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‣ Why are women smaller than men? When anthropology meets evolutionary biology

Priscille Touraille; Pierre-Henri Gouyon
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
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56.95046%
There are large variations of size among humans but in all populations, men are larger on average than women. For most biologists this fact can be easily explained by the same processes that explain the size dimorphism in large mammals in general and in apes in particular. Due to fights between males for the possession of females, sexual selection has favoured bigger males. Indeed, this factor certainly explains why males are selected for being large but lets aside the question of selection on the female side. Actually, it has been shown that larger females are also favoured by natural selection. This is particularly relevant for women because their probability of dying when giving birth is then reduced. In this paper, the common view that size dimorphism in humans results from the fact that the advantage of being big is stronger for men than for women is challenged by another hypothesis, namely that the difference results from a difference of cost rather than from a difference of benefits. The cost of being big would be higher in women simply because, under gender hierarchical regimes found in all cultures, men are allocated the best food. The interaction between evolutionary forces and cultural practices could then lead to this disadaptive situation.

‣ The Dryad Digital Repository: Published evolutionary data as part of the greater data ecosystem

Todd Vision
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
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56.95046%
Here we describe the motivation and workings of Dryad, a digital repository for data underlying published articles in the biosciences, that grew out of a grassroots effort to support a joint data archiving policy adopted by a consortium of journals in ecology and evolutionary biology.

‣ Community content building for evolutionary biology: Lessons learned from LepTree and Encyclopedia of Life

Cynthia Parr; Dana Campbell; John Park
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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67.331895%
Online resources to aid large-scale ecological and evolutionary biology are beginning to take root, only a decade behind fields such as genomics and molecular biology. One barrier has been a long tradition, in evolutionary biology at least, of work by individuals on the order of a few hundred of species rather than the thousands or hundreds of thousands necessary to understand the general evolutionary or ecological processes that explain species characteristics and distributions. Advances in collaborative and semantic software offer promise – it should be possible to develop high quality online species-level datasets for comparative analyses and even to integrate, via machine reasoning, across highly customized datasets. In this talk we will compare and contrast two approaches to assembling the data.

‣ GMOD for Evolutionary Biology

Robert Buels; Dave Clements
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
Português
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The Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD, "http://gmod.org":http://gmod.org) project provides interoperable, open source software tools for managing, visualizing and annotating biological data. GMOD is also a community of people addressing common challenges with biological data. Some well known software in GMOD includes GBrowse and JBrowse for genome browsing, Apollo for genome annotation, Chado for managing data, CMap for comparative map viewing, Galaxy for workflow creation and persistence, and BioMart for warehousing biological data. This talk will focus on three areas of particular interest to iEvoBio participants. 1) GBrowse_syn comparative genomics viewer 2) Natural Diversity Module of the Chado database schema 3) GMOD evolutionary biology hackathon The GBrowse_syn comparative genomics viewer displays synteny between a reference and any number of related species. It shows inversions, duplications, and indels, and can show synteny across non-contiguous regions. It is built on the widely used GBrowse genome viewer. The Natural Diversity Module is an extension to GMOD’s Chado database schema to enable Chado to support natural diversity, population genomics...