Página 31 dos resultados de 1440 itens digitais encontrados em 0.026 segundos

‣ Hospitalizations for HIV/AIDS: Differences Between Sexes

NUNES, Altacilio Aparecido; MELO, Igor Mariano de; SILVA, Ana Laura Alves da; REZENDE, Leandro dos Santos de Araujo; GUIMARAES, Paulo Bettero; SILVA-VERGARA, Mario Leon
Fonte: EXCERPTA MEDICA INC-ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC Publicador: EXCERPTA MEDICA INC-ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Women are especially vulnerable to HIV infection because of biological, social, cultural, and economic factors. In Brazil, AIDS was initially seen predominantly in homosexual men, but the epidemic gradually reached a gender balance as increasing numbers of women became infected with HIV. Objective: The aim of the present study was to identify the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of hospitalized patients with HIV/AIDS of both sexes and compare the differences between them. Methods: This epidemiologic cross-sectional study evaluated gender differences in demographic, social, clinical, and epidemiologic characteristics of patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS who were admitted for any reason to the Public Hospital of the Medical School of the Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Results: A total of 363 patients were included in the analysis, with a male/female ratio of 1.1:1.0. Forty-one percent of women were pregnant. Mean age at hospitalization and duration of hospitalization were significantly greater among men (P < 0.05). Men and nonpregnant women were admitted because of infection significantly more often than were pregnant women (P < 0.05). Significantly more single men who reported homosexual...

‣ Endemic pemphigus in the peruvian Amazon: epidemiology and risk factors for the development of complications during treatment

Ramos,Willy; Chacon,Gina Rocio; Galarza,Carlos; Gutierrez,Ericson Leonardo; Smith,Maria Eugenia; Ortega-Loayza,Alex Gerardo
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2012 Português
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BACKGROUND: Pemphigus is an autoimmune blistering disease. According to a report, in areas of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) in Peru there are cases of pemphigus vulgaris with epidemiologic, clinical and histopathologic characteristics similar to those of "endemic pemphigus vulgaris" (EPV) in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of endemic pemphigus and the risk factors of patients for developing complications during treatment. METHODS: A study was carried out from July 2003 to March 2008. The study population was 60 patients with EPF and 7 patients with EPV evaluated in hospitals and clinics in the Peruvian Amazon and Lima. A multivariate analysis was carried out using binary logistic regression. RESULTS: The average age of EPF patients was 31.4 years; 55% were men; 60% presented the generalized clinical variant. Non-compliance with the treatment was seen in 57.1% of the patients. Thirty-five percent presented complications (e.g. pyodermitis and pyelonephritis) during treatment. The risk factors for developing complications during treatment were non-compliance with the treatment and having the generalized clinical form. In the EPV group, the average age was 21.7 years; 71.4% were men. All patients presented with the mucocutaneous clinical variant and the initial presentation consisted of oral mucosa lesions; 71.4% presented complications during treatment...

‣ Transmission Dynamics and Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates with Low Copy Numbers of IS6110

Soini, Hanna; Pan, Xi; Teeter, Larry; Musser, James M.; Graviss, Edward A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2001 Português
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Population-based analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in Houston, Tex., over 5 years identified 377 patients infected with an isolate containing one to four copies of IS6110. The isolates were analyzed by spoligotyping and assigned to one of three major genetic groups based on nucleotide polymorphisms in codons katG 463 and gyrA 95. Prospectively obtained patient interviews were reviewed to assess epidemiologic links between apparently clustered patients. A total of 13 groups of isolates with the same IS6110 profile were identified, representing 326 of the 377 patients (86.5%; range 2 to 113 patients). In contrast, 28 groups of isolates containing 334 patients (88.6%) had the same spoligotype (range, 2 to 143 patients). Combination of IS6110 profile and spoligotype data identified 31 clusters with 300 patients (79.6%; range, 2 to 82 patients). All 377 isolates belonged to major genetic group 1 (77 patients) or genetic group 2 (300 patients); no major genetic group 3 isolates were identified. Among the 228 patients interviewed, 33 patients (14.5%) were directly linked to another patient in the same cluster. Possible epidemiologic links were also found among 11 patients. Moreover, many clusters consisted of individuals with the same ethnicity. In conclusion...

