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‣ Reorganização estrutural e metabólica do intestino associada ao jejum e dormência sazonal em lagartos teiú Tupinambis merianae; Structural and metabolic reorganization of the gut during the fasting and seasonal dormancy in tegu lizards Tupinambis merianae

Nascimento, Lucas Francisco Ribeiro do
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/07/2009 Português
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A plasticidade fenotípica do intestino está presente em diferentes grupos de vertebrados e permite ajustes de caráter antecipatório ou de curto prazo na capacidade funcional do intestino frente a flutuações previsíveis e não previsíveis na disponibilidade de alimento no ambiente. No presente trabalho, avaliamos as alterações sazonais na morfologia e na capacidade de oxidação de substratos energéticos no intestino médio de lagartos teiú Tupinambis merianae. A resposta ao jejum associado à depressão metabólica na dormência de inverno foi contrastada com as alterações após 20 dias de jejum na fase ativa. Grupos de animais jovens foram mortos em diferentes fases do primeiro ciclo anual e o intestino médio foi removido e pesado. Amostras do terço proximal do órgão foram transferidas para frascos contendo formaldeído tamponado e o restante do tecido foi picotado e amostras aleatórias foram congeladas em N2 líquido e transferidas para freezer -80 oC. Variáveis morfológicas foram analisadas em cortes histológicos de 5 μm de espessura utilizando-se o método estereológico. O teor de água e o de proteína solúvel e total foi medido nas amostras por meio de ensaios padrão; as atividades máximas de enzimas foram medidas por espectrofotometria em condições saturantes de substrato e cofatores. No outono...

‣ Efeitos da abreviação do jejum pré-operatório com carboidratos e glutamina na resposta metabólica de pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia videolaparoscópica. Estudo controlado randomizado duplo cego; The effects of the abbreviation of preoperative fasting with carbohydrate and glutamine on the metabolic response after videolaparoscopic cholecystectomy. A double blind randomized trial

Nascimento, Diana Borges Dock
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/04/2012 Português
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Introdução: O jejum prolongado pré-operatório aumenta a resistência periférica à insulina. Foi investigado se a abreviação do jejum pré-operatório com uma bebida contendo carboidrato e glutamina melhora a resposta orgânica ao trauma cirúrgico. Métodos: Quarenta e oito pacientes adultas, do sexo feminino (19-62 anos) candidatas a colecistectomia videolaparoscópica eletiva. As pacientes foram aleatoriamente divididas em quatro grupos: grupo jejum convencional (grupo Jejum), ou em três grupos para receber três tipos diferentes bebidas oito horas (400 mL) e duas horas antes da indução anestésica (200ml): água pura (grupo Placebo), água mais dextrinomaltose (grupo carboidrato; 12,5% de dextrinomaltose) e grupo glutamina (grupo glutamina; 12,5% de dextrinomaltose e respectivamente 40 e 10g de glutamina). As amostras de sangue foram coletadas no período pré e pós-operatório. Resultados: não houve nenhum evento de aspiração ou regurgitação do conteúdo gástrico manifesto por sinais e sintomas clínicos, durante a indução anestésica, ou em qualquer outro momento do estudo. Também não houve nenhum óbito ou complicação pós-operatória. A média e o erro padrão médio da resistência à insulina determinada pelo HOMA-IR realizada no pós-operatório foi maior (p<0...

‣ Effects of fasting and intermittent fasting on rat hepatocarcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine

Rocha, N. S.; Barbisan, L. F.; de Oliveira, MLC; de Camargo, JLV
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 129-138
Português
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The influences of fasting on DEN-initiation and of intermittent fasting (IF) on the rat liver chemical carcinogenesis process were evaluated in a 52-week long assay. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were used: Groups I to 3 were treated with a single i.p. injection of 200 mg/kg of diethylnitrosamine (DEN). Group 2 was submitted to 48 h fasting prior to DEN treatment. After the 4th week, Group 3 was submitted to IF, established as 48 h weekly fasting during 48 weeks, while Groups I and 2 were fed ad libitum until the 52nd week. All animals were submitted to 70% partial hepatectomy and sacrificed at the 3rd and 52nd weeks, respectively. Fasting prior to DEN-initiation did not influence the development of altered foci of hepatocytes (AFHs) and of hepatic nodules (Group 2 vs. Group G1). IF inhibited the development of preneoplastic lesions, since this dietary regimen decreased the number and the size of glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) positive foci and the number and size of liver nodules (Group G3 vs. Group G1), the inhibitory effect of IF was also reflected in the development of clear and basophilic cell foci. These results indicate that long-term IF regimen exerts an anti-promoting effect on rat hepatocarcinogenesis induced by DEN. (C) 2002 Wiley-Liss...

