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‣ Comparação do perfil epidemiológico das hepatites B e C em um serviço público de São Paulo; Comparison between hepatitis B and C epidemiological profiles at a public institution in São Paulo, Brazil

CRUZ, Camila Rodrigues Bressane; SHIRASSU, Miriam Matsura; MARTINS, Wellington P.
Fonte: Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Gastroenterologia - IBEPEGE Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva - CBCD Sociedade Brasileira de Motilidade Digestiva - SBMD Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia - FBGSociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia - SBHSociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva - SOBED Publicador: Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Gastroenterologia - IBEPEGE Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva - CBCD Sociedade Brasileira de Motilidade Digestiva - SBMD Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia - FBGSociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia - SBHSociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva - SOBED
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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CONTEXTO: As hepatites virais constituem doença de notificação compulsória e apresentam grande importância em nosso meio devido à elevada prevalência. OBJETIVO: Comparar o perfil epidemiológico dos casos confirmados de hepatites B e C notificados no Núcleo de Vigilância Epidemiológica do Hospital do Servidor Público Estadual de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, no período entre janeiro de 2004 e abril de 2007. MATERIAL: Os resultados foram analisados através do teste do qui ao quadrado. RESULTADOS: Observou-se 112 casos confirmados de hepatite B e 651 de hepatite C. Houve predominância do sexo masculino dentre os casos de hepatite B e do sexo feminino entre os de hepatite C, com significância estatística. A faixa etária mais frequente foi de 30 a 39 anos, considerando-se hepatite B (P<0,01) e 40 a 49 anos para hepatite C (P = 0,49). A astenia foi o sintoma mais relatado. Os fatores de risco predominantes foram: doenças sexualmente transmissíveis (hepatite B; P<0,01), tratamento cirúrgico e transfusão de sangue (hepatite C; P<0,01). A confirmação por critério laboratorial foi predominante e quanto à forma clínica, observou-se evolução para hepatite crônica em 54,5% e 81,7% dos casos, respectivamente para hepatite B e C (P<0...

‣ Epidemiologic aspects and clinical outcome of fungal keratitis in southeastern Brazil

IBRAHIM, Marlon Moraes; VANINI, Rafael; IBRAHIM, Fuad Moraes; FIORITI, Livia S.; FURLAN, Eloisa M. R.; PROVINZANO, Luciana M. A.; CASTRO, Rosane S. De; SOUSA, Sidney Julio de Faria e; ROCHA, Eduardo Melani
Fonte: WICHTIG EDITORE Publicador: WICHTIG EDITORE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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PURPOSE. Fungal keratitis (FK) is a sight-threatening disease, more prevalent in developing regions. The present retrospective study was conducted in order to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical aspects and the progression of FK in patients treated at two ophthalmologic reference centers in Southeast Brazil. METHODS. The charts of patients with infectious keratitis treated between 2000 and 2004 were reviewed. For the 66 cases of FK confirmed by microbiological analysis, data related to patient, disease, and therapeutic approaches were obtained. RESULTS. Mean patient age was 40.7 +/- 16 years. Fifty-three were men and 13 were women. Ocular trauma occurred in 40% of cases (27). Previous medications taken by the patients were quinolone in 72.5% and antimycotics in 30%. Visual acuity (VA) at presentation was >0.3 in 16% and <0.1 in 74.5%. Penetrant keratoplasty was performed in 38% and evisceration in 15%. The causing agents were Fusarium sp in 67%, Aspergillus sp in 10.5%, and Candida sp in 10%. Medication alone resolved 39% of cases within a mean period of 24.5 +/- 12 days. Final VA was >0.3 in 28%, and <0.1 in 63%. CONCLUSIONS. Fungal keratitis presented as a disease with severe complications, predominantly among young males, and was mostly caused by filamentous fungi. The present information permits the establishment of preventive strategies. Reducing the time between onset and treatment and using more accessible specific medication would reverse the negative prognosis. (Eur J Ophthalmol 2009; 19: 355-61); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq)