‣ Subtyping of Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis Strains by Manual and Automated PstI-SphI Ribotyping

Clark, Clifford G.; Kruk, Tamara M. A. C.; Bryden, Louis; Hirvi, Yolanda; Ahmed, Rafiq; Rodgers, Frank G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2003 Português
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Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteritidis is not readily subtyped beyond the level of phage type (PT). A recently developed method for ribotyping of this organism, which uses a mixture of PstI and SphI (PS) for restriction of DNA (PS ribotyping), has proved useful for further subtyping of a number of PTs of this organism, including PT 4. However, it has not been extensively tested with PT 8. In the present study the PS ribotyping method was used to investigate outbreaks of both S. enterica serotype Enteritidis PT 4 and PT 8 and provided subtyping data that were consistent with information obtained from epidemiologic investigations. The method proved to be more discriminatory than phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) combined and was useful for investigating a pseudo-outbreak involving isolates that had identical PTs and PFGE types but that could not be linked epidemiologically. Several PS ribotypes were found within the cluster of isolates indistinguishable by other subtyping methods, confirming the epidemiologic findings. Although the PS ribotyping method proved to have a superior discriminatory ability in resolving clusters, it did not have high enough throughput for use in outbreak investigations. This method has therefore been adapted for use in automated ribotyping with a RiboPrinter...

‣ Multilocus Sequence Typing Reveals a Lack of Diversity among Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolates That Are Distinct by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis

Noller, Anna C.; McEllistrem, M. Catherine; Stine, O. Colin; Morris, Jr., J. Glenn; Boxrud, David J.; Dixon, Bruce; Harrison, Lee H.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2003 Português
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Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is the molecular epidemiologic method mostly commonly used to identify food-borne outbreaks. Although PFGE is a powerful epidemiologic tool, it has disadvantages that make a DNA sequence-based approach potentially attractive. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analyzes the internal fragments of housekeeping genes to establish genetic relatedness between isolates. We sequenced selected portions of seven housekeeping genes and two membrane protein genes (ompA and espA) of 77 isolates that were diverse by PFGE to determine whether there was sufficient sequence variation to be useful as an epidemiologic tool. There was no DNA sequence diversity in the sequenced portions of the seven housekeeping genes and espA. For ompA, all but five isolates had sequence identical to that of the reference strains. E. coli O157:H7 has a striking lack of genetic diversity in the genes we explored, even among isolates that are clearly distinct by PFGE. Other approaches to identify improved molecular subtyping methods for E. coli 0157:H7 are needed.

‣ Molecular genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus via fluorophore-enhanced repetitive-sequence PCR.

Del Vecchio, V G; Petroziello, J M; Gress, M J; McCleskey, F K; Melcher, G P; Crouch, H K; Lupski, J R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1995 Português
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Methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Accurate, rapid epidemiologic typing is crucial to the identification of the source and spread of infectious disease and could provide detailed information on the generation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains. The high degree of genetic relatedness of MRSA strains has precluded the use of more conventional methods of genetic fingerprinting. A rapid DNA fingerprinting method that exploits PCR amplification from a DNA repeat sequence in MRSA is described. The random chromosomal distribution of this repeat sequence provides an ideal target for detecting DNA fragment patterns specific to individual MRSA strains. Two PCR fingerprinting methods which use an oligonucleotide primer based on a repetitive sequence found in Mycoplasma pneumoniae are presented. The repetitive element sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) and fluorophore-enhanced rep-PCR (FERP) can identify epidemic strains among background MRSA. The combination of oligonucleotide primers labeled with different fluorescent dyes allowed simultaneous FERP fingerprinting and mecA gene detection. Eight different fingerprint patterns were observed in MRSA strains collected from different sources. These techniques provide a rapid discriminatory means of molecular epidemiologic typing of MRSA involved in nosocomial infections.

‣ Introduction and recommendations: working group on indoor air and other complex mixtures.

Samet, J M; Speizer, F E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/1993 Português
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Air in indoor and outdoor environments typically contains many gaseous and particulate pollutants that may affect adversely any individual at sufficiently high concentrations and more sensitive individuals at lower concentrations. The public health relevance of addressing the effects of mixtures is becoming increasingly evident as we improve the concept of total personal exposure to pollution and obtain more data from personal monitoring. The papers within this volume represent the deliberations of a working group assembled with the goal of improving the epidemiologic approach to investigating the health effects of indoor air pollution and other complex mixtures. The group, composed of epidemiologists, human and animal toxicologists, and experts on biomarkers, comprehensively reviewed the methodologic issues involved in investigating complex mixtures. Members noted the deficiencies of current epidemiologic methodology for studying complex mixtures and called for broad-based advances in study design, exposure assessment, outcome assessment, and data analysis and interpretation. Understanding the health effects of complex mixtures will require multidisciplinary research using not only epidemiologic studies incorporating the new methods of exposure assessment but animal and clinical toxicology.

