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‣ Normas de produção de animais submetidos a sistema intensivo : cenario da legislação nacional sobre bem-estar animal; Norms of animal production in intensive rearing : scenario for national legislation on animal welfare

Raquel Baracat Tosi Rodrigues da Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/01/2008 Português
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O Brasil é o maior produtor de carne do mundo e tem um importante papel no mercado exterior. Face às novas demandas internacionais de bem-estar animal, há necessidade de atualização da legislação brasileira, que data dos anos 30 e não reflete a atual produção animal no Brasil. Tendo em vista as condições de o agronegócio brasileiro ter crescido precisa-se atender a exigências de normas internacionais, entre outras coisas, aos assuntos relacionados ao bem-estar animal. Este tema tem hoje importância maior e, como o alojamento intensivo de animais domésticos está diretamente vinculado às questões de eficiência das construções rurais e da ambiência, tanto no sentido das condições de temperaturas, umidade relativa do ar e ventos, além da incidência de radiação solar, presença de gases agressivos e excesso de ruído, entre outros. Portanto, pesquisarem tais efeitos é necessário para melhor entendimento das reais necessidades do animal estar em boas condições. Na década de 30 surgiu o Decreto Lei no. 24.645, que expunha que todos os animais existentes no país são tutelados pelo Estado. A Lei 9.605/98 materializou a exigência legal prevista na Constituição Federal, sendo geral para outros temas ligados inclusive ao meio ambiente. Da mesma forma...

‣ The Portuguese Montado as a High Nature Farming System: an Interdisciplinary Methodology Linking Grazing Management to Biodiversity Value

Azeda, Carla; Rabaça, João E.; Pinto-Correia, Teresa
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Aula
Português
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The Portuguese montado, an agro-silvo pastoral system derived from the Mediterranean forest ecosystems, is broadly considered a High Nature Value Farming System (HNV). These semi-natural systems significantly depend on the agricultural management. Consequently, its natural value and environmental qualities are closely related to the different farming practices adopted by land managers. Within these, grazing has a particular relevance since extensive livestock production is currently one of the most important economic activities associated with these systems, presenting a pronounced variability, both in terms of intensity and variety of animal species and breeds. In the region of Alentejo, Southern Portugal, there are several types of montado in different natural conditions (soils, climate, and topography) and managed, currently and over time, in very distinct ways. The high variability underlying these systems, both in biophysical and management contexts, can result in an impact of completely different levels on the sustainability of the system and consequently, on its natural values. Using birds as models for assessing the levels of biodiversity and starting from the research question: How to differentiate between a montado with and without HNV? In this paper we intend to present an innovative interdisciplinary methodology built up to assess the relationship between grazing management and biodiversity values...

‣ A detecção remota e os SIG na produção animal - análise da contribuição e situação actual

Carvalho, Ana Cristina Vilhena Raminhos
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 08/07/2010 Português
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Dissertação apresentada como requisito parcial para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciência e Sistemas de Informação Geográfica; O sector pecuário está a atravessar rápidas mudanças em resposta às pressões impostas pela globalização e pela crescente procura pelos produtos de origem animal nos países em desenvolvimento. Este crescimento e transformação têm consequências sociais e ambientais. Perante este cenário revela‐se pertinente um levantamento através de uma revisão de literatura, da situação actual no que toca à contribuição que a Detecção Remota (DR) e os Sistemas de Informação Geográfica (SIG) podem dar, para atingir um objectivo: aumentar a produtividade do sector agro‐pecuário de forma sustentável, dando resposta à procura (actual e futura) preservando a integridade dos ecossistemas onde se encontram inseridos os núcleos de produção, minimizando os impactos ambientais.(...)