‣ Effect of fasting on carbohydrate metabolism in frugivorous bats (Artibeus lituratus and Artibeus jamaicensis)

Pinheiro, E. C.; Taddei, V. A.; Mighorini, R. H.; Kettelhut, I. C.
Fonte: Elsevier B.V. Publicador: Elsevier B.V.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 279-284
Português
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The compensatory changes of carbohydrate metabolism induced by fasting were investigated in frugivorous bats, Artibeus lituratus and Artibeus jamaicensis. For this purpose, plasma levels of glucose and lactate, liver and muscle glycogen content, rates of liver gluconeogenesis and the activity of related enzymes were determined in male bats. After a decrease during the first 48 h of fasting, plasma glucose levels remained constant until the end of the experimental period. Plasma lactate levels, extremely high in fed bats, decreased after 48 h of fasting. Similarly, liver glycogen content, markedly high in fed animals, was reduced to low levels after 24 h without food. Muscle glycogen was also reduced in fasted bats. The expected increase in liver gluconeogenesis during fasting was observed after 48 h of fasting. The activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase were not affected by food withdrawn. on the other hand, fasting for 24 h induced an increase in the activity of liver cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The data indicate that liver gluconeogenesis has an important role in the glucose homeostasis in frugivorous bats during prolonged periods of food deprivation. During short periods of fasting liver glycogenolysis seems to be the main responsible for the maintenance of glycemia. (C) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

‣ Performance and physiological parameters of broiler chickens subjected to fasting on the neonatal period

Gonzales, E.; Kondo, N.; Saldanha, E. S. P. B.; Loddy, M. M.; Careghi, C.; Decuypere, E.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1250-1256
Português
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Broiler chicks aged 12 h after hatching were allotted according to a block design in a 7 x 2 factorial schedule of 14 treatments and four replications of 50 chicks each one. The main experimental factors were fasting for 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 h after chick placement and sex. Independent of sex, fasting had a negative linear effect on weight and productivity of broilers at market age (42 d) without affecting feed conversion or mortality index. Groups subjected to 18 and 36 h of fasting after placement, corresponding to 30 and 48 h posthatching fasting, had lower biometrical values for small intestine (length, weight, and size; villus height; and crypt depth) than chicks fed immediately after placement. According to the Pearson test, BW of birds at 21 and 42 d were significantly correlated to BW at 7 d (r = 0.77) and 21 d (r = 0.45), respectively. Males performed better than females but had higher mortality rates. Fasting did not influence serum concentrations of corticosterone or sexual steroid hormones. Nevertheless, early signs of sexual dimorphism arose from the high estradiol (E2) concentration on female serum. Heterophil:lymphocyte ratio was not different among treatments, indicating that early fasting did not seem to be a stress factor 21 or 42 d after fasting. The results suggested a maximum fasting of 24 h after hatching in order to preserve broiler productivity at market age.

‣ Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

Pires, D. L.; Malheiros, E. B.; Boleli, Isabel Cristina
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 233-240
Português
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The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count), and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976) and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84), respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight...

‣ Comparison of intestinal response of chicks from light and heavy eggs to posthatch fasting

Riccardi, Rafael Raile; Malheiros, Euclides Braga; Boleli, Isabel Cristina
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 23-29
Português
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The effects of posthatch fasting on villi height and number, crypt depth and number of globet cells in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of broiler chicks from heavy and light eggs were compared. The 2×3×3 factorial design (egg weight: light and heavy eggs; treatments: with water and feed, with water, without water and feed; treatment duration: 24, 48 and 72 h) was used. The villi presented higher size in chicks from heavy than from light eggs. The fasting resulted in lower villi in duodenum (at 48 h), jejunum and ileum (at 72 h). The villi number increased in duodenum and jejunum of chicks from light eggs and only in jejunum of chicks from heavy eggs, but the increase was more accented in chicks from light ones. The fasting reduced the globet cells number in jejunum. Water intake avoided the fasting effects on villi height but had no effect on villi number. Chicks from heavy eggs fed with water and ration presented deeper crypts in all regions of the small intestine. The duodenum and ileum crypt depth of the chicks from heavy eggs reduced when they were submitted to fasting and when they were fed only with water. The results showed that chicks from light eggs were more affected than chicks from heavy eggs. The water intake partially avoided the fasting effects. © Asian Network for Scientific Information...

