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‣ Periodontal attachment loss in an untreated isolated population of Brazil

CORRAINI, Priscila; BAELUM, Vibeke; PANNUTI, Claudio Mendes; PUSTIGLIONI, Alessandro Nautili; ROMITO, Giuseppe Alexandre; PUSTIGLIONI, Francisco Emilio
Fonte: AMER ACAD PERIODONTOLOGY Publicador: AMER ACAD PERIODONTOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, extent, and severity of clinical attachment loss (CAL) and to investigate the association of demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral risk indicators with CAL in an untreated isolated population in Brazil. Methods: All subjects aged >= 12 years were identified by a census. Participants were submitted to a full-mouth clinical examination of six sites per tooth and were interviewed using a structured, written questionnaire. Results: Among the 214 subjects who were interviewed and examined clinically, CAL >= 5 mm in at least one site was observed in 8% of the 12- to 19-year-olds and in all dentate subjects >= 50 years of age; the age-dependent prevalence of CAL >= 7 mm in at least one site ranged from 5% among 12- to 19-year-olds to 83% among subjects >= 50 years old. Multivariate analysis identified plaque (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8), supragingival calculus (OR = 2.9 to 10.6), age >= 30 years (OR = 11.4), and smoking (OR = 2.4) as risk indicators for CAL >= 5 mm and smoking (OR = 8.2) as a risk indicator for CAL >= 7 mm. Conclusions: CAL is highly prevalent in this isolated population. The high occurrence of CAL in young age groups and the confirmation of traditional risk indicators for CAL in this study suggest that other factors...

‣ Risk indicators for increased probing depth in an isolated population in Brazil

CORRAINI, Priscila; BAELUM, Vibeke; PANNUTI, Claudio Mendes; PUSTIGLIONI, Alessandro Nautili; ROMITO, Giuseppe Alexandre; PUSTIGLIONI, Francisco Emilio
Fonte: AMER ACAD PERIODONTOLOGY Publicador: AMER ACAD PERIODONTOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, extent, and severity of probing depth (PD) and to investigate the associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral risk indicators and PD in a periodontally untreated and isolated population in Brazil. Methods: The target population consisted of all individuals aged >= 12 years as identified by a census. Consenting participants were submitted to a full-mouth clinical examination of six sites per tooth and were interviewed using a structured written questionnaire. Results: Among the 214 subjects who were interviewed and clinically examined, PD >= 4 mm was observed in 54% to 83% of the subjects, depending on age, whereas the age-dependent prevalence of PD :6 mm ranged from 5% among 12- to 19-year-olds to 50% among 40- to 49-year-olds, decreasing to 40% among subjects >= 50 years of age. Multivariate analyses identified supragingival calculus (odds ratio [OR] = 5.4 to 10.3; 95% confidence intervals [CIs]: 2.5 to 11.6 and 4.0 to 26.2 for 20% to 50% and > 50% of the sites, respectively) as a risk indicator for PD A mm, whereas age :40 years (OR = 9.0; 95% CI: 1.7 to 48.5), being a moderate/heavy smoker (OR = 3.7; 95% CI: 1.4 to 10. 1), and having supragingival calculus in 20% to 50% of sites (OR = 6.8; 95% CI: 1.4 to 32.4) or in >50% of sites (OR = 15.3; 95% CI: 3.2 to 73.6) were risk indicators for PD >= 6 mm. Having undergone urgency dental treatment was a protective factor for PD A and >= 6 mm (OR = 0.4; 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.8). Conclusions: Increased PD is highly prevalent in this isolated population. Behavioral factors played a significant role as risk indicators for increased PD in this isolated population.; Foundation for Post-Graduate Education...

‣ Tetanus epidemiology in Santa Catarina, Brazil from 1998 to 2008; Epidemiología del tétanos en Santa Catarina, Brasil, entre 1998 y 2008

Mattos, Ana Carolina Squeff de; Hernandes Júnior, Clineu Gaspar; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Objetive: This work describes demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals with accidental tetanus in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Materials and Methods: 291 cases of accidental tetanus reported from 1998 to 2008 were analyzed retrospectively through a cross-sectional, descriptive and correlated study based on percentage and numeric frequency as well as on number and incidence rate (i.r.) found in compulsory notification forms. Results: Most cases (73,54%) occurred among men residing in Vale do Itajaí (30,24%). The age group with the highest incidence was within the 35 to 49 range (32,30%). Complete immunization history was reported in seven cases (2,40%), the perforating injury being the most observed and the lower limbs the most affected ones. Among the reported cases, 87,62% were confirmed; 114 (39,17%) patients died. Conclusions: Accidental tetanus in Santa Catarina affects the population in a significant way despite the fact that it is an immune preventable disease. The authorities and administrators must plan strategies to address changes in public policies related to immunization coverage of the susceptible population, mainly adults. Above all, it is important to warn society that the success of immunization programs depends on the application of three doses at set intervals...