‣ Spatialization of climate, physical and socioeconomic factors that affect the dairy goat production in Brazil and their impact on animal breeding decisions

Lopes,Fernando B.; Silva,Marcelo C. da; Miyagi,Eliane S.; Fioravanti,Maria C.S.; Facó,Olivardo; Guimarães,Renato F.; C. Júnior,Osmar A. de; McManus,Concepta M.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2012 Português
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Brazil has high climate, soil and environmental diversity, as well as distinct socioeconomic and political realities, what results in differences among the political administrative regions of the country. The objective of this study was to determine spatial distribution of the physical, climatic and socioeconomic aspects that best characterize the production of dairy goats in Brazil. Production indices of milk per goat, goat production, milk production, as well as temperature range, mean temperature, precipitation, normalized difference vegetation index, relative humidity, altitude, agricultural farms; farms with native pasture, farms with good quality pasture, farms with water resources, farms that receive technical guidance, family farming properties, non-familiar farms and the human development index were evaluated. The multivariate analyses were carried out to spatialize climatic, physical and socioeconomic variables and so differenciate the Brazilian States and Regions. The highest yields of milk and goat production were observed in the Northeast. The Southeast Region had the second highest production of milk, followed by the South, Midwest and North. Multivariate analysis revealed distinctions between clusters of political-administrative regions of Brazil. The climatic variables were most important to discriminate between regions of Brazil. Therefore...

‣ Impact of Integrated Fish Farming on Antimicrobial Resistance in a Pond Environment

Petersen, Andreas; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Kaewmak, Tawatchai; Somsiri, Temdoung; Dalsgaard, Anders
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2002 Português
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Integrated fish farming combines livestock production with fish farming. Animal manure is shed directly into a fish pond as fertilizer and supports the growth of photosynthetic organisms. The livestock, mainly chickens and pigs, is often fed feed containing growth promoters. In this study we investigated the impact of integrated fish farming on the levels of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria in a pond environment. One integrated broiler chicken-fish farm was studied for 2 months immediately after the start of a new fish production cycle. A significant increase over time in the resistance to six different antimicrobials was found for the indicator organism Acinetobacter spp. isolated from composite water-sediment samples. The initial resistance levels prior to the new production cycle were 1 to 5%. After 2 months the levels of resistance to oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole reached 100%, and the levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin were more than 80%. The long-term effects of resistance on integrated farming were studied on seven additional farms. The resistance levels were particularly high among Enterococcus spp. and were also high among Acinetobacter spp. isolated from water-sediment samples compared to the resistance levels at four control farms. In conclusion...

‣ Prospects from agroecology and industrial ecology for animal production in the 21st century

Dumont, B.; Fortun-Lamothe, L.; Jouven, M.; Thomas, M.; Tichit, M.
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Agroecology and industrial ecology can be viewed as complementary means for reducing the environmental footprint of animal farming systems: agroecology mainly by stimulating natural processes to reduce inputs, and industrial ecology by closing system loops, thereby reducing demand for raw materials, lowering pollution and saving on waste treatment. Surprisingly, animal farming systems have so far been ignored in most agroecological thinking. On the basis of a study by Altieri, who identified the key ecological processes to be optimized, we propose five principles for the design of sustainable animal production systems: (i) adopting management practices aiming to improve animal health, (ii) decreasing the inputs needed for production, (iii) decreasing pollution by optimizing the metabolic functioning of farming systems, (iv) enhancing diversity within animal production systems to strengthen their resilience and (v) preserving biological diversity in agroecosystems by adapting management practices. We then discuss how these different principles combine to generate environmental, social and economic performance in six animal production systems (ruminants, pigs, rabbits and aquaculture) covering a long gradient of intensification. The two principles concerning economy of inputs and reduction of pollution emerged in nearly all the case studies...

‣ Meat Quality Characteristics of Small East African Goats and Norwegian Crosses Finished under Small Scale Farming Conditions

Hozza, W. A.; Mtenga, L. A.; Kifaro, G. C.; Shija, D. S. N.; Mushi, D. E.; Safari, J. G.; Shirima, E. J. M.
Fonte: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST) Publicador: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies (AAAP) and Korean Society of Animal Science and Technology (KSAST)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2014 Português
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The aim of the experiment was to study the effect of feeding system on meat quality characteristics of Small East African (SEA) goats and their crosses with Norwegian (SEA×N) goats finished under small scale farming conditions. Twenty four castrated goats at the age of 18 months with live body weight of 16.7±0.54 kg from each breed (SEA and SEA×N) were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2×3 factorial arrangement (two breed, and three dietary treatments). The dietary treatments were; no access to concentrate (T0), 66% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance (T66) and 100% access to ad libitum concentrate allowance with 20% refusal (T100) and the experimental period was for 84 days. In addition, all goats were allowed to graze for 2 hours daily and later fed grass hay on ad libitum basis. Daily feed intakes were recorded for all 84-days of experiment after which the animals were slaughtered. Feed intake of T100 animals was 536 g/d, which was 183 g/d higher than that of T66 group. Supplemented goats had significantly (p<0.05) better feed conversion efficiency. The SEA had higher (p<0.05) hot carcass weight (8.2 vs 7.9 kg), true dressing percentage (54.5 vs 53.3) and commercial dressing percentage (43.3 vs 41.6) compared to SEA×N. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) for dressing percentage and carcass conformation among supplemented goats except fatness score...