‣ Short periods of fasting followed by refeeding change the expression of muscle growth-related genes in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Nebo, Caroline; Portella, Maria Célia; Carani, Fernanda Regina; de Almeida, Fernanda Losi Alves; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Carvalho, Robson Francisco; Dal-Pai-Silva, Maeli
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 268-274
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Muscle growth mechanisms are controlled by molecular pathways that can be affected by fasting and refeeding. In this study, we hypothesized that short period of fasting followed by refeeding would change the expression of muscle growth-related genes in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of MyoD, myogenin and myostatin and the muscle growth characteristics in the white muscle of juvenile Nile tilapia during short period of fasting followed by refeeding. Juvenile fish were divided into three groups: (FC) control, feeding continuously for 42. days, (F5) 5. days of fasting and 37. days of refeeding, and (F10) 10. days of fasting and 32. days of refeeding. At days 5 (D5), 10 (D10), 20 (D20) and 42 (D42), fish (n = 14 per group) were anesthetized and euthanized for morphological, morphometric and gene expression analyses. During the refeeding, fasted fish gained weight continuously and, at the end of the experiment (D42), F5 showed total compensatory mass gain. After 5 and 10. days of fasting, a significant increase in the muscle fiber frequency (class 20) occurred in F5 and F10 compared to FC that showed a high muscle fiber frequency in class 40. At D42, the muscle fiber frequency in class 20 was higher in F5. After 5. days of fasting...

‣ Effects of fasting and refeeding on the metabolic functions of the turtle kinosternon scorpioides (linnaeus, 1766) raised in captivity

Oliveira, Antonia S.; Candioto, Cinthia G.; Santos, Débora M.S.; Pereira, José G.; Sousa, Alana L.; Machado, Célio R.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 1041-1044
Português
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Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); The metabolic responses of adult and young freshwater Kinosternon scorpioides turtles raised in captivity were evaluated. Two experiments were performed: a) blood metabolite changes caused by food deprivation, and b) liver and muscle glycogen and total lipid differences after fasting and refeeding. Blood glucose concentration of young animals was susceptible to food deprivation. In both groups this metabolite decreased after 30 days of fasting. Feeding for 15 days did not recover blood glucose. Total seric proteins were not affected by food deprivation. Fasting decreased blood urea nitrogen and the highest difference was found around 30 days. Uric acid increased in young animals after 60 days of fasting. Triacylglicerol decreased after 15 days of fasting and refeeding for 15 days recovered the pre-fasting levels. Free fatty acid plasma tended to increase around 15 days of fasting. Liver glycogen decreased at day 15 of fasting, being stable thereafter while muscle glycogen decreased at a slower rate. Total liver lipid stabilized after 30 days and then decreased 70% after 60 days of fasting. Muscle lipids remained stable throughout fasting. It could be concluded that fasting of Kinosternon scorpioides led to metabolic adaptations similar to the one reported from reptiles and fish.

‣ Fsp27/CIDEC is a CREB target gene induced during fasting and regulated by fatty acid oxidation rate

Gonçalves, Joana Fernandes
Fonte: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia Publicador: Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Biotecnologia; Fsp27 (CIDEC the human homologue) is a lipid droplet protein that when overexpressed down regulates fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Previous results of this group showed that Fsp27/CIDEC expression is regulated by fasting in liver in a time-dependent manner. The present study aimed to elucidate the mechanism by which Fsp27/CIDEC is mediating fasting adaptation and regulated by FAO rate in liver. We showed that induction of Fsp27/CIDEC expression during fasting is not regulated by PPARα. Pharmacological inhibition of FAO by etomoxir induces Fsp27/CIDEC in fasting conditions and this regulation is not mediated by PPAR – a master regulator in triglyceride accumulation. The early response to fasting can be explained by a canonical PKA-CREB-CRTC2 signaling pathway, since CIDEC expression was increased by forskolin which effect was lost when a vector containing a dominant negative of CREB construct(KCREB) was co-transfected in HepG2 cells, and, consistently, Fsp27 promoter activity was increased by CREB. Also, CIDEC expression was up-regulated by specific Sirt1 depletion by siRNA in HepG2 cells. Our data demonstrate that Fsp27/CIDEC is a CREB target gene that could be up-regulated when FAO is reduced and that fluctuations in SIRT1 activity...

