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‣ Dietary calcium intake and overweight: an epidemiologic view

BUENO, Milena Baptista; CESAR, Chester Luiz Galvão; MARTINI, Lígia Araújo
Fonte: New York Publicador: New York
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the relation between overweight and calcium intake in adults living in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional population-based study on a sample of 1459 adults that was obtained by multistage cluster sampling. Dietary intake was measured by the 24-h recall method. Poisson's and linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relation between overweight and quartiles of calcium intake adjusted for energy. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 43.1% and the average adjusted calcium intake was 448.6 mg. In the linear regression analyses, the regression coefficient for adjusted calcium was significant and negative (P = 0.019, beta(1) = -0.0001). Although evaluated by quartiles, the prevalence ratio for overweight in the first quartile of calcium intake was 1.24 (95% confidence interval 1.00-1.54) and that in the second quartile was 1.24 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.49). CONCLUSION: In the present study, calcium intake showed a significant negative association with body mass index

‣ Performance of six diagnostic tests to screen for Chagas disease in blood banks and prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among donors with inconclusive serology screening based on the analysis of epidemiological variables

Pereira, Gilberto de Araujo; Louzada, Francisco; Barbosa, Valdirene de Fatima; Ferreira Silva, Márcia Maria; Moraes Souza, Helio de
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia e daSociedade Brasileira de Transplante de Medula Óssea Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia e daSociedade Brasileira de Transplante de Medula Óssea
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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OBJECTIVE: The frequent occurrence of inconclusive serology in blood banks and the absence of a gold standard test for Chagas'disease led us to examine the efficacy of the blood culture test and five commercial tests (ELISA, IIF, HAI, c-ELISA, rec-ELISA) used in screening blood donors for Chagas disease, as well as to investigate the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among donors with inconclusive serology screening in respect to some epidemiological variables. METHODS: To obtain estimates of interest we considered a Bayesian latent class model with inclusion of covariates from the logit link. RESULTS: A better performance was observed with some categories of epidemiological variables. In addition, all pairs of tests (excluding the blood culture test) presented as good alternatives for both screening (sensitivity > 99.96% in parallel testing) and for confirmation (specificity > 99.93% in serial testing) of Chagas disease. The prevalence of 13.30% observed in the stratum of donors with inconclusive serology, means that probably most of these are non-reactive serology. In addition, depending on the level of specific epidemiological variables, the absence of infection can be predicted with a probability of 100% in this group from the pairs of tests using parallel testing. CONCLUSION: The epidemiological variables can lead to improved test results and thus assist in the clarification of inconclusive serology screening results. Moreover...

‣ The epidemiologic paradox of low birth weight in Brazil; O paradoxo epidemiológico do baixo peso ao nascer no Brasil; La paradoja epidemiológica del bajo peso al nacer en Brasil

SILVA, Antônio Augusto Moura da; SILVA, Leopoldo Muniz da; BARBIERI, Marco Antonio; BETTIOL, Heloísa; CARVALHO, Luciana Mendes de; RIBEIRO, Valdinar Sousa; GOLDANI, Marcelo Zubaran
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the low birth weight (LBW) paradox exists in Brazil. METHODS: LBW and cesarean section rates between 1995 and 2007 were estimated based on data from SINASC (Brazilian Live Births Database). Infant mortality rates (IMRs) were obtained using an indirect method that correct for underreporting. Schooling information was obtained from census data. Trends in LBW rate were assessed using joinpoint regression models. The correlations between LBW rate and other indicators were graphically assessed by lowess regression and tested using Spearman's rank correlation. RESULTS: In Brazil, LBW rate trends were non-linear and non-significant: the rate dropped from 7.9% in 1995 to 7.7% in 2000, then increased to 8.2% in 2003 and remained nearly steady thereafter at 8.2% in 2007. However, trends varied among Brazilian regions: there were significant increases in the North from 1999 to 2003 (2.7% per year), and in the South (1.0% per year) and Central-West regions (0.6% per year) from 1995 to 2007. For the entire period studied, higher LBW and lower IMRs were seen in more developed compared to less developed regions. In Brazilian States, in 2005, the higher the IMR rate, the lower the LBW rate (p=0.009); the lower the low schooling rate...