‣ Environmental and Social Management System Implementation Handbook : Animal Production

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Environmental and social responsibility is becoming more and more important in todayapos;s global economy. There are thousands of environmental and social codes and standards in the world today. The codes and standards define the rules and the objectives. But the challenge is in the implementation. An environmental and social management system (ESMS) helps companies to integrate the rules and objectives into core business operations, through a set of clearly defined, repeatable processes. This Handbook is intended to be a practical guide to help companies in the animal production industry develop and implement an environmental and social management system, which should help to improve overall operations. Some people think that an environmental and social management system must be big, complicated and expensive. But that is not really true. To be effective, a management system needs to be scaled to the nature and size of the company. If a company has existing management systems for quality or health and safety...

‣ Improving Animal Welfare in Livestock Operations

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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In the past decade, animal welfare has been increasingly recognized in importance in commercial livestock operations. Governments, academic institutions, and animal welfare professionals are addressing animal welfare at different points in the agricultural supply chain, while consumers are demanding higher standards for food safety and animal welfare. Meanwhile, regional and global initiatives to provide guidance on acceptable animal welfare practices have emerged. IFC is committed to working with clients to reduce losses, increase productivity, and/or access new markets through the application of sustainability principles, including animal welfare standards. This Good Practice Note (GPN), which supersedes the 2006 edition, contributes to IFC s continued commitment to supporting clients in a responsible and forward-looking approach to traditional livestock production (dairy, beef, broiler chickens, layer chickens, pigs, and ducks) and aquaculture in intensive and extensive systems to, among other things, help producers access and maintain entry to high quality and value market segments. This GPN describes a range of animal welfare good practice and complements IFC s Performance Standards on Environmental and Social Sustainability (2012)...

‣ "Animal traction in a farming systems perspective"

Poats, Susan V; Farming Systems Support Project
Fonte: Farming Systems Support Project, International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences; Farming Systems Support Project, International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ( Gainesville Fla ) Publicador: Farming Systems Support Project, International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences; Farming Systems Support Project, International Programs, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ( Gainesville Fla )
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 187 p. : ; 28 cm.
Publicado em // Português
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(Bibliography) Bibliography: p. 131-160.; (Statement of Responsibility) prepared by Susan V. Poats [et al.]; English and French.; "AID-PN-AAV-681."; (Funding) Electronic resources created as part of a prototype UF Institutional Repository and Faculty Papers project by the University of Florida.

‣ The Lost History of Organic Farming in Australia

Paull, John
Fonte: Journal of Organic Systems Publicador: Journal of Organic Systems
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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It has not been previously reported that the world’s first “organic” farming society was the Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society (AOFGS) which was founded in Australia in October 1944. The association was based in Sydney, New South Wales, and the first issue of its journal, the Organic Farming Digest (OFD), was dated April 1946. This was Australia’s first, and the world’s second, “organic” farming journal. The eighteen month delay between the founding of the society and the first publication of the journal was because paper was unavailable in Australia for that purpose during WWII. The society published a total of 378 articles in 29 issues from 1946 to 1954. Articles from Australia, UK, USA, New Zealand, South Africa, Germany and Denmark were published. Topics included: farming and gardening; health; environment; politics and economics; and animal welfare. More than 190 authors were published. British authors published included Sir Albert Howard, Lady Louise Howard, Lady Eve Balfour, and Friend Sykes. American authors published included Dr. Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, Jerome Rodale, Gaylord Hauser, and Louis Bromfield. Australian authors from the states of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania and Queensland were published. These included Sir Stanton Hicks...