‣ The Epidemiology of Lead Toxicity in Adults: Measuring Dose and Consideration of Other Methodologic Issues

Hu, Howard; Shih, Regina; Rothenberg, Stephen; Schwartz, Brian S.
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We review several issues of broad relevance to the interpretation of epidemiologic evidence concerning the toxicity of lead in adults, particularly regarding cognitive function and the cardiovascular system, which are the subjects of two systematic reviews that are also part of this mini-monograph. Chief among the recent developments in methodologic advances has been the refinement of concepts and methods for measuring individual lead dose in terms of appreciating distinctions between recent versus cumulative doses and the use of biological markers to measure these parameters in epidemiologic studies of chronic disease. Attention is focused particularly on bone lead levels measured by K-shell X-ray fluorescence as a relatively new biological marker of cumulative dose that has been used in many recent epidemiologic studies to generate insights into lead’s impact on cognition and risk of hypertension, as well as the alternative method of estimating cumulative dose using available repeated measures of blood lead to calculate an individual’s cumulative blood lead index. We review the relevance and interpretation of these lead biomarkers in the context of the toxico-kinetics of lead. In addition, we also discuss methodologic challenges that arise in studies of occupationally and environmentally exposed subjects and those concerning race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status and other important covariates.

‣ Variable selection: current practice in epidemiological studies

Walter, Stefan; Tiemeier, Henning
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Selection of covariates is among the most controversial and difficult tasks in epidemiologic analysis. Correct variable selection addresses the problem of confounding in etiologic research and allows unbiased estimation of probabilities in prognostic studies. The aim of this commentary is to assess how often different variable selection techniques were applied in contemporary epidemiologic analysis. It was of particular interest to see whether modern methods such as shrinkage or penalized regression were used in recent publications. Stepwise selection methods remained the predominant method for variable selection in publications in epidemiological journals in 2008. Shrinkage methods were not used in any of the reviewed articles. Editors, reviewers and authors have insufficiently promoted the new, less controversial approaches of variable selection in the biomedical literature, whereas statisticians may not have adequately addressed the method’s feasibility.

‣ CURRENT USE AND FUTURE NEEDS OF BIODOSIMETRY IN STUDIES OF LONG-TERM HEALTH RISK FOLLOWING RADIATION EXPOSURE

Simon, Steven L.; Bouville, André; Kleinerman, Ruth
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2010 Português
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Biodosimetry measurements can potentially be an important and integral part of the dosimetric methods used in long-term studies of health risk following radiation exposure. Such studies rely on accurate estimation of doses to the whole body or to specific organs of individuals in order to derive reliable estimates of cancer risk. However, dose estimates based on analytical dose reconstruction (i.e., models) or personnel monitoring measurements, e.g., film-badges, can have substantial uncertainty. Biodosimetry can potentially reduce uncertainty in health risk studies by corroboration of model-based dose estimates or by using them to assess bias in dose models. While biodosimetry has begun to play a more significant role in long-term health risk studies, its use is still generally limited in that context due to one or more factors including, inadequate limits of detection, large inter-individual variability of the signal measured, high per-sample cost, and invasiveness. Presently, the most suitable biodosimetry methods for epidemiologic studies are chromosome aberration frequencies from fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of peripheral blood lymphocytes and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements made on tooth enamel. Both types of measurements...

‣ Meeting Report: Knowledge and Gaps in Developing Microbial Criteria for Inland Recreational Waters

Dorevitch, Samuel; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Ferguson, Christobel M.; Fujioka, Roger; McGee, Charles D.; Soller, Jeffrey A.; Whitman, Richard L.
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has committed to issuing in 2012 new or revised criteria designed to protect the health of those who use surface waters for recreation. For this purpose, the U.S. EPA has been conducting epidemiologic studies to establish relationships between microbial measures of water quality and adverse health outcomes among swimmers. New methods for testing water quality that would provide same-day results will likely be elements of the new criteria. Although the epidemiologic studies upon which the criteria will be based were conducted at Great Lakes and marine beaches, the new water quality criteria may be extended to inland waters (IWs). Similarities and important differences between coastal waters (CWs) and IWs that should be considered when developing criteria for IWs were the focus of an expert workshop. Here, we summarize the state of knowledge and research needed to base IWs microbial criteria on sound science. Two key differences between CWs and IWs are the sources of indicator bacteria, which may modify the relationship between indicator microbes and health risk, and the relationship between indicators and pathogens, which also may vary within IWs. Monitoring using rapid molecular methods will require the standardization and simplification of analytical methods...