‣ Spatial analysis of leprosy incidence and associated socioeconomic factors

de Cassia Oliveira Cury, Maria Rita; Paschoal, Vania Del'Arco; Tonelli Nardi, Susilene Maria; Chierotti, Ana Patricia; Rodrigues Junior, Antonio Luiz; Chiaravalloti Neto, Francisco
Fonte: REVISTA DE SAUDE PUBLICA; SAO PAULO Publicador: REVISTA DE SAUDE PUBLICA; SAO PAULO
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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OBJECTIVE: To identify clusters of the major occurrences of leprosy and their associated socioeconomic and demographic factors. METHODS: Cases of leprosy that occurred between 1998 and 2007 in Sao Jose do Rio Preto (southeastern Brazil) were geocodified and the incidence rates were calculated by census tract. A socioeconomic classification score was obtained using principal component analysis of socioeconomic variables. Thematic maps to visualize the spatial distribution of the incidence of leprosy with respect to socioeconomic levels and demographic density were constructed using geostatistics. RESULTS: While the incidence rate for the entire city was 10.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants annually between 1998 and 2007, the incidence rates of individual census tracts were heterogeneous, with values that ranged from 0 to 26.9 cases per 100,000 inhabitants per year. Areas with a high leprosy incidence were associated with lower socioeconomic levels. There were identified clusters of leprosy cases, however there was no association between disease incidence and demographic density. There was a disparity between the places where the majority of ill people lived and the location of healthcare services. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial analysis techniques utilized identified the poorer neighborhoods of the city as the areas with the highest risk for the disease. These data show that health departments must prioritize politico-administrative policies to minimize the effects of social inequality and improve the standards of living...

‣ Investigações epidemiológicas sobre demência nos países em desenvolvimento

Scazufca, M.; Cerqueira, Ana Teresa de Abreu Ramos; Menezes, P. R.; Prince, M.; Vallada, H. P.; Miyazaki, M. C. O. S.; Domingos, N. A. M.; Antunes, E. H.; Macedo, G. C.; Almeida, S. A.; Matsuda, C. M. C. B.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 773-778
Português
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Na medida em que a população mundial está envelhecendo, a demência está se constituindo em importante problema de saúde pública, particularmente nos países em desenvolvimento. Investigações epidemiológicas nestes países são escassas e apresentam dificuldades metodológicas adicionais, principalmente no que se refere à adequação sociocultural dos instrumentos utilizados para a definição de casos. Tendo em vista estas preocupações, foi fundado o Grupo de Pesquisa em Demência 10/66, que é constituído por uma rede internacional de pesquisadores, predominantemente de países em desenvolvimento. O nome do grupo tem como referência o paradoxo de que menos de 10% dos estudos populacionais sobre demência são dirigidos aos 2/3 ou mais de casos de pessoas com demência que vivem em países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo do artigo é atualizar informações da literatura sobre as diferenças de prevalência e incidência de demência encontradas em países desenvolvidos e em desenvolvimento.; As the world population is ageing, dementia becomes an important public health problem, particularly in developing countries. Epidemiological research in these settings is scarce and present additional methodological difficulties...

‣ Vigilancia pos-alta em cesareas : incidencia e fatores associados a infecção do sitio cirurgico; Postdischarge surveillance following cesarean section : the incidence of surgical site infection and associated factors

Meire Celeste Cardoso Del Monte
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/08/2009 Português
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Objetivo: Identificar a taxa de incidência de infecção do sítio cirúrgico (ISC) e fatores associados ao aparecimento desta infecção, em pacientes submetidas à cesárea em um hospital público, de ensino e terciário, através da vigilância pósalta. Sujeitos e Métodos: Foram admitidas no estudo 204 mulheres que realizaram cesárea no Centro de Atenção Integral à Saúde da mulher no período de maio de 2008 a março de 2009 e que possuíam telefone para contato. A pesquisadora abordava as mulheres durante sua internação e preenchia uma ficha para registrar os fatores associados às infecções pós-cesárea. Após a alta hospitalar, a pesquisadora ligava para essas mulheres 15 e 30 dias após a cirurgia, preenchendo um questionário para obter dados relativos à infecção pós-operatória. A análise estatística foi feita com o programa SAS versão 9.02, usando-se os testes qui-quadrado e exato de Fisher para variáveis categóricas e Mann-Whitney para variáveis numéricas. Um modelo de regressão logística para riscos de COX (RR), com critério de seleção de variáveis stepwise, foi utilizado para identificar os fatores associados a ISC. O RR e seu intervalo de confiança foram calculados e p<0,05 foi considerado significativo. Resultados: A amostra final foi de 187 mulheres. Dessa amostra 44 apresentaram uma ISC...