‣ Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in Hamburg, Germany: Long-Term Population-Based Analysis Applying Classical and Molecular Epidemiological Techniques

Diel, Roland; Schneider, Steffen; Meywald-Walter, Karen; Ruf, Christa-Maria; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Niemann, Stefan
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2002 Português
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To determine a detailed picture of tuberculosis (TB) epidemiology in Hamburg, Germany, 423 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from 77.0% of all patients with culture-confirmed TB diagnosed from 1997 to 1999 in Hamburg were analyzed by IS6110 DNA fingerprinting. IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) clusters were assumed to have arisen from recent transmission. Results of contact tracing and additional patient interviews were used for further epidemiological analyses. Of the 423 cases, 398 were included in the cluster analysis, of which 135 (33.9%) were classified into 35 clusters ranging from 2 to 23 patients. Epidemiological links verifying recent transmission could be confirmed for 87 of the 135 clustered patients. Risk factors for recent transmission were calculated by a two-step procedure: first, based on patients with clustered isolates; and second, based on patients with clustered isolates and transmission links. In both analyses, alcohol abuse appeared to be the strongest predictor for recent transmission, followed by a history of previous contact tracing and unemployment. Homelessness, foreign ethnicity, sex, drug addiction, and human immunodeficiency virus positivity were not independent risk factors for clustering in multivariate analyses. Classical contact tracing performed prior to IS6110 RFLP analysis identified only 24 of the 135 clustered patient. In conclusion...

‣ Hepatitis C in the Elderly: Epidemiology, Natural History and Treatment

Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Miller, Ram R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Hepatitis C continues to be a major public health problem affecting approximately 3% of the global population (1). According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 170 million people have chronic hepatitis C (1). Ten to 20% of those who are chronically infected with chronic hepatitis C will progress to cirrhosis and 5% will develop hepatocellular carcinoma (1). Although the safety and efficacy of hepatitis C therapies have been extensively studied in patients between ages of 18 and 65, patients who are over 65 still remain an understudied and difficult to treat population. This review discusses the epidemiology, natural history and treatment of chronic hepatitis C in older adults.

‣ HIV-1 Molecular Epidemiology in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: Origin, Demography and Migrations

Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Mild, Mattias; Månsson, Fredrik; Norrgren, Hans; Medstrand, Patrik
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/02/2011 Português
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The HIV-1 epidemic in West Africa has been dominated by subtype A and the recombinant form CRF02_AG. Little is known about the origins and the evolutionary history of HIV-1 in this region. We employed Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods in combination with temporal and spatial information to reconstruct the HIV-1 subtype distribution, demographic history and migration patterns over time in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. We found that CRF02_AG and subsubtype A3 were the dominant forms of HIV-1 in Guinea-Bissau and that they were introduced into the country on at least six different occasions between 1976 and 1981. These estimates also corresponded well with the first reported HIV-1 cases in Guinea-Bissau. Migration analyses suggested that (1) the HIV-1 epidemic started in the capital Bissau and then dispersed into more rural areas, and (2) the epidemic in Guinea-Bissau was connected to both Cameroon and Mali. This is the first study that describes the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a West African country by combining the results of subtype distribution with analyses of epidemic origin and epidemiological linkage between locations. The multiple introductions of HIV-1 into Guinea-Bissau, during a short time-period of five years, coincided with and were likely influenced by the major immigration wave into the country that followed the end of the independence war (1963–1974).