‣ Molecular Determination of H Antigens of Salmonella by Use of a Microsphere-Based Liquid Array▿†

McQuiston, John R.; Waters, R. Jordan; Dinsmore, Blake A.; Mikoleit, Matthew L.; Fields, Patricia I.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2011 Português
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Serotyping of Salmonella has been an invaluable subtyping method for epidemiologic studies for more than 70 years. The technical difficulties of serotyping, primarily in antiserum production and quality control, can be overcome with modern molecular methods. We developed a DNA-based assay targeting the genes encoding the flagellar antigens (fliC and fljB) of the Kauffmann-White serotyping scheme. Fifteen H antigens (H:a, -b, -c, -d, -d/j, -e,h, -i, -k, -r, -y, -z, -z10, -z29, -z35, and -z6), 5 complex major antigens (H:G, -EN, -Z4, -1, and -L) and 16 complex secondary antigens (H:2, -5, -6, -7, -f, -m/g,m, -m/m,t, -p, -s, -t/m,t, -v, -x, -z15, -z24, -z28, and -z51) were targeted in the assay. DNA probes targeting these antigens were designed and evaluated on 500 isolates tested in parallel with traditional serotyping methods. The assay correctly identified 461 (92.2%) isolates based on the 36 antigens detected in the assay. Among the isolates considered correctly identified, 47 (9.4%) were partially serotyped because probes corresponding to some antigens in the strains were not in the assay, and 13 (2.6%) were monophasic or nonmotile strains that possessed flagellar antigen genes that were not expressed but were detected in the assay. The 39 (7.8%) strains that were not correctly identified possessed an antigen that should have been detected by the assay but was not. Apparent false-negative results may be attributed to allelic divergence. The molecular assay provided results that paralleled traditional methods with a much greater throughput...

‣ Social network analysis and agent-based modeling in social epidemiology

El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M; Scarborough, Peter; Seemann, Lars; Galea, Sandro
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/02/2012 Português
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The past five years have seen a growth in the interest in systems approaches in epidemiologic research. These approaches may be particularly appropriate for social epidemiology. Social network analysis and agent-based models (ABMs) are two approaches that have been used in the epidemiologic literature. Social network analysis involves the characterization of social networks to yield inference about how network structures may influence risk exposures among those in the network. ABMs can promote population-level inference from explicitly programmed, micro-level rules in simulated populations over time and space. In this paper, we discuss the implementation of these models in social epidemiologic research, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. Network analysis may be ideal for understanding social contagion, as well as the influences of social interaction on population health. However, network analysis requires network data, which may sacrifice generalizability, and causal inference from current network analytic methods is limited. ABMs are uniquely suited for the assessment of health determinants at multiple levels of influence that may couple with social interaction to produce population health. ABMs allow for the exploration of feedback and reciprocity between exposures and outcomes in the etiology of complex diseases. They may also provide the opportunity for counterfactual simulation. However...

‣ Opportunities and Challenges for Selected Emerging Technologies in Cancer Epidemiology: Mitochondrial, Epigenomic, Metabolomic, and Telomerase Profiling

Verma, Mukesh; Khoury, Muin J.; Ioannidis, John P.A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Remarkable progress has been made in the last decade in new methods for biological measurements using sophisticated technologies that go beyond the established genome, proteome, and gene expression platforms. These methods and technologies create opportunities to enhance cancer epidemiologic studies. In this article, we describe several emerging technologies and evaluate their potential in epidemiologic studies. We review the background, assays, methods, and challenges, and offer examples of the use of mitochondrial DNA and copy number assessments, epigenomic profiling (including methylation, histone modification, microRNAs (miRNAs), and chromatin condensation), metabolite profiling (metabolomics), and telomere measurements. We map the volume of literature referring to each one of these measurement tools and the extent to which efforts have been made at knowledge integration (e.g. systematic reviews and meta-analyses). We also clarify strengths and weaknesses of the existing platforms and the range of type of samples that can be tested with each of them. These measurement tools can be used in identifying at-risk populations and providing novel markers of survival and treatment response. Rigorous analytical and validation standards...