‣ Modernisation of Eritrean rainfed farming systems through a conservation farming systems approach

Cummins, J.; Coventry, D.
Fonte: Springer; United Kingdom Publicador: Springer; United Kingdom
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Agricultural productivity improvements, particularly in grains for human consumption, are essential in Eritrea if this developing country in eastern Africa is to achieve food security. The central highlands of Eritrea, where much of the grain is produced, is characterised by low (though high-intensity) rainfall that limits the growing season to a length of 4–5 months, highly erodible soils and intense land use competition from pastoral activities. The cultural practices of Eritrean farmers, which appear to have changed little over hundreds of years, include cultivation by oxen, broadcasting of seed by hand and hand harvesting. Animal threshing of grain is still common in many of the agricultural areas. The crop and pasture residues are normally grazed, or used for fuel, thus leaving the soil exposed to wind and water erosion. Eritrean farming systems are complicated by social pressures from practices such as communal grazing and, for many farmers, a revolving 5–7-year land tenure system. With a need to achieve food security, the key to sustainable farming in Eritrea may be to develop agricultural systems based on conservation farming practices, within a farmer participatory framework, where indigenous knowledge systems are recognised and respected. This will need to be done by gradual incremental improvements that address both the socio-economic and technological barriers to systems improvement.; Jay Cummins and David Coventry

‣ Efficiency, subsidies and environmental adaptation of animal farming under CAP

Murillo, C.; Sperlich, Stefan; Kleinhans, W.; San Juan Mesonada, Carlos
Fonte: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid Publicador: Universidade Carlos III de Madrid
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2006 Português
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The purpose of this paper is to model the interaction between the targets of the current CAP: environmental adaptation, subsidies and efficiency of the animal farming. To study these questions at the European level, we chose Spain and Germany as representatives of Continental and Mediterranean livestock raising, in particular a sample data from 1999 to 2000, and we identify the production frontier and relative efficiency level for each animal oriented farm. The production frontier and efficiency index for each type of farm (assuming no specific production functions) are identified using DEA techniques. We then address the relationship between relative efficiency, farm size and environmentally friendly behavior realizing a non parametric regression of efficiency on economic size, a proxy for the degree of environmental appropriateness, and regional dummies. Calculations of the efficiency of the farms including direct subsidies are compared with the counterfactual exercise in the case where direct subsidies are not considered. Finally, we look for relations between subsidies and factors such as farm size, efficiency and environmentally friendly behavior. One key result shows that on average direct payments generally tend to increase efficiency. However...

‣ Ferramenta de gestão na pecuária leiteira: análise do investimento em melhorias para o bem-estar de vacas; Dairy Farming Management Tools: analysis of investment to the improvements of the cow's welfare

Pinto, Ana Luiza Mendonça
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2015 Português
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Para suprir a crescente demanda pela produção de alimentos de origem animal baseada nos princípios do bem-estar, é importante que produtores de leite bovino se preocupem em identificar pontos fortes e fracos em seu sistema de produção, para que melhorias sejam realizadas, e sua manutenção neste mercado competitivo, favorecida. Sugere-se que há uma complementariedade entre aumento de produção causado por um melhor manejo (nutrição, instalações, controle sanitário etc.) e o aumento no nível de bem-estar animal - BEA. No entanto, percebe-se certa resistência dos pecuaristas para adoção de novas tecnologias e de instrumentos da administração e da gestão de empresas para proporcionar segurança nas tomadas de decisão de seu próprio negócio. Portanto, objetivou-se neste estudo, avaliar o retorno do investimento em melhorias para o bem-estar de vacas leiteiras em sistemas de produção em pasto e em confinamento. A partir da aplicação do protocolo de avaliação Welfare Quality® em seis unidades produtivas de leite bovino no estado de São Paulo, foram identificados pontos críticos de BEA a serem melhorados. Com base em um orçamento para realização dessas melhorias e em referências na literatura, foi estruturado um fluxo de caixa incremental para avaliação dos projetos de investimento em cada sistema produção. De acordo com os resultados obtidos para os parâmetros econômicos payback...