‣ A role for systems epidemiology in tuberculosis research

Comas, Iñaki; Gagneux, Sebastien
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Despite being a curable disease, tuberculosis (TB) killed more people in 2009 than during any previous year in history. Progress in TB research has been slow, and remains burdened by important gaps in our knowledge of the basic biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB, and its interaction with the human host. Fortunately, major systems biology initiatives have recently been launched that will help fill some of these gaps. However, to fully comprehend TB, and control this disease globally, current systems biological approaches will not suffice. The influence of host and pathogen diversity, changes in human demography, and socioeconomic and environmental factors will also need to be considered. Such a multidisciplinary approach might be best described as ‘systems epidemiology’ in an effort to overcome the traditional boundaries between basic biology and classical epidemiology.

‣ Liver Disease in Women: The Influence of Gender on Epidemiology, Natural History, and Patient Outcomes

Guy, Jennifer; Peters, Marion G.
Fonte: Millennium Medical Publishing Publicador: Millennium Medical Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2013 Português
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Women more commonly present with acute liver failure, autoimmune hepatitis, benign liver lesions, primary biliary cirrhosis, and toxin-mediated hepatotoxicity. Women less commonly have malignant liver tumors, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and viral hepatitis. There is a decreased rate of decompensated cirrhosis in women with hepatitis C virus infection, no survival difference in alcohol-related liver disease, and improved survival from hepatocellular carcinoma. In general, men are 2-fold more likely to die from chronic liver disease and cirrhosis than are women. Liver transplant occurs less commonly in women than in men, with variable disease outcomes based on etiology. This review highlights the epidemiology, natural history, treatment outcomes, and pathophysiology of common liver diseases in women and discusses how gender influences disease incidence, presentation, progression, and outcomes. Pregnancy-related liver disease is not covered.

‣ Epidemiology, clinical history and microbiology of peritonsillar abscess

Mazur, E.; Czerwińska, E.; Korona-Głowniak, I.; Grochowalska, A.; Kozioł-Montewka, M.
Fonte: Springer Berlin Heidelberg Publicador: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The purpose of this investigation was to explore the epidemiology, clinical history and microbiology of peritonsillar abscess (PTA). A retrospective review of PTA cases treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, Regional Specialist Hospital in Radom, Poland between 1st October 2003 and 30th September 2013 was undertaken. A total of 111 PTA patients were admitted. The study population consisted of 57.7 % males and 42.3 % females, with an average age of 31.0 (range 5–78) years. Smokers comprised 22.0 % of the study group. The seasonal variation of PTA was statistically insignificant (p = 0.45). Recurrent tonsillitis occurred in 35.5 % of patients. In comparison with the rest of the study population, patients with a history of recurrent pharyngotonsillitis had higher incidence of previous PTA episodes [odds ratio (OR) 17.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 2.1–148.7, p = 0.001]. Also, they were more frequently treated with antibiotics prior to hospitalisation (OR 4.6, 95 % CI 2.0–10.9, p = 0.0005) and had significantly longer hospital stay (p = 0.03). Bacterial cultures of abscess aspirates were performed in 40.5 % of patients. Monomicrobial growth was detected in 77.8 % of aerobic cultures. Streptococcus pyogenes...

‣ Childhood ADHD and Risk for Substance Dependence in Adulthood: A Longitudinal, Population-Based Study

Levy, Sharon; Katusic, Slavica K.; Colligan, Robert C.; Weaver, Amy L.; Killian, Jill M.; Voigt, Robert G.; Barbaresi, William J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to be at significantly greater risk for the development of substance use disorders (SUD) compared to peers. Impulsivity, which could lead to higher levels of drug use, is a known symptom of ADHD and likely accounts, in part, for this relationship. Other factors, such as a biologically increased susceptibility to substance dependence (addiction), may also play a role. Objective: This report further examines the relationships between childhood ADHD, adolescent- onset SUD, and substance abuse and substance dependence in adulthood. Method Individuals with childhood ADHD and non-ADHD controls from the same population-based birth cohort were invited to participate in a prospective outcome study. Participants completed a structured neuropsychiatric interview with modules for SUD and a psychosocial questionnaire. Information on adolescent SUD was obtained retrospectively, in a previous study, from medical and school records. Associations were summarized using odds ratios (OR) and 95% CIs estimated from logistic regression models adjusted for age and gender. Results: A total of 232 ADHD cases and 335 non-ADHD controls participated (mean age, 27.0 and 28.6 years...

‣ The impact of precarious employment in early adulthood on age at first childbirth: development of theoretical, methodological and analytical frameworks from a life course perspective.

