lebanon requires well-targeted interventions for screening type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and prediabetes and prevention of risk factors. Newly recruited 998 Lebanese individuals, in addition to 7,292 already available, were studied to investigate the prevalence of diabetes, prediabetes and their associated risk factors. Methods: Participants had fasting blood sugar and glycohemoglobin tests in addition to a lipid profile. Clinical and demographic information were obtained from a detailed questionnaire. The relationship between T2DM, its risk factors, and its complications were tested. Comparisons of these risk factors among diabetics, healthy, and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients were performed. Results: The prevalence of T2DM significantly increased with increasing BMI (p < 0.0001). Exercise activity level negatively correlated with the disease (p = 0.002), whereas the prevalence of T2DM (p < 0.0001) and CAD family history (p = 0.006) positively correlated with the affection status. The mean levels of triglycerides and LDL-C were significantly higher in diabetics (1.87; 1.35) compared to individuals with prediabetes (1.63; 1.26) and unaffected controls (1.49; 1.19). People with T2DM showed a significant decrease in HDL-C levels. A strong correlation of overall hyperlipidemia with the diabetes affection status was shown (p < 0.0001). Other comorbid factors such as hypertension (p < 0.0001) and self-reported obesity (p < 0.0001) were highly associated with T2DM and prediabetes. Reproductive health of women showed a strong correlation between giving birth to a baby with a high weight and the occurrence of T2DM and prediabetes later in life (p < 0.0001). Retinopathy and peripheral neuropathy were significantly correlated with diabetes and prediabetes (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The present study shows an alarming prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in the studied subgroups representative of the Lebanese population. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1758-5996-6-89) contains supplementary material...

‣ Epidemiologic Investigation of a Cluster of Neuroinvasive Bacillus cereus Infections in 5 Patients With Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

Rhee, Chanu; Klompas, Michael; Tamburini, Fiona B.; Fremin, Brayon J.; Chea, Nora; Epstein, Lauren; Halpin, Alison Laufer; Guh, Alice; Gallen, Rachel; Coulliette, Angela; Gee, Jay; Hsieh, Candace; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Pedamullu, Chandra Sekhar; DeA
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background. Five neuroinvasive Bacillus cereus infections (4 fatal) occurred in hospitalized patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) during a 9-month period, prompting an investigation by infection control and public health officials. Methods. Medical records of case-patients were reviewed and a matched case-control study was performed. Infection control practices were observed. Multiple environmental, food, and medication samples common to AML patients were cultured. Multilocus sequence typing was performed for case and environmental B cereus isolates. Results. All 5 case-patients received chemotherapy and had early-onset neutropenic fevers that resolved with empiric antibiotics. Fever recurred at a median of 17 days (range, 9–20) with headaches and abrupt neurological deterioration. Case-patients had B cereus identified in central nervous system (CNS) samples by (1) polymerase chain reaction or culture or (2) bacilli seen on CNS pathology stains with high-grade B cereus bacteremia. Two case-patients also had colonic ulcers with abundant bacilli on autopsy. No infection control breaches were observed. On case-control analysis, bananas were the only significant exposure shared by all 5 case-patients (odds ratio, 9.3; P = .04). Five environmental or food isolates tested positive for B cereus...

‣ Evolu????o da pesquisa epidemiol??gica em atividade f??sica no Brasil: revis??o sistem??tica

Hallal, Pedro Curi; Dumith, Samuel de Carvalho; Bastos, Juliano Peixoto; Reichert, Felipe Fossati; Siqueira, Fernando Vinholes; Azevedo, Mario Renato
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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OBJETIVO: Descrever a evolu????o da pesquisa epidemiol??gica em atividade f??sica no Brasil. M??TODOS: Revis??o sistem??tica da literatura, realizada em bases de dados eletr??nicas (Medline/PubMed, Lilacs, Ovid, Science Direct, BioMed Central e High Wire), em peri??dicos nacionais n??o indexados, por busca espec??fi ca por autores e contato com pesquisadores. A sele????o dos artigos teve como crit??rios de inclus??o: amostra representativa de alguma popula????o defi nida; tamanho da amostra de pelo menos 500 indiv??duos; coleta de dados realizada no Brasil; mensura????o de atividade f??sica e relato dos resultados com base nessa vari??vel. RESULTADOS: Foram inclu??dos 42 estudos. O primeiro artigo foi publicado em 1990, observando-se tend??ncia de aumento de publica????es a partir de 2000. Foi detectada disparidade regional nas publica????es, com concentra????o de estudos nas regi??es Sudeste e Sul. A maioria dos estudos (93%) utilizou question??rios como instrumentos de pesquisa, cujos conte??dos variaram, assim como as defi ni????es operacionais de sedentarismo, difi cultando a compara????o dos resultados. CONCLUS??ES: Embora a literatura em epidemiologia da atividade f??sica venha crescendo quantitativamente no Brasil, limita????es metodol??gicas dificultam a compara????o entre os estudos...