‣ Chronic lymphocytic leukaemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by histological type in farming-animal breeding workers: a population case-control study based on job titles.

Amadori, D; Nanni, O; Falcini, F; Saragoni, A; Tison, V; Callea, A; Scarpi, E; Ricci, M; Riva, N; Buiatti, E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1995 Português
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OBJECTIVES--A population based case-control study was conducted in a highly agricultural area in the north east of Italy to evaluate the association between farming and animal breeding and the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). METHODS--Occupational histories and other data were collected by personal interview on 164 NHLs, 23 CLLs, diagnosed in 1988-90, and on 977 controls. This paper only reports the results of the analysis relative to the coding of job titles through the modified International Labour Office (ILO) classification. Estimates of odds ratios (ORs) for occupational variables were calculated, after adjustment for sex, age, altitude of municipality, first degree familiarity, and previous Herpes zoster infection. RESULTS--From the analysis of the most frequent occupational categories, no occupation showed a significantly high risk. When the two job titles farmers only and farmer-breeders who are also involved in animal breeding are classified within the extremely varied occupation of agriculture or animal-breeding or fishing, a high risk for NHLs and CLLs is seen in the farmer-breeders (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.22 - 2.63). Analyses according to histological type show that the risks are concentrated in CLLs and in low grade NHLs. No effect or trend by period at work or duration of employment in farming and animal breeding was found. CONCLUSION--Subjects working in agriculture associated with animal breeding are at high risk of NHL/CLLs...

‣ Chronic lymphocytic leukaemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by histological type in farming-animal breeding workers: a population case-control study based on a priori exposure matrices.

Nanni, O; Amadori, D; Lugaresi, C; Falcini, F; Scarpi, E; Saragoni, A; Buiatti, E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1996 Português
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OBJECTIVES: A population based case-control study was conducted in a highly agricultural area in Italy to investigate the association between chronic lymphocytic leukaemias (CLLs) and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs), and subtypes, and exposure to pesticides in farming-animal breeding workers. METHODS: 187 cases of CLLs and NHLs and 977 population controls were interviewed on medical, residential, family, and occupational history. Detailed information was collected about cultivated crops and animals bred from subjects who worked in farming and animal breeding. Information on crop diseases and pesticides used (and their quantity and duration) was also obtained. A priori job-exposure matrices were applied when a crop disease was reported, estimating the most probable pesticide and, when possible, an estimate of the cumulative dose. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by unconditional logistic analysis with adjustment for relevant confounders in farmers who bred animals and in farmers alone, for the main crops, types of animals, and pesticides categories. First recall and then the matrices were used for defining exposure, as it affected CLLs and NHLs and then separately on CLLs and low grade NHLs. Finally, the dose-response was investigated for those pesticides which had shown some association. RESULTS: No variable under study was associated with work in farming alone. In farming and animal breeding...

‣ Animal discards and the growth and weight gain of the broad-snouted caiman, Caiman latirostris (Daudin, 1802), in captivity; Descartes de origem animal e o crescimento e ganho de peso do jacaré-de-papo-amarelo, Caiman latirostris (Daudin, 1802), em cativeiro

Sarkis-Gonçalves, Fabianna; Castro, Ana Maria Vicente; Verdade, Luciano Martins
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/06/2002 Português
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Cost of feeding is the main limiting factor of caiman farming. The use of livestock discards and byproducts as food sources in caiman farms might help solving this problem. On the present study, four different livestock discards were evaluated as food for broad-snouted caimans (Caiman latirostris) on the first year of life. A total number of 120 hatchlings from six different clutches were kept in four tanks inside a greenhouse. The following diets were used: fish, swine, chicken, mixed (fish + swine + chicken, equal proportions). The experimental design was based on nested ANOVA. Weight gain and growth rates of snout-vent length and belly-width were measured and growth models established. The mixed diet resulted in best growth rates and weight gain, but no consistent difference in growth models among diets were detected.; O custo da alimentação é o principal fator limitante para a criação de jacarés em cativeiro. O uso de descartes e subprodutos como fontes de alimento em fazendas de criação de jacarés poderá auxiliar a resolver este problema. No presente estudo, quatro diferentes tipos de descartes provenientes da produção animal foram avaliados como alimento para o jacaré-de-papo-amarelo (Caiman latirostris) durante o primeiro ano de vida. Um total de 120 filhotes provenientes de seis ninhadas foram mantidos em quatro diferentes tanques dentro de uma estufa plástica. As seguintes dietas foram usadas: peixe...