‣ Within-person reproducibility of urinary bisphenol A and phthalate metabolites over a 1 to 3 year period among women in the Nurses’ Health Studies: a prospective cohort study

Townsend, Mary K; Franke, Adrian A; Li, Xingnan; Hu, Frank B; Eliassen, A Heather
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Associations of bisphenol A and phthalates with chronic disease health outcomes are increasingly being investigated in epidemiologic studies. The majority of previous studies of within-person variability in urinary bisphenol A and phthalate metabolite concentrations have focused on reproducibility over short time periods. Long-term reproducibility data are needed to assess the potential usefulness of these biomarkers for prospective studies, particularly those examining risk of diseases with long latency periods. Low within-person reproducibility may attenuate relative risk estimates and reduce statistical power to detect associations with disease. Therefore, we assessed within-person reproducibility of bisphenol A, eight phthalate metabolites, and phthalic acid in spot urine samples over 1 to 3 years among women enrolled in two large cohort studies. Methods: Women in the Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II provided two spot urine samples, 1 to 3 years apart (n = 80 women for analyses of bisphenol A; n = 40 women for analyses of phthalate metabolites; n = 34 women for analyses of phthalic acid). To measure within-person reproducibility, we calculated Spearman rank correlation coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients for creatinine-adjusted concentrations of bisphenol A...

‣ Accuracy of epidemiological inferences based on publicly available information: retrospective comparative analysis of line lists of human cases infected with influenza A(H7N9) in China

Lau, Eric HY; Zheng, Jiandong; Tsang, Tim K; Liao, Qiaohong; Lewis, Bryan; Brownstein, John S; Sanders, Sharon; Wong, Jessica Y; Mekaru, Sumiko R; Rivers, Caitlin; Wu, Peng; Jiang, Hui; Li, Yu; Yu, Jianxing; Zhang, Qian; Chang, Zhaorui; Liu, Fengfeng; Pen
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Appropriate public health responses to infectious disease threats should be based on best-available evidence, which requires timely reliable data for appropriate analysis. During the early stages of epidemics, analysis of ‘line lists’ with detailed information on laboratory-confirmed cases can provide important insights into the epidemiology of a specific disease. The objective of the present study was to investigate the extent to which reliable epidemiologic inferences could be made from publicly-available epidemiologic data of human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus. Methods: We collated and compared six different line lists of laboratory-confirmed human cases of influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in the 2013 outbreak in China, including the official line list constructed by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention plus five other line lists by HealthMap, Virginia Tech, Bloomberg News, the University of Hong Kong and FluTrackers, based on publicly-available information. We characterized clinical severity and transmissibility of the outbreak, using line lists available at specific dates to estimate epidemiologic parameters, to replicate real-time inferences on the hospitalization fatality risk, and the impact of live poultry market closure. Results: Demographic information was mostly complete (less than 10% missing for all variables) in different line lists...

‣ Potential Role of Ultrafine Particles in Associations between Airborne Particle Mass and Cardiovascular Health

Delfino, Ralph J.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Malik, Shaista
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Numerous epidemiologic time-series studies have shown generally consistent associations of cardiovascular hospital admissions and mortality with outdoor air pollution, particularly mass concentrations of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5 or ≤10 μm in diameter (PM2.5, PM10). Panel studies with repeated measures have supported the time-series results showing associations between PM and risk of cardiac ischemia and arrhythmias, increased blood pressure, decreased heart rate variability, and increased circulating markers of inflammation and thrombosis. The causal components driving the PM associations remain to be identified. Epidemiologic data using pollutant gases and particle characteristics such as particle number concentration and elemental carbon have provided indirect evidence that products of fossil fuel combustion are important. Ultrafine particles < 0.1 μm (UFPs) dominate particle number concentrations and surface area and are therefore capable of carrying large concentrations of adsorbed or condensed toxic air pollutants. It is likely that redox-active components in UFPs from fossil fuel combustion reach cardiovascular target sites. High UFP exposures may lead to systemic inflammation through oxidative stress responses to reactive oxygen species and thereby promote the progression of atherosclerosis and precipitate acute cardiovascular responses ranging from increased blood pressure to myocardial infarction. The next steps in epidemiologic research are to identify more clearly the putative PM casual components and size fractions linked to their sources. To advance this...