‣ Perfil epidemiologico e qualidade de vida das mulheres com incontinencia urinaria sus-dependentes, na região de Jau; Epidemiologic and quality of life of women with urinary incontinence, depending on public health system, in the region of Jau

Renata Cristina de Oliveira Souza Castro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/12/2005 Português
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Introdução - A maioria das pesquisas publicadas sobre incontinência urinária, oferecem poucas informações referentes de como é angustiante esse problema e as dificuldades do convívio social. No Brasil, é escassa a informação sobre a porcentagem de mulheres incontinentes, mas há previsão de que exista significativa parcela da população economicamente ativa no país sofrendo desses sintomas que, dependendo do caso, pode ser perfeitamente curável. Objetivos - Os objetivos deste estudo foram verificar o perfil epidemiológico e o impacto na Qualidade de Vida que envolve as pacientes com incontinência urinária que recorreram ao serviço de saúde pública na região de Jaú. Pacientes e Métodos - Cento e setenta mulheres com incontinência urinária foram entrevistadas e destas foram selecionadas 156, conforme critério de inclusão. Por meio de instrumento elaborado especificamente para este estudo,.analisaram-se os aspectos epidemiológicos como idade, escolaridade, cor da pele, gestação e tipos de parto, co-morbidades, tipo e tempo de queixa. A qualidade de vida foi avaliada com aplicação do "KING 'S HEALTH QUESTIONNAIRE'. Resultados -A faixa etária predominante da incontinência urinária foi entre 50 a 59 anos. O tipo de incontinência mais comum foi a mista com 99 (60...

‣ Prevalence and causes of blindness in an urban area of Paraguay

Yaacov-Peña,Fernando; Jure,David; Ocampos,José; Samudio,Margarita; Furtado,João Marcello; Carter,Marissa; Lansingh,Van Charles
Fonte: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia Publicador: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2012 Português
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PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness in Piribebuy, Paraguay. METHODS: A population based study was conducted from September to November 2007 in Piribebuy, Paraguay. Based on the city map, seven clusters were randomly selected, containing 22 to 36 squares (423 to 578 houses) each, where all subjects > 40 years old who agreed to participate were included in the study. Presenting vision acuity (VA) was obtained for each eye, with 'E' Snellen charts 6 meters far from the patient with appropriate light. Eyes with VA<20/60 were also tested with the pinhole. Objective and subjective refraction was performed, followed by examination of anterior segment under the slit-lamp, Goldmann applanation tonometry, and pupil dilatation with 0.5% tropicamide plus 0.5% phenylephrine, followed by evaluation of the posterior pole. Best corrected visual acuity was used to classify the patients as follows: blindness was defined as visual acuity of the better eye <20/400, low vision as 20/400

‣ Surveillance of mother-to-child HIV transmission: socioeconomic and health care coverage indicators

Barcellos,Christovam; Acosta,Lisiane Morelia Weide; Lisboa,Eugenio; Bastos,Francisco Inácio
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2009 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To identify clustering areas of infants exposed to HIV during pregnancy and their association with indicators of primary care coverage and socioeconomic condition. METHODS: Ecological study where the unit of analysis was primary care coverage areas in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, in 2003. Geographical Information System and spatial analysis tools were used to describe indicators of primary care coverage areas and socioeconomic condition, and estimate the prevalence of liveborn infants exposed to HIV during pregnancy and delivery. Data was obtained from Brazilian national databases. The association between different indicators was assessed using Spearman's nonparametric test. RESULTS: There was found an association between HIV infection and high birth rates (r=0.22, p<0.01) and lack of prenatal care (r=0.15, p<0.05). The highest HIV infection rates were seen in areas with poor socioeconomic conditions and difficult access to health services (r=0.28, p<0.01). The association found between higher rate of prenatal care among HIV-infected women and adequate immunization coverage (r=0.35, p<0.01) indicates that early detection of HIV infection is effective in those areas with better primary care services. CONCLUSIONS: Urban poverty is a strong determinant of mother-to-child HIV transmission but this trend can be fought with health surveillance at the primary care level.