‣ ANIMAL WELFARE CONCERNS AT A FISH FARMING OPERATION IN SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

Rodrigues, Diego André; Carleti Junior, Alberto Geraldo; Balista, Wagner Cezario; Freitas, Rodrigo Randow de
Fonte: Brazilian Journal of Production Engineering - BJPE Publicador: Brazilian Journal of Production Engineering - BJPE
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/11/2015 Português
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Concern for the welfare of the fish during the production process is not very common among consumers and producers as suggested by the scant literature on the subject, more specifically in the area of animal welfare (Benson & Rollin, 2004; Carneiro et al., 2007). However, this scenario is gradually changing, with increasing international publications, reports and books devoted to the welfare of fish (Erickson, 2003; Pedrazzani et al., 2007; Volpato, 2007). This study focuses on demonstrating what the members of an association of fishermen (who grow tilapia and robalo-peva) think about sentience and fish welfare at slaughter. This will help us determine if the topic is being considered during the commercial production of fish. 

‣ Effects of different raising systems on colour and quality characteristics of Turkish pekin duck meats

Lacin,E.; Aksu,M.I.; Macit,M.; Yildiz,A.; Karaoglu,M.; Esenbuga,N.; Yoruk,M.A.
Fonte: South African Journal of Animal Science Publicador: South African Journal of Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2008 Português
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The current trial was conducted to determine the influence of different raising systems on the meat quality properties of male Turkish Pekin ducks. Ninety male ducklings were randomly allocated to three experimental groups: an animal-fish integrated farming group (IG), a non-animal-fish integrated farming group (NIG) and a poultry house group (PHG). All ducklings were fed a starter diet from weeks 2 to 6 and a finisher diet from weeks 6 to 10. Feed and water were offered ad libitum. At the end of the trial all ducks were slaughtered and the carcasses were stored at 3 °C for 24 hours, after which L*, a* and b* values of the carcass skins were measured. After standard dissection of carcasses, pectoralis muscles were obtained on which pH, colour (L*, a*, b*, C and H), total aerobic mesophilic, total aerobic psychrotrophic, lactic acid bacteria, Micrococcus/Staphylococcus, yeast-mould and Enterobacteriaceae counts were determined. The different raising systems of the ducks had significant effects on the pH, total aerobic mesophilic, Enterobacteriaceae, and L* and b* values of the pectoralis muscle. The lowest pH, total aerobic mesophilic and Enterobacteriaceae counts were found in the PHG group. The lowest L* values for the pectoralis muscle were found in the IG group while the highest a* value was recorded in the IG group. Significant differences in skin colour were observed between the experimental groups. For all production groups...

‣ Analysis of iguana iguana farming systems in nicaragua, costa rica and panama

Eilers,Karen; Koops,Wiebe; Udo,Henk; Van Keulen,Herman; Noordhuizen,Jos
Fonte: ASOCIACIÓN INTERCIENCIA Publicador: ASOCIACIÓN INTERCIENCIA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/11/2002 Português
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This survey evaluated existing Iguana iguana (Green iguana) farming systems in Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. Data were gathered in 1997, by interviewing iguana farmers, their neighbors, iguana experts and government officials about the purported socio-economic and ecological benefits of iguana farming. Iguana farming was expected to provide additional revenue, stimulate nature conservation, produce animal protein, increase the number of trees and augment knowledge about nature. A major constraint was the initial investment, especially when banks provided no credit programs and smallholders depended on credit schemes of NGOs. In Nicaragua and Panama, the existing iguana farming systems had poor prospects to generate additional revenue. Iguana farming had ecological benefits as it stimulated nature conservation attitudes, conservation of trees, augmented the knowledge of farmers about nature and relied on local feed resources. Existing legislation and regulations on iguana farming and trade limited the possibilities of commercializing iguanas and their products. Most iguana farming systems did not generate extra income, had high initial costs, needed professional help to meet the statutory requirements. To introduce iguana farming successfully...