‣ Low cholesterol concentrations and severe depressive symptoms in elderly people.

Brown, S. L.; Salive, M. E.; Harris, T. B.; Simonsick, E. M.; Guralnik, J. M.; Kohout, F. J.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/05/1994 Português
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OBJECTIVE--To investigate the reported association between low serum cholesterol concentration and severe depressive symptoms in an elderly population. DESIGN--Cross sectional analysis of pooled data from three communities of the established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly. Participants who completed their interview, including the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies' depression scale and consented to measurement of their cholesterol concentration were included in the study. SUBJECTS--3939 men and women aged > or = 71. METHODS--chi 2 analysis, t tests, and multivariate regression analysis of the association between low cholesterol concentration and severe depressive symptoms. All analyses were stratified by sex, and multivariate analyses were adjusted for age, self reported health, physical function, number of drugs used, and weight loss. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Score of depressive symptoms on the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies' depression scale. RESULTS--Depressive symptoms, cholesterol concentration, weight, and use of drugs were all associated with age in men and women. The relative odds of severe depressive symptoms (score > or = 16) for those with low cholesterol concentrations (< 4.14 mmol/l) were 1.9 (95% confidence interval...

‣ Tradução, adaptação e validação de construto do Teste do Relógio aplicado entre idosos no Brasil; Traducción, adaptación y validez de la construcción de la Prueba del Reloj aplicado entre los ancianos en Brasil; Translation, adaptation and construct validation of the Clock Test among elderly in Brazil

Atalaia-Silva, Kelly Cristina; Lourenço, Roberto Alves
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2008 Português
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OBJETIVO: Poucos estudos no Brasil investigaram a validação de testes cognitivos em amostras populacionais de idosos e nenhum deles analisou as propriedades psicométricas do Teste do Relógio de Tuokko. O objetivo do estudo foi traduzir e adaptar o modelo desse teste ao contexto brasileiro e avaliar sua validade de construto. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com uma amostra populacional constituída por 353 sujeitos de Juiz de Fora (MG), 2004-2005. Para avaliar as validades convergente e discriminante, utilizou-se a correlação de Pearson. Os subtestes do Teste do Relógio foram correlacionados com os instrumentos de referência: cubos e dígitos, e mini-exame do estado mental para avaliar a validade convergente. A validade discriminante foi investigada por meio da correlação dos subtestes com a Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. RESULTADOS: Da amostra, 74,1% eram do sexo feminino, com idade entre 63 e 107 anos (73,8+8,5) e média de escolaridade foi 7,4 anos (DP=4,7). Obteve-se validade convergente, com correlações estatisticamente significativas entre todos os subtestes (p; OBJETIVO: Pocos estudios en Brasil investigaron la validez de las pruebas cognitivas en muestras poblacionales de ancianos y ninguno analizó las propiedades psicométricas de la Prueba del Reloj de Tuokko. El objetivo del estudio fue traducir y adaptar el modelo de dicha prueba al contexto brasilero y evaluar su validez de construcción. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio transversal con una muestra poblacional constituida por 353 individuos de la ciudad de Juiz de Fora (Sureste de Brasil)...

‣ Cutaneous melanoma in Latin America: the need for more data

Schmerling,Rafael A; Loria,Dora; Cinat,Gabriela; Ramos,Wilmer E; Cardona,Andrés F; Sánchez,Jorge L; Martinez-Said,Hector; Buzaid,Antonio C
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2011 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To identify the scientific literature on cutaneous melanoma in Latin America and compile all available epidemiologic data to demonstrate the need for reliable regional and country-specific data on incidence and mortality estimates. METHODS: Literature searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, LILACS, and Google Scholar databases for epidemiologic studies from 1 January 2000 to 31 October 2010 related to melanoma in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Venezuela. A final search on melanoma cases was carried out using country-specific population-based cancer registries. No statistical analyses were conducted. RESULTS: For all six countries, most epidemiological research on cutaneous melanoma consists of hospital-based or case-control studies. Very few studies report incidence and mortality rates. Attempts to estimate disease rates have relied on national incidence and mortality data and information extracted from cancer registries. While predominance of European ancestry is a known risk factor for developing melanoma, the association of melanoma and ethnicity is not well-documented in some of the populations reviewed. Latin Americans are frequently exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation due to the tropical weather...