‣ Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study

Victora,Cesar Gomes; Araújo,Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes,Ana Maria Batista; Hallal,Pedro Curi; Vieira,Maria de Fátima; Neutzling,Marilda Borges; Gonçalves,Helen; Valle,Neiva Cristina; Lima,Rosangela Costa; Anselmi,Luciana; Behague,Dominique; Gigante,Denis
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2006 Português
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This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city's hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings.

‣ The epidemiologic paradox of low birth weight in Brazil

Silva,Antônio Augusto Moura da; Silva,Leopoldo Muniz da; Barbieri,Marco Antonio; Bettiol,Heloísa; Carvalho,Luciana Mendes de; Ribeiro,Valdinar Sousa; Goldani,Marcelo Zubaran
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2010 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the low birth weight (LBW) paradox exists in Brazil. METHODS: LBW and cesarean section rates between 1995 and 2007 were estimated based on data from SINASC (Brazilian Live Births Database). Infant mortality rates (IMRs) were obtained using an indirect method that correct for underreporting. Schooling information was obtained from census data. Trends in LBW rate were assessed using joinpoint regression models. The correlations between LBW rate and other indicators were graphically assessed by lowess regression and tested using Spearman's rank correlation. RESULTS: In Brazil, LBW rate trends were non-linear and non-significant: the rate dropped from 7.9% in 1995 to 7.7% in 2000, then increased to 8.2% in 2003 and remained nearly steady thereafter at 8.2% in 2007. However, trends varied among Brazilian regions: there were significant increases in the North from 1999 to 2003 (2.7% per year), and in the South (1.0% per year) and Central-West regions (0.6% per year) from 1995 to 2007. For the entire period studied, higher LBW and lower IMRs were seen in more developed compared to less developed regions. In Brazilian States, in 2005, the higher the IMR rate, the lower the LBW rate (p=0.009); the lower the low schooling rate...

‣ Eco-epidemiologic study of emerging fungi related to the work of babaçu coconut breakers in the State of Maranhão, Brazil

Nascimento,Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão; Leitão,Valéria Maria Sousa; Silva,Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da; Maciel,Leonardo Bezerra; Muniz Filho,Walbert Edson; Viana,Graça Maria de Castro; Bezerra,Geusa Felipa de Barros
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 Português
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Introduction: There are more than 300,000 extractors using the babaçu coconut as a source of income in the States of Maranhão, Pará, Tocantins and Piauí, and this activity is associated with fungal infections. The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of emergent fungi in the conjunctiva, nails and surface and subcutaneous injuries of female coconut breakers in Esperantinópolis, Maranhão. Additionally, soil samples and palm structures were collected. Methods: The obtained samples were cultured in Petri dishes containing potato-dextrose-agar and chloramphenicol. The etiological agent was confirmed by a direct mycological exam and growth in culture. Results: In total, 150 domiciles were visited, and samples were collected from 80 patients. From the ground, the most frequently isolated fungus was Aspergillus niger (53. 8%). the most frequently detected fungus in babaçu coconut was Aspergillus niger (66.7%). Conjunctival fungal growth occurred in 76.3% of the women. The ocular fungal microbiota consisted of filamentous fungi (80.6%), and yeasts were present in 19.4% of cases. Onychomycosis was diagnosed in 44% (11/25) of the women. Conclusions: The identification of the genera Neosartorya...