Steele, Emily J.
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2010 Português
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The average age of Australian women at first childbirth in 2006 was 28.2 years, while the proportion of first births among women aged ≥ 35 years increased from 8% in 1997 to 14% in 2006. From a public health perspective, this shift has a raft of health consequences for women and children, including increased risks of miscarriage, gestational diabetes, and birth defects in the child. Furthermore, the use of assisted reproductive technologies associated with older childbearing carries risks in pregnancy, and adverse outcomes in offspring, in addition to very significant financial and emotional costs. Thus, it is imperative to understand barriers to childbearing at ‘optimal’ ages. Since evidence also suggests women now have fewer children than they would like, it is particularly important to investigate underlying structural determinants of older motherhood and foreshortened reproductive careers. Precarious employment conditions, related to trends in international labour markets, may play an important role in older age of first-time motherhood (as suggested in contemporary fertility theories). However there is a paucity of Australian research about this issue. A post-positivist approach was used to design a theory incorporating multiple disciplinary perspectives. The theory sought to explain the influence of macro-economic factors on individual lives...

‣ Obsessive-compulsive symptom dimensions in a population-based, cross-sectional sample of school-aged children

Alvarenga, Pedro G.; Cesar, Raony C.; Leckman, James F.; Moriyama, Tais S.; Torres, Albina R.; Bloch, Michael H.; Coughlin, Catherine G.; Hoexter, Marcelo Q.; Manfro, Gisele G.; Polanczyk, Guilherme V.; Miguel, Euripedes C.; Rosario, Maria C. do
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 108-114
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Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 2008/57896-8; Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder can be expressed as four potentially overlapping obsessive-compulsive symptom (OCS) dimensions (OCSD) ("symmetry/ordering", "contamination/cleaning", "aggressive/sexual/religious" and "collecting/hoarding"). In clinical samples, some dimensions are more familial and associated with increased psychiatric comorbidity and malfunctioning. However, data concerning OCS and OCSD are scarce in non-clinical samples, particularly among children. The present study aims to estimate: (1) the prevalence and sex/age distribution of OCS/OCSD in a community-based sample of schoolchildren; (2) the association between OCS and additional clinical factors; and (3) the degree of familial aggregation of OCS/OCSD. Methods: OCS and OCSD were evaluated in 9937 Brazilian school-children (6-12 years-old) and their biological relatives using the Family History Screen. Data analyses included gradient estimated equations and post-hoc tests. Results: We included data on 9937 index-children, 3305 siblings (13-18 years-old), and 16,218 parents. Biological mothers were the informants in 87.6% of the interviews. OCS were present in 14.7% of the index-children; 15.6% of their siblings; 34.6% of their mothers and 12.1% of their fathers. The prevalence of OCS and each of the OCSD gradually increased from ages 6 to 12 years. Overall...

‣ Doing 'health' research in an unhealthy research environment

Johansson, Sheila Ryan
Fonte: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University Publicador: Health Transition Centre, National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 52164 bytes; application/pdf
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If research produces knowledge about health, and knowledge is essential for improving health, then health research improves health, particularly through policy. Health transition research is exceptionally important to the production of useful knowledge (Caldwell 1990:xiii) because it deals with the causes of improved health over time. While the logic is sound health research is not. It is a contentious field currently producing more confusion than enlightenment, in which continuing uncertainty means that it is difficult to identify and apply genuinely useful knowledge. Health research, including health transition research, is distributed over a number of fields which in themselves comprise separate academically-based disciplines and subdisciplines. These fields compete with one another to control research and funding; they do not work together to solve problems of pressing importance to health related human welfare. While there are exceptional individual social scientists, who conduct and support genuinely co-operative interdisciplinary research, their best efforts may not be able to transform a research environment which makes the production of useful knowledge difficult. In the present research environment it is generally yes that most health research is done to advance the welfare of a field and the experts in it. The competition between fields means that the overarching goal of all social science research — the improvement of human welfare — is easily lost in the struggle for disciplinary hegemony. The purpose of this paper is to explore the intellectual and institutional circumstances which create this counter-productive...

‣ Snippets From the Past: Is Flint, Michigan, the Birthplace of the Case-Control Study?