‣ Medo de dentista na inf??ncia: preval??ncia e fatores associados em uma coorte de nascimentos no sul do Brasil; Dental fear in childhood: prevalence and associated factors in a birth cohort in the south of Brazil

FERRO, Renata da Luz
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Odontologia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Odontologia; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Odontologia; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Odontologia; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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Dental fear is considered a barrier for the achievement of dental treatments and it can effect negatively in the oral health of children. It is important to investigate the most associated factors to this condition. Objective: Describe the prevalence of dental fear in 5-year-old children and to explore its association with directly related factors to the child and the indirect variables, which are especially related to the mother. Methods: A crosssectional study in a birth cohort initiated in 2004 in Pelotas, Brazil. In the fifth year of life, a sample (n = 1129) on dental fear was investigated and measured through the use of the Dental Anxiety Question (DAQ). Socioeconomic, demographic and behavioral characteristics and dental service use of the mother were investigated as well as the dental experience and oral conditions of the children were assessed. Results: The prevalence of dental fear in children was 16.8%. In the final model, the following variables associated with the outcome were included: maternal education, family income, child gender, past dental experience, the presence of caries and pain, and reasons, location and the age of the child during the first dental visit, After the adjustment, the outcome was associated with the following conditions: the presence of caries...

‣ Environnement alimentaire local et son association avec les habitudes alimentaires de personnes âgées

Mercille, Geneviève
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Contexte : Un accès adéquat aux aliments sains dans les environnements résidentiels peut contribuer aux saines habitudes alimentaires. Un tel accès est d’autant plus important pour les personnes âgées, où les changements associés au vieillissement peuvent accentuer leur dépendance aux ressources disponibles dans le voisinage. Cependant, cette relation n’a pas encore été établie chez les aînés. Objectifs : La présente thèse vise à quantifier les associations entre l’environnement alimentaire local et les habitudes alimentaires de personnes âgées vivant à domicile en milieu urbain. La thèse s’est insérée dans un projet plus large qui a apparié les données provenant d’une cohorte d’aînés québécois vivant dans la région métropolitaine montréalaise avec des données provenant d’un système d’information géographique. Trois études répondent aux objectifs spécifiques suivants : (1) développer des indices relatifs de mixité alimentaire pour qualifier l’offre d’aliments sains dans les magasins d’alimentation et l’offre de restaurants situés dans les quartiers faisant partie du territoire à l’étude et en examiner la validité; (2) quantifier les associations entre la disponibilité relative de magasins d’alimentation et de restaurants près du domicile et les habitudes alimentaires des aînés; (3) examiner l’influence des connaissances subjectives en nutrition dans la relation entre l’environnement alimentaire près du domicile et les habitudes alimentaires chez les hommes et les femmes âgés. Méthodes : Le devis consiste en une analyse secondaire de données transversales provenant de trois sources : les données du cycle 1 pour 848 participants de l’Étude longitudinale québécoise « La nutrition comme déterminant d’un vieillissement réussi » (2003-2008)...

‣ Validity of self-reported mechanical demands for occupational epidemiologic research of musculoskeletal disorders; Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment and Health

Barrero, Lope Hugo; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Katz, Jeffrey N.
Fonte: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana Publicador: Pontifícia Universidade Javeriana
Formato: 245-260
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35-4; Objectives To describe the relation of the measured validity of self-reported mechanical demands (self-reports) with the quality of validity assessments and the variability of the assessed exposure in the study population. Methods We searched for original articles, published between 1990 and 2008, reporting the validity of selfreports in three major databases: EEBSCOBSCOhost, Web of Science, and PubMed. Identified assessments were classified by methodological characteristics (eg, type of self-report and reference method) and exposure dimension was measured. We also classified assessments by the degree of comparability between the self-report and the employed reference method, and the variability of the assessed exposure in the study population. Finally, we examined the association of the published validity (r) with this degree of comparability, as well as with the variability of the exposure variable in the study population. Results Of the 490 assessments identified, 75% used observation-based reference measures and 55% tested self-reports of posture duration and movement frequency. Frequently, validity studies did not report demographic information (eg, education, age, and gender distribution). Among assessments reporting correlations as a measure of validity...