‣ Linhas telefônicas residenciais: uso em inquéritos epidemiológicos no Brasil ; Telephone surveys: its use in epidemiologic investigation in Brazil

Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/10/2006 Português
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Objetivos: Estudar as possibilidades de uso de cadastros de linhas telefônicas residenciais para implementação de inquéritos por amostragem. Descrever presença de vícios potenciais, associados às taxas de coberturas de LTR, nas principais variáveis que usualmente compõem o núcleo de informações de inquéritos epidemiológicos. Métodos: Com base nos dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD) no período de 1998 a 2003, exceto 2000, foram estimadas por intervalo de confiança de 95%, as médias e proporções. Nas análises dos dados considerou-se o plano de amostragem complexa. Resultados: No Brasil, houve um crescimento de 50% dos domicílios atendidos por LTR, no período. No entanto, essa evolução não ocorreu de forma uniforme no Brasil. Foram identificados diferentes perfis de usuários de LTR, sendo as principais características relacionadas com a escolaridade, a raça, a posse de um plano de saúde e a localização geográfica. Nas regiões com baixa cobertura de LTR podem ocorrer vícios nas estimativas de prevalências de doenças crônicas. Conclusão: O uso das linhas telefônicas residencias para a realização das entrevistas em inquéritos epidemiológicos mostrou-se viável para as unidades de federação com taxas de cobertura de LTR acima de 70%. ; Objectives: To study the possibilities to use sampling frame of telephone interview the implementation of survey sampling. To describe the presence of potential biases associated to with coverage rates of telephone surveys in the main variables that usually compose the information core of epidemiological investigations. Methods: From database of the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD) in the period between 1998 and 2003...

‣ Ambiente para extração de informação epidemiológica a partir da mineração de dez anos de dados do Sistema Público de Saúde; Environment for epidemiological information extraction by data mining ten years of data from the health public system

Pires, Fábio Antero
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/09/2011 Português
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A utilização de bases de dados para estudos epidemiológicos, avaliação da qualidade e quantidade dos serviços de saúde vem despertando a atenção dos pesquisadores no contexto da Saúde Pública. No Brasil, as bases de dados do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) são exemplos de repositórios importantes que reúnem informações fundamentais sobre a Saúde. Entretanto, apesar dos avanços em termos de coleta e de ferramentas públicas para a pesquisa nessas bases de dados, tais como o TABWIN e o TABNET, esses recursos ainda não fazem uso de técnicas mais avançadas para a produção de informação gerencial, como as disponíveis em ferramentas OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing) e de mineração de dados. A situação é extremamente agravada pelo fato dos dados da Saúde Pública, produzidos por vários sistemas isolados, não estarem integrados, impossibilitando pesquisas entre diferentes bases de dados. Consequentemente, a produção de informação gerencial torna-se uma tarefa extremamente difícil. Por outro lado, a integração dessas bases de dados pode constituir um recurso indispensável e fundamental para a manipulação do enorme volume de dados disponível nesses ambientes e, assim, possibilitar a produção de informação e conhecimento relevantes...

‣ Epidemiologic aspects and clinical outcome of fungal keratitis in southeastern Brazil