Morabia, Alfredo
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In the summer of 1924, an outbreak of scarlet fever occurred in Flint, Michigan. Unable to trace it to the usual causes, particularly fresh milk, the Michigan Department of Health used a novel approach to disentangle the enigma: The 116 cases of scarlet fever were compared with 117 “controls” selected from neighbors of the quarantined cases and from patients at the City Health Center who had been treated for ailments unrelated to scarlet fever. The extraordinary culprit was ice cream, which had a frequent/occasional/none consumption prevalence of 60%, 34%, and 6% among the cases and 24%, 51%, and 25% among the controls, respectively. The 1925 report reads, “Detailed epidemiological investigation, by means of case histories and control histories on well persons, confirmed early suspicions and established the fact that the epidemic was spread by ice cream” (Am J Hyg. 1925;5(5):669–681). This forgotten epidemiologic study is the oldest study using the case-control design to have been resurrected thus far. The case-control study design may have been conceived simultaneously, but independently and for different purposes, in England (Janet Lane-Claypon's 1926 report on the determinants of breast cancer) and the United States.

‣ Snippets From the Past: The Evolution of Wade Hampton Frost's Epidemiology as Viewed From the American Journal of Hygiene/Epidemiology

Morabia, Alfredo
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Wade Hampton Frost, who was a Professor of Epidemiology at Johns Hopkins University from 1919 to 1938, spurred the development of epidemiologic methods. His 6 publications in the American Journal of Hygiene, which later became the American Journal of Epidemiology, comprise a 1928 Cutter lecture on a theory of epidemics, a survey-based study of tonsillectomy and immunity to Corynebacterium diphtheriae (1931), 2 papers from a longitudinal study of the incidence of minor respiratory diseases (1933 and 1935), an attack rate ratio analysis of the decline of diphtheria in Baltimore (1936), and a 1936 lecture on the age, time, and cohort analysis of tuberculosis mortality. These 6 American Journal of Hygiene /American Journal of Epidemiology papers attest that Frost's personal evolution mirrored that of the emerging “early” epidemiology: The scope of epidemiology extended beyond the study of epidemics of acute infectious diseases, and rigorous comparative study designs and their associated quantitative methods came to light.

‣ The 2014 Surgeon General's Report: Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the 1964 Report of the Advisory Committee to the US Surgeon General and Updating the Evidence on the Health Consequences of Cigarette Smoking

Alberg, Anthony J.; Shopland, Donald R.; Cummings, K. Michael
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The question of whether cigarette smoking was associated with lung cancer was central to the expansion of epidemiology into the study of chronic diseases in the 1950s. The culmination of this era was the 1964 report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon General, a landmark document that included an objective synthesis of the evidence of the health consequences of smoking according to causal criteria. The report concluded that cigarette smoking was a cause of lung cancer in men and sufficient in scope that “remedial action” was warranted at the societal level. The 2014 Surgeon General's report commemorates the 50th anniversary of the 1964 report. The evidence on the health consequences of smoking has been updated many times in Surgeon General's reports since 1964. These have summarized our increasingly greater understanding of the broad spectrum of the deleterious health effects of exposure to tobacco smoke across most major organ systems. In turn, this evidence has been translated into tobacco control strategies implemented to protect the public's health. The Surgeon General report process is an enduring example of evidence-based public health in practice. Substantial progress has been made, but cigarette smoking remains one of the most pressing global health issues of our time.

‣ “If It Isn't Ultimately Aimed at Policy, It's Not Worth Doing”: Interview of George W. Comstock by Alfredo Morabia

Morabia, Alfredo
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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George W. Comstock (1915–2007), MD, MPH, DrPH, was lecturer and then professor of epidemiology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health from 1956 to 2007 and served as editor-in-chief of the American Journal of Epidemiology from 1979 to 1988. This interview of George W. Comstock took place in Hagerstown, Maryland, in the spring of 1990. The selection of questions and answers published here represent approximately 10% of the whole interview, which had been reviewed and hand-corrected by Dr. Comstock. He first describes how epidemiology was taught at Hopkins in the 1950s and 1960s. He then distinguishes “epidemiology per se” from a “practical epidemiology” that works closely with local health departments, and he finally expresses his wish that in the future, epidemiology would become more widely involved in policy and accepted by policy makers. Photo of George, Margaret, and Gordon Comstock taken during World War II, most likely in 1944, while Dr Comstock was serving as Medical Officer in an Escort Destroyer Division.