‣ Methodological Issues in the Study of the Socioeconomic Consequences of HIV/AIDS

Beegle, K.; De Weerdt, J.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Rigorous empirical research on the socioeconomic effects of AIDS is important for developing appropriate strategies to mitigate impacts and ultimately improve living standards. This paper provides a broad overview of the challenges in studying the impact of the epidemic on individuals, households and economies, drawing examples from existing studies. We start with a discussion of macro-economic studies and argue that they reach vastly different conclusions about the impact of AIDS, depending on what parameter assumptions they make. Whereas microstudies could provide insights into some of these parameters and effects, there are many technical hurdles to overcome. We discuss the use of comparator groups, spillover effects, longitudinal datasets and the time horizons of studies. Under scrutiny of these technical requirements, the existing empirical evidence of the impoverishing effects of AIDS deaths on African households seems unexpectedly limited. After many years of study, large gaps remain in the empirical literature with regard to our understanding of the magnitude and heterogeneity of these impacts. We conclude that the literature thus far has not convincingly shown that AIDS is the main contributor to low levels and high inequities of socioeconomic outcomes in Africa. Demand for research on the causal impact of HIV/AIDS on poverty is only increasing with the scaling up of antiretroviral treatment.

‣ Epidemiologic Features of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis among Reproductive-Age Women in India

Rathod, Sujit D.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Krupp, Karl; Rhinegold, Arthur R.; Madhivanan, Purnima
Fonte: FIU Digital Commons Publicador: FIU Digital Commons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Background. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is characterized by curd-like vaginal discharge and itching, and is associated with considerable health and economic costs. Materials and Methods. We examined the incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis among a cohort of 898 women in south India. Participants completed three study visits over six months, comprised of a structured interview and a pelvic examination. Results. The positive predictive values for diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis using individual signs or symptoms were low (<19%). We did not find strong evidence for associations between sociodemographic characteristics and the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Women clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis had a higher prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (Prevalence 12%, 95% CI 8.2, 15.8) compared to women assessed to be negative for bacterial vaginosis (Prevalence 6.5%, 95% 5.3, 7.6); however, differences in the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis were not observed by the presence or absence of laboratory-confirmed bacterial vaginosis. Conclusions. For correct diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis, laboratory confirmation of infection with Candida is necessary as well as assessment of whether the discharge has been caused by bacterial vaginosis. Studies are needed of women infected with Candida yeast species to determine the risk factors for yeast’s overgrowth.

‣ Epidemiological evidence for a relationship between life events, coping style, and personality factors in the development of breast cancer

Butow, P.; Hiller, J.; Price, M.; Thackway, S.; Kricker, A.; Tennant, C.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
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OBJECTIVE: Review empirical evidence for a relationship between psychosocial factors and breast cancer development. METHODS: Standardised quality assessment criteria were utilised to assess the evidence of psychosocial predictors of breast cancer development in the following domains: (a) stressful life events, (b) coping style, (c) social support, and (d) emotional and personality factors. RESULTS: Few well-designed studies report any association between life events and breast cancer, the exception being two small studies using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) reporting an association between severely threatening events and breast cancer risk. Seven studies show anger repression or alexithymia are predictors, the strongest evidence suggesting younger women are at increased risk. There is no evidence that social support, chronic anxiety, or depression affects breast cancer development. With the exception of rationality/anti-emotionality, personality factors do not predict breast cancer risk. CONCLUSION: The evidence for a relationship between psychosocial factors and breast cancer is weak. The strongest predictors are emotional repression and severe life events. Future research would benefit from theoretical grounding and greater methodological rigour. Recommendations are given.; Phyllis N Butow...

‣ A South Australian population-based study of congenital talipes equinovarus

Byron-Scott, R.; Sharpe, P.; Hasler, C.; Cundy, P.; Hirte, C.; Chan, A.; Scott, H.; Baghurst, P.; Haan, E.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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The aims of this study were to provide a population-based prevalence for congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), to conduct an epidemiological investigation into the risk factors for CTEV and describe associated features. The study used a retrospective case-control design of CTEV notified to the South Australian Birth Defects Register between 1986 and 1996 inclusive, linking characteristics of mother and baby from the perinatal data collection. The prevalence of isolated CTEV was 1.1/1000 total births (n = 231). Four factors were significantly associated with an increased risk of CTEV: maternal Aboriginal race (ORadj = 2.0; 95% CI 1.1, 3.6), male gender (ORadj = 2.4; 95% CI 1.8, 3.2), maternal anaemia (ORadj = 1.8; 95% CI 1.0, 2.9) and maternal hyperemesis (ORadj = 3.6; 95% CI 1.3, 9.8). The prevalence of CTEV associated with another birth defect or syndrome (n = 157) was 0.7/1000 total births. CTEV was associated with specific birth defects and also with oligohydramnios when another birth defect was present.; Byron‐scott, R. ; Sharpe, P. ; Hasler, C. ; Cundy, P. ; Hirte, C. ; Chan, A. ; Scott, H. ; Baghurst, P. ; Haan, E.

‣ Dental visiting among the Australian adult dentate population

Spencer, A.; Harford, J.
Fonte: Australian Dental Assn Inc Publicador: Australian Dental Assn Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Prepared by AJ Spencer and J Harford; The document attached has been archived with permission from the Australian Dental Association. An external link to the publisher’s copy is included.