IBRAHIM, Marlon Moraes; VANINI, Rafael; IBRAHIM, Fuad Moraes; FIORITI, Livia S.; FURLAN, Eloisa M. R.; PROVINZANO, Luciana M. A.; CASTRO, Rosane S. De; SOUSA, Sidney Julio de Faria e; ROCHA, Eduardo Melani
Fonte: WICHTIG EDITORE Publicador: WICHTIG EDITORE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
257.63754%
PURPOSE. Fungal keratitis (FK) is a sight-threatening disease, more prevalent in developing regions. The present retrospective study was conducted in order to evaluate the epidemiologic and clinical aspects and the progression of FK in patients treated at two ophthalmologic reference centers in Southeast Brazil. METHODS. The charts of patients with infectious keratitis treated between 2000 and 2004 were reviewed. For the 66 cases of FK confirmed by microbiological analysis, data related to patient, disease, and therapeutic approaches were obtained. RESULTS. Mean patient age was 40.7 +/- 16 years. Fifty-three were men and 13 were women. Ocular trauma occurred in 40% of cases (27). Previous medications taken by the patients were quinolone in 72.5% and antimycotics in 30%. Visual acuity (VA) at presentation was >0.3 in 16% and <0.1 in 74.5%. Penetrant keratoplasty was performed in 38% and evisceration in 15%. The causing agents were Fusarium sp in 67%, Aspergillus sp in 10.5%, and Candida sp in 10%. Medication alone resolved 39% of cases within a mean period of 24.5 +/- 12 days. Final VA was >0.3 in 28%, and <0.1 in 63%. CONCLUSIONS. Fungal keratitis presented as a disease with severe complications, predominantly among young males, and was mostly caused by filamentous fungi. The present information permits the establishment of preventive strategies. Reducing the time between onset and treatment and using more accessible specific medication would reverse the negative prognosis. (Eur J Ophthalmol 2009; 19: 355-61); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)

‣ Epidemiologic study of anisometropia in students of Natal, Brazil

Garcia,Carlos Alexandre de Amorim; Dantas,Erymar de Araújo; Souza,Araken Britto de; Uchoa,Raquel Araújo Costa; Oréfice,Fernando
Fonte: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia Publicador: Conselho Brasileiro de Oftalmologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2005 Português
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PURPOSE: To perform an epidemiologic study in students in Natal/Brazil, with relation to refractional anisometropia, evaluating criteria such as: gender, age, and association with strabismus and amblyopia. METHODS: A study of 1,024 students randomly selected from several districts of Natal/Brazil was undertaken by the Department of Ophthalmology of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), observing the following criteria of > 2 spherical or cylindrical diopter refractional anisometropia relating it to sex, age, association with strabismus, amblyopia and anisometropia classification. RESULTS: We found a prevalence of 2% (N=21) anisometropia in the students. The female gender predominated with 81% (N=17). In students with anisometropia, we observed an association with strabismus in 9.5% of cases (N=2), both with exotropia. The association of anisometropia with amblyopia occurred in 47.6% of the cases (N=10), with 8 cases of unilateral amblyopia and 2 cases of bilateral amblyopia. CONCLUSIONS: There was a predominance of anisometropia in females, and an increased prevalence of strabismus and amblyopia in students with anisometropia.

‣ For a General Theory of Health: preliminary epistemological and anthropological notes

Almeida Filho,Naomar de
Fonte: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz Publicador: Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sergio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2001 Português
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In order to conduct a preliminary evaluation of the conditions allowing for a General Theory of Health, the author explores two important structural dimensions of the scientific health field: the socio-anthropological dimension and the epistemological dimension. As a preliminary semantic framework, he adopts the following definitions in English and Portuguese for two series of meanings: disease = patologia, disorder = transtorno, illness = enfermidade, sickness = doença, and malady = moléstia. He begins by discussing some sociological theories and biomedical concepts of health-disease, which, despite their limitations, can be used as a point of departure for this undertaking, given the dialectical and multidimensional nature of the disease-illness-sickness complex (DIS). Second, he presents and evaluates some underlying socio-anthropological theories of disease, taking advantage of the opportunity to highlight the semeiologic treatment of health-disease through the theory of "signs, meanings, and health practices". Third, he analyzes several epistemological issues relating to the Health theme, seeking to justify its status as a scientific object. Finally, the author focuses the discussion on a proposal to systematize various health concepts as an initial stage for the theoretical construction of the Collective Health field.