‣ Leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy in the 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study

Domingues,Marlos Rodrigues; Barros,Aluísio J D
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2007 Português
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OBJECTIVE: Physical activity during pregnancy is a poorly investigated subject on population level. The study aimed to describe duration, type and frequency of leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy, and to explore its associated factors. METHODS: A population-based study was carried out during 2004 in Southern Brazil. A total of 4,471 mothers were interviewed soon after delivery. Physical activity was measured using a questionnaire, developed for the study. Results were obtained by Poisson regression. RESULTS: In the sample, 14.8% of women reported to engage in some type of physical activity prior to pregnancy and 12.9% during pregnancy. In the first trimester, 10.4% of all mothers engaged in some type of physical activity; 8.5% in the second trimester and 6.5% in the third trimester. Only 194 mothers (4.3%) were active during the whole pregnancy. In the adjusted analysis, leisure-time physical activity was positively associated with schooling, physical activity advice during prenatal care, and family income (p<0.001), being employed during pregnancy (p=0.05), and number of pregnancies (p=0.02). Walking was the most frequent activity. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity is low among Brazilian pregnant women. Although physical activity is not perceived as being pregnancy-threatening...

‣ Malaria transmission model for different levels of acquired immunity and temperature-dependent parameters (vector)

Yang,Hyun M
Fonte: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo Publicador: Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2000 Português
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OBJECTIVE: Describe the overall transmission of malaria through a compartmental model, considering the human host and mosquito vector. METHODS: A mathematical model was developed based on the following parameters: human host immunity, assuming the existence of acquired immunity and immunological memory, which boosts the protective response upon reinfection; mosquito vector, taking into account that the average period of development from egg to adult mosquito and the extrinsic incubation period of parasites (transformation of infected but non-infectious mosquitoes into infectious mosquitoes) are dependent on the ambient temperature. RESULTS: The steady state equilibrium values obtained with the model allowed the calculation of the basic reproduction ratio in terms of the model's parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The model allowed the calculation of the basic reproduction ratio, one of the most important epidemiological variables.

‣ Exploring the effect of depression on physical disability: longitudinal evidence from the established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly.

Penninx, B W; Leveille, S; Ferrucci, L; van Eijk, J T; Guralnik, J M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1999 Português
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OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effect of depression on the incidence of physical disability and the role of confounding and explanatory variables in this relationship. METHODS: A cohort of 6247 subjects 65 years and older who were initially free of disability was followed up for 6 years. Baseline depression was assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Disability in mobility and disability in activities of daily living were measured annually. RESULTS: Compared with the 5751 nondepressed subjects, the 496 depressed subjects had a relative risk (95% confidence interval) of 1.67 (1.44, 1.95) and 1.73 (1.54, 1.94) for incident disability in activities of daily living and mobility, respectively. Adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and baseline chronic conditions reduced the risks to 1.39 (1.18, 1.63) and 1.45 (1.29, 1.93), respectively. Less physical activity and fewer social contacts among depressed persons further explained part of their increased disability risk. CONCLUSIONS: Depression in older persons may increase the risk for incident disability. This excess risk is partly explained by depressed persons' decreased physical activity and social interaction. The role of other factors (e.g....

‣ The Zambia Children's KS-HHV8 Study: Rationale, Study Design, and Study Methods

Minhas, Veenu; Crabtree, Kay L.; Chao, Ann; Wojcicki, Janet M.; Sifuniso, Adrian M.; Nkonde, Catherine; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mitchell, Charles D.; Wood, Charles
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus in Zambia has led to a dramatic rise in the incidence of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)–associated Kaposi's sarcoma in both adults and children. However, there is a paucity of knowledge about the routes of HHV-8 transmission to young children. The Zambia Children's KS-HHV8 Study, a large, prospective cohort study in Lusaka, Zambia, was launched in 2004 to investigate the role of household members as a source of HHV-8 infection in young children and social behaviors that may modify the risk of HHV-8 acquisition. This cohort is distinct from other epidemiologic studies designed to investigate HHV-8 incidence and transmission because it recruited and followed complete households in the urban central African context. Between July 2004 and March 2007, 1,600 households were screened; 368 households comprising 464 children and 1,335 caregivers and household members were enrolled. Follow-up of this population continued for 48 months postrecruitment, affording a unique opportunity to study horizontal transmission of HHV-8 and understand the routes and sources of transmission to young children in Zambia. The authors describe the study rationale, design, execution, and characteristics of this cohort...

‣ Dog and cat bites: epidemiologic analyses suggest different prevention strategies.