‣ Considerações acerca dos fundamentos teóricos da explicação em epidemiología; Considerations concerning the theoretical foundations of explanation in epidemiology

Silva, Luiz Jacintho da
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/1985 Português
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São analisadas as condições históricas do surgimento da epidemiologia como disciplina científica, em meados do século passado. É revista a evolução das bases teóricas do processo explicativo em epidemiologia até o momento atual. Especial atenção é dada ao papel da lógica positivista de Stuart Mill como base teórica da Epidemiologia até recentemente. São discutidas as alternativas teóricas correntes e proposta maior abertura da epidemiologia a diferentes correntes filosóficas como o caminho para o estabelecimento da epidemiologia como uma ciência madura.; The historical conditions surrounding the emergence, by the mid-19th century, of epidemiology as a scientific discipline, were analysed. Special consideration is given to the influence of the political milieu of Victorian England in the definition of the theoretical basis of epidemiology. The English Sanitary Movement is seen as a response of the emerging bourgeoise to problems created by industrialization and urbanization. As a consequence, epidemiology was strongly influenced by Stuart Mill's system of logic. During the latter part of the 19th century, bacteriology brought important transformations to epidemiology. However, its theoretical foundations suffered almost no change. Possibly the new challenges created by -the expanding colonial empires were the driving force in the evolution of epidemiology. As a science...

‣ Explorando as múltiplas trajetórias de causalidade: colaboração entre antropologia e epidemiologia na coorte de nascimentos de 1982, Pelotas, RS; Explorando las múltiples trayectorias de causalidad: colaboración entre antropología y epidemiología en la cohorte de nacimientos de 1982, Pelotas, Sur de Brasil; Exploring multiple trajectories of causality: collaboration between Anthropology and Epidemiology in the 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil

Béhague, Dominique P; Gonçalves, Helen
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2008 Português
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OBJETIVO: Embora a relação entre Epidemiologia e Antropologia tenha uma longa história, geralmente, ela tem sido compreendida por meio da integração dos métodos quantitativos e qualitativos em pesquisa. Recentemente, esses dois campos têm convergido para linhas conceituais e teóricas, enfatizando mais a explicação do que a simples descrição dos fenômenos investigados. O objetivo do estudo foi mostrar como a análise de dados etnográficos auxilia na interpretação aprofundada e teórica de dados epidemiológicos. MÉTODOS: As análises antropológicas do artigo foram obtidas usando métodos etnográficos, de 1997 a 2007, de uma amostra pertencente ao estudo de coorte de nascimento de 1982 em Pelotas (RS). As análises etnográficas foram estruturadas de acordo com os resultados de dois artigos epidemiológicos sobre os determinantes de morbidade mental e da idade de iniciação sexual. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: As análises etnográficas indicam diversos caminhos de influência e causalidade presentes nas associações estatísticas e que correspondem a experiências únicas de grupos específicos. Explorando esses caminhos, observaram-se vários fatores importantes que ajudam a explicar os resultados epidemiológicos...

‣ Interpretação histórica e transformação científica: a tarefa hermenêutica de uma teoria crítica da epidemiologia; Historical interpretation and scientific transformation: the hermeneutical task of a critical theory of epidemiology

Ayres, José Ricardo de C. M.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/08/1994 Português
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São discutidas as contribuições trazidas pela abordagem histórica ao debate epistemológico da epidemiologia. Buscando-se na teoria do agir comunicativo, de Habermas, e na filosofia hermenêutica de Gadamer, enriquecimentos para uma compreensão práxica das ciências, procura-se explorar o sentido em que a perspectiva histórica redimensiona as questões epistemológicas básicas da epidemiologia. A argumentação aponta para a maior fecundidade desta aproximação, em contraste com as aproximações estritamente lógico-formais, na apreensão dos impasses teóricos com que se defronta a epidemiologia na busca de seus axiomas científicos. Destaca-se, em particular, o potencial emancipador do resgate da historicidade no âmbito da própria atividade epistemológica.; The objective of this work is to discuss the scope of historical issues in an epistemological approach to epidemiology. Considering the contributions to a practical comprehension of science made by Habermas's theory of communicative action and Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics, this study attempts to explore the sense in which a historical point of view redirects the main epistemological questions of epidemiology. In contrast to strictly formal approaches, a historically enhanced epistemology seems to be a more prolific source of reasoning about the striving of epidemiology for scientific axioms. The relevance of historical theoretical improvements to epistemological methods themselves...