‣ Interferon-induced depression in patients with hepatitis C: an epidemiologic study

Medeiros,Lucas Pereira Jorge de; Kayo,Monica; Medeiros,Renata Barboza Vianna; Lima,Mario Barreto Correa; Mello,Carlos Eduardo Brandão Mello
Fonte: Associação Médica Brasileira Publicador: Associação Médica Brasileira
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 Português
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Objective To assess the incidence rate and severity of depressive symptoms in different time points (12, 24 and 48 weeks) in Brazilian patients with HCV treated with PEG IFN plus ribavirin. Methods We conducted an observational prospective study using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Results Fifty patients were included. The assessments with either scale showed the highest score of depressive symptoms in the 24th week of treatment; the mean BDI score before treatment was 6.5 ± 5.3 and the mean CES-D was 10.9 ± 7.8. After 24 weeks, the mean BDI was 16.1 ± 10.2 and mean CES-D was 18.6 ± 13.0; 46% were diagnosed with depression according to combined BDI and CES-D scores. The somatic/psychomotor subscales were highly correlated with overall scale scores . Subjects with history of substance and alcohol abuse had higher risk for IFN-induced depression. Conclusion Treatment with PEG IFN was associated with a high incidence rate of depressive symptoms in this sample of Brazilian patients, as measured by CES-D and BDI. Alcohol and substance abuse increase the risk of PEG IFN-induced depression.

‣ A framework for examining social stress and susceptibility to air pollution in respiratory health

Clougherty,Jane Ellen; Kubzansky,Laura Diane
Fonte: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: ABRASCO - Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2010 Português
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There is growing interest in disentangling the health effects of spatially clustered social and physical environmental exposures and in exploring potential synergies among them, with particular attention directed to the combined effects of psychosocial stress and air pollution. Both exposures may be elevated in lower-income urban communities, and it has been hypothesized that stress, which can influence immune function and susceptibility, may potentiate the effects of air pollution in respiratory disease onset and exacerbation. In this paper, we review the existing epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence on synergistic effects of stress and pollution, and describe the physiologic effects of stress and key issues related to measuring and evaluating stress as it relates to physical environmental exposures and susceptibility. Finally, we identify some of the major methodologic challenges ahead as we work toward disentangling the health effects of clustered social and physical exposures and accurately describing the interplay among these exposures. As this research proceeds, we recommend careful attention to the relative temporalities of stress and pollution exposures, to nonlinearities in their independent and combined effects, to physiologic pathways not elucidated by epidemiologic methods...

‣ Evaluation of 10 methods to distinguish epidemic-associated Campylobacter strains.

Patton, C M; Wachsmuth, I K; Evins, G M; Kiehlbauch, J A; Plikaytis, B D; Troup, N; Tompkins, L; Lior, H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1991 Português
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We compared four phenotypic and six genotypic methods for distinguishing Campylobacter jejuni strains from animals and humans involved in four epidemics. Based on a comparison with epidemiologic data, the methods that correctly identified all strains in three milkborne outbreaks and one waterborne outbreak were heat-stable and heat-labile serotyping; multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MEE); DNA restriction endonuclease analysis with BglII, XhoI, PvuII, or PstI; and Southern blot and hybridization of PvuII- and PstI-digested DNA with Escherichia coli 16S and 23S rRNA (ribotyping). Biotyping, phage typing, plasmid analysis, and probing of BglII and XhoI DNA digests with C. jejuni 16S rRNA genes failed to correctly separate one or more strains. MEE, restriction endonuclease analysis, and ribotyping were the most sensitive methods and identified nine types among the 22 strains. These methods were also capable of further distinguishing strains within the same serotype. Data from MEE were also analyzed to calculate genetic relatedness among strains. Serotyping was the most discriminating phenotypic method, with eight and seven types distinguished by the heat-stable and heat-labile methods, respectively. MEE and ribotyping had several advantages over the other methods because they measure relatively stable and significant chromosomal differences and are applicable to other species and genera. These methods...