Patrick, G R; O'Rourke, K M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To examine the characteristics of reported dog and cat bite incidents in El Paso, Texas, and their implications for local bite prevention programs. METHODS: The authors reviewed a random sample of reported dog bites and all reported cat bites in El Paso, Texas, in 1995 using existing animal control surveillance data. RESULTS: The majority of cat bites (89.4%) were provoked, with females (57.5%) and adults (68.3%) more likely to be victims than males or children. In contrast, just under half of dog bites (44.6%) were provoked, with males (65.6%) and children (63%) more likely to be victims than females or adults. Dogs that had not been vaccinated for rabies were involved in 65% of dog bites and cats that had not been vaccinated for rabies were involved in 92% of cat bites. CONCLUSION: Effective bite prevention programs should address the finding that both restrained and unrestrained dogs may bite even when unprovoked and that unrestrained cats usually bite when provoked.

‣ The challenge of preventing environmentally related disease in young children: community-based research in New York City.

Perera, Frederica P; Illman, Susan M; Kinney, Patrick L; Whyatt, Robin M; Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Shepard, Peggy; Evans, David; Fullilove, Mindy; Ford, Jean; Miller, Rachel L; Meyer, Ilan H; Rauh, Virginia A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2002 Português
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Rates of developmental and respiratory diseases are disproportionately high in underserved, minority populations such as those in New York City's Washington Heights, Harlem, and the South Bronx. Blacks and Latinos in these neighborhoods represent high risk groups for asthma, adverse birth outcomes, impaired development, and some types of cancer. The Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health in Washington Heights uses molecular epidemiologic methods to study the health effects of urban indoor and outdoor air pollutants on children, prenatally and postnatally, in a cohort of over 500 African-American and Dominican (originally from the Dominican Republic) mothers and newborns. Extensive data are collected to determine exposures to particulate matter < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(2.5)), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust particulate (DEP), nitrogen oxide, nonpersistent pesticides, home allergens (dust mite, mouse, cockroach), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and lead and other metals. Biomarkers, air sampling, and clinical assessments are used to study the effects of these exposures on children's increased risk for allergic sensitization, asthma and other respiratory disorders, impairment of neurocognitive and behavioral development...

‣ Epidemiologic Features of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis among Reproductive-Age Women in India

Rathod, Sujit D.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Krupp, Karl; Reingold, Arthur L.; Madhivanan, Purnima
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is characterized by curd-like vaginal discharge and itching, and is associated with considerable health and economic costs. Materials and Methods. We examined the incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for vulvovaginal candidiasis among a cohort of 898 women in south India. Participants completed three study visits over six months, comprised of a structured interview and a pelvic examination. Results. The positive predictive values for diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis using individual signs or symptoms were low (<19%). We did not find strong evidence for associations between sociodemographic characteristics and the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Women clinically diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis had a higher prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis (Prevalence 12%, 95% CI 8.2, 15.8) compared to women assessed to be negative for bacterial vaginosis (Prevalence 6.5%, 95% 5.3, 7.6); however, differences in the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis were not observed by the presence or absence of laboratory-confirmed bacterial vaginosis. Conclusions. For correct diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis, laboratory confirmation of infection with Candida is necessary as well as assessment of whether the discharge has been caused by bacterial vaginosis. Studies are needed of women infected with Candida yeast species to determine the risk factors for yeast's overgrowth.

‣ Short course training in epidemiology and biostatistics for graduate and undergraduate public health professionals.

Bayona, M; Leaverton, P E; Rangel-Sharpless, M C; Williams, P D
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1994 Português
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The University of South Florida has developed short courses of 2 to 3 days in epidemiology and biostatistics geared to public health workers. A key focus is providing skills which will assist local and State public health units to assess their status and measure progress with respect to achieving their explicitly stated health objectives for the year 2000. The courses were developed after the identification of the training needs in health departments and other public health settings. The training objectives were (a) to enhance the biostatistics skills of professionals involved in the analysis of health data; (b) to reinforce basic knowledge of epidemiologic methods and its practical applications in public health settings, including measures of disease frequency and association, epidemic outbreak investigations, and the identification and use of surveillance data; and (c) to demonstrate the application of the risk factor approach to select the interventions needed to reach health objectives for year 2000 and how to evaluate such interventions. A total of 43 students have taken this course series. Professional staff in health departments cannot always enroll in formal training in epidemiology and biostatistics because of time limitations or a lack of a bachelor's degree. However...