‣ Epidemiologic Evaluation of Measurement Data in the Presence of Detection Limits

Lubin, Jay H.; Colt, Joanne S.; Camann, David; Davis, Scott; Cerhan, James R.; Severson, Richard K.; Bernstein, Leslie; Hartge, Patricia
Fonte: National Institute of Environmental Health Science Publicador: National Institute of Environmental Health Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Quantitative measurements of environmental factors greatly improve the quality of epidemiologic studies but can pose challenges because of the presence of upper or lower detection limits or interfering compounds, which do not allow for precise measured values. We consider the regression of an environmental measurement (dependent variable) on several covariates (independent variables). Various strategies are commonly employed to impute values for interval-measured data, including assignment of one-half the detection limit to nondetected values or of “fill-in” values randomly selected from an appropriate distribution. On the basis of a limited simulation study, we found that the former approach can be biased unless the percentage of measurements below detection limits is small (5–10%). The fill-in approach generally produces unbiased parameter estimates but may produce biased variance estimates and thereby distort inference when 30% or more of the data are below detection limits. Truncated data methods (e.g., Tobit regression) and multiple imputation offer two unbiased approaches for analyzing measurement data with detection limits. If interest resides solely on regression parameters, then Tobit regression can be used. If individualized values for measurements below detection limits are needed for additional analysis...

‣ Epidemiologic features of diabetes mellitus among Indians in northwestern Ontario and northeastern Manitoba

Young, T. Kue; McIntyre, L. Lynn; Dooley, Joseph; Rodriguez, Jude
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/1985 Português
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This descriptive epidemiologic study of diabetes mellitus among Indians in northwestern Ontario and northeastern Manitoba provided estimates of the prevalence of diagnosed cases: 28/1000 overall, 46/1000 for those aged 15 to 64 years and 96/1000 for those aged 65 years and over. Diabetes was more prevalent among women than men but was rare in children. More than half of the existing cases had been diagnosed within the last 5 years studied (1978-82). Comparisons with Canadians nationally and other North American Indian groups were made with caution owing to the different methods of case ascertainment. Duration of disease and pre-existing hypertension were found to be statistically significant risk factors for the development of complications of diabetes in this population.

‣ Suicide Methods in Asia: Implications in Suicide Prevention

Wu, Kevin Chien-Chang; Chen, Ying-Yeh; Yip, Paul S. F.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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As the largest continent in the World, Asia accounts for about 60% of World suicides. Preventing suicide by restricting access to suicide methods is one of the few evidence-based suicide prevention strategies. However, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of suicide methods in Asian countries. To amend this shortage, the current review examines the leading suicide methods in different Asian countries, their trend, their age- and sex- specific characteristics, and their implications for suicide prevention. In total, 42 articles with leading suicide methods data in 17 Asian countries/regions were retrieved. The epidemiologic characteristics and recent trends of common suicide methods reflect specific socio-cultural, economic, and religious situations in the region. Common suicide methods shift with the introduction of technologies and constructions, and have specific age- or sex-characteristics that may render the restriction of suicide methods not equally effective for all sex and age sub-groups. Charcoal burning, pesticide poisoning, native plant poisoning, self-immolation, and jumping are all prominent examples. In the information society, suicide prevention that focuses on suicide methods must monitor and control the innovation and spread of knowledge and practices of suicide “technologies”. It may be more cost-effective to design safety into technologies as a way of suicide prevention while there is no rash of suicides yet by the new technologies. Further research on suicide methods is important for public health approaches to suicide prevention with sensitivity to socio-cultural...

‣ Comparison of Culture Screening Methods for Detection of Nasal Carriage of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a Prospective Study Comparing 32 Methods

Safdar, Nasia; Narans, Leah; Gordon, Barbara; Maki, Dennis G.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2003 Português
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Screening for carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is fundamental to modern-day nosocomial infection control, both for epidemiologic investigation and day-to-day decisions on barrier isolation. Numerous microbiologic techniques have been advocated for screening for nasal carriage of MRSA, including the use of charcoal rather than rayon swabs, preincubation of swabs in Stuart's medium, preincubation of swabs in salt-containing trypticase soy broth (TSB), use of mannitol-salt agar (MSA), use of MSA containing oxacillin (MSAOx), use of Mueller-Hinton agar containing oxacillin (MHAOx), and the use of MSA containing lipovitellin with an oxacillin disk (MSALOx). We report a prospective clinical trial undertaken to test all of these methods concurrently. Patients at high risk for MRSA carriage were screened with eight consecutive nasal swabs (four standard rayon, four charcoal-coated rayon), which were processed by primary plating on MSA, MSAOx, MHAOx, and MSALOx; Stuart's preincubation for 72 h followed by plating on the solid media; overnight enrichment in salt-containing TSB followed by plating; and Stuart's preincubation for 72 h followed by overnight enrichment in TSB and plating. All of the above methods were repeated with charcoal swabs. Each patient was screened by 32 culture methods. Forty-three (42%) of 102 patients studied were positive for MRSA by one or more methods. Among the four media evaluated with direct plating...

‣ Training and service in public health practice, 1951-90--CDC's Epidemic Intelligence Service.

Thacker, S B; Goodman, R A; Dicker, R C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1990 Português
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The Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) was created at the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 1951 as a combined training and service program in the practice of applied epidemiology. Since 1951, more than 1,700 professional have served in this 2-year program of the Public Health Service. In the decade of the 1980s, EIS underwent dramatic changes in response to the increased breadth of the CDC mission and the rapid expansion of epidemiologic methods. Modifications in the experience of an EIS Officer have resulted from the increased need for more sophisticated analytic methods and the use of microcomputers, as well as CDC's expanded mission into chronic diseases, environmental health, occupational health, and injury control. Officers who have entered the EIS in the past decade tend to be older than their predecessors, tend to enter the program with more experience and training in epidemiology, and are more likely to stay in public health either at the Federal level or in State and local health departments. The EIS Program continues to be a critical source for men and women to respond to the need and demand for epidemiologic services both domestically and internationally.

‣ Measuring Disease Frequency in the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area (MESA)

Greenlee, Robert T.
Fonte: Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation Publicador: Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2003 Português
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The Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area (MESA) is a rare resource for population-based health and medical research developed at Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation. Because of high population coverage and health event capture, MESA is particularly useful for determining the frequency of disease in the general population. A substantial proportion of MESA-based publications appearing in the peer reviewed literature have reported incidence or prevalence rates of disease or disease-related factors. This paper reviews the first 10 years of MESA's support of meaningful inquiry into the frequency of disease occurrence, and briefly reports on the data and methods used for such calculations using selected chronic diseases as examples. Limitations of MESA estimates are discussed as are alternate methods. Compared to limited data published for the selected conditions, occurrence rates in MESA based on diagnostic codes and general validation rules only appear somewhat high, although the observed temporal trends and relationships with demographics are consistent. Rich clinical data sources are available to be linked with MESA to improve the specificity of case ascertainment, as is typically done for disease-specific publications from MESA.

‣ Algorithms linking phylogenetic and transmission trees for molecular infectious disease epidemiology

Kenah, Eben; Britton, Tom; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini Jr, Ira M.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/07/2015 Português
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Recent work has considered the use of densely-sampled genetic data to reconstruct the transmission trees linking infectors and infectees in outbreaks. Because transmission trees from one outbreak do not generalize to future outbreaks, scientific insights that can inform public health policy are more likely to be obtained by using genetic sequence data to estimate transmission parameters more precisely (e.g., covariate effects on infectiousness and susceptibility). In a survival analysis framework, transmission parameter estimation is based on sums or averages over possible transmission trees. By providing partial information about who-infected-whom, a phylogeny can increase the efficiency of these estimates. The leaves of the phylogeny represent sampled pathogens, which have known hosts. The interior nodes represent common ancestors of sampled pathogens, which have unknown hosts. We show that there is a one-to-one relationship between the possible assignments of interior node hosts and the transmission trees simultaneously consistent with the phylogeny and the epidemiologic data on person, place, and time. We develop algorithms to find the set of possible hosts at each interior node, to generate all possible transmission trees given these host sets...

‣ A Chain Multinomial Model for Estimating the Real-Time Fatality Rate of a Disease, with an Application to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrom

Yip, Paul S F; Lau, Eric H Y; Lam, K F; Huggins, Richard
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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It is well known that statistics using cumulative data are insensitive to changes. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of fatality rates are of the above type, which may not be able to reflect the latest changes in fatality due to treatment or government policy in a timely fashion. Here, the authors propose an estimate of a real-time fatality rate based on a chain multinomial model with a kernel function. It is more accurate than the WHO estimate in describing fatality, especially earlier in the course of an epidemic. The estimator provides useful information for public health policy makers for understanding the severity of the disease or evaluating the effects of treatments or policies within a shorter time period, which is critical in disease control during an outbreak. Simulation results showed that the performance of the proposed estimator is superior to that of the WHO estimator in terms of its sensitivity to changes and its timeliness in reflecting the severity of the disease.

‣ Spatiotemporal analysis of lung cancer incidence and case fatality in Villa Clara province, Cuba

Batista,Norma E.; Antón,Oscar A.
Fonte: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba Publicador: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2013 Português
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INTRODUCTION: Cancer has historically been a main cause of death in Cuba, with lung cancer the number one cause of cancer death in both sexes. Cancer morbidity and mortality rates are the basic measures of cancer impact in the community. Cancer mortality has been one of the major applications of geographic analysis and has made important progress in recent decades thanks to access to mortality statistics and to development and availability of geographic information systems. Cuba does not have a strong tradition of etiologic research using spatial analysis. High levels of lung cancer morbidity and mortality in Villa Clara and growing interest in spatial analysis as an epidemiologic tool motivated this study. OBJECTIVE: To identify spatial and/or spatiotemporal clusters of lung cancer morbidity and case fatality in the province of Villa Clara, and to demonstrate the value of cluster analysis as an epidemiologic tool. METHODS: Descriptive observational study based on administrative data, using the technique of space-time scan statistics. The study focused on new cases diagnosed in 2004 and case-fatality for those cases through 2009. Variables used were: cases diagnosed, deaths, date of diagnosis, date of death, municipality and Cartesian geocoding for each municipality. RESULTS: The study identified significant spatial and spatiotemporal clusters of greater than expected lung cancer incidence (municipalities of Encrucijada...

‣ Audio computer-assisted self interview compared to traditional interview in an HIV-related behavioral survey in Vietnam

Le,Linh Cu; Vu,Lan T.H.
Fonte: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba Publicador: Medical Education Cooperation with Cuba
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2012 Português
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INTRODUCTION: Globally, population surveys on HIV/AIDS and other sensitive topics have been using audio computer-assisted self interview for many years. This interview technique, however, is still new and little is known about its application and impact in general population surveys in Vietnam. One plausible hypothesis is that residents of Vietnam interviewed using this technique may provide a higher response rate and be more willing to reveal their true behaviors than if interviewed with traditional methods. OBJECTIVE This study aims to compare audio computer-assisted self interview with traditional face-to-face personal interview and self-administered interview with regard to rates of refusal and affirmative responses to questions on sensitive topics related to HIV/AIDS. METHODS In June 2010, a randomized study was conducted in three cities (Ha Noi, Da Nan and Can Tho), using a sample of 4049 residents aged 15 to 49 years. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of three interviewing methods: audio computer-assisted self interview, personal face-to-face interview, and self-administered paper interview. Instead of providing answers directly to interviewer questions as with traditional methods, audio computer-assisted self-interview respondents read the questions displayed on a laptop screen...