‣ Effects of fasting and refeeding on the metabolic functions of the turtle Kinosternon scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1766) raised in captivity

Oliveira,Antonia S.; Candioto,Cinthia G.; Santos,Débora M.S.; Pereira,José G.; Sousa,Alana L.; Machado,Célio R.
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA) Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária (EMBRAPA)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2013 Português
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The metabolic responses of adult and young freshwater Kinosternon scorpioides turtles raised in captivity were evaluated. Two experiments were performed: a) blood metabolite changes caused by food deprivation, and b) liver and muscle glycogen and total lipid differences after fasting and refeeding. Blood glucose concentration of young animals was susceptible to food deprivation. In both groups this metabolite decreased after 30 days of fasting. Feeding for 15 days did not recover blood glucose. Total seric proteins were not affected by food deprivation. Fasting decreased blood urea nitrogen and the highest difference was found around 30 days. Uric acid increased in young animals after 60 days of fasting. Triacylglicerol decreased after 15 days of fasting and refeeding for 15 days recovered the pre-fasting levels. Free fatty acid plasma tended to increase around 15 days of fasting. Liver glycogen decreased at day 15 of fasting, being stable thereafter while muscle glycogen decreased at a slower rate. Total liver lipid stabilized after 30 days and then decreased 70% after 60 days of fasting. Muscle lipids remained stable throughout fasting. It could be concluded that fasting of Kinosternon scorpioides led to metabolic adaptations similar to the one reported from reptiles and fish.

‣ Fasting abbreviation among patients submitted to oncologic surgery: systematic review

PINTO,Andressa dos Santos; GRIGOLETTI,Shana Souza; MARCADENTI,Aline
Fonte: Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva Publicador: Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 Português
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INTRODUCTION: The abbreviation of perioperative fasting among candidates to elective surgery have been associated with shorter hospital stay and decreased postoperative complications. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review from randomized controlled trials to detect whether the abbreviation of fasting is beneficial to patients undergoing cancer surgery compared to traditional fasting protocols. METHOD: A literature search was performed in electronic databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), SciELO, EMBASE and Cochrane, without time restriction. Were used the descriptors: "preoperative fasting", "cancer", "diet restriction" and "perioperative period". Randomized trials were included in adults of both sexes, with diagnosis of cancer. Exclusion criteria were: use of parenteral nutrition and publications in duplicate. All analyzes, selections and data extraction were done blinded manner by independent evaluators. RESULTS: Four studies were included, with a total of 150 patients, 128 with colorectal cancer and 22 gastric cancer. The articles were published from 2006 to 2013. The main outcome measures were heterogeneous, which impaired the unification of the results by means of meta-analysis. Compared to traditional protocols, patients undergoing fasting abbreviation with the administration of fluids containing carbohydrates had improvements in glycemic parameters (fasting glucose and insulin resistance)...

‣ Perioperative care in an animal model for training in abdominal surgery: is it necessary a preoperative fasting?

Alves,José Roberto; Lopes,Luiz Roberto; Sasasaki,Tânia
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
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PURPOSE: Demonstrate that the rabbit may be used in the training of surgery, in addition to present its perioperative care. METHODS: Thirty two animals, with age and weight, respectively, from 3 to 5.5 months old and 3000 to 4200 grams, were undergone different periods of pre-operative fasting, exclusive intramuscular anesthesia (ketamine+xylazine), laparotomy with total gastrectomy and total splenectomy. It was dosed the pre-operative (initial) and post-surgical (end) serum blood glucose, in addition to quantify the gastric content after the resection of the part. RESULTS: The anesthetical-surgical procedure presented a mortality rate of 3.125% (1:32) and a morbidity rate of 6.25% (2:32). It was evidenced an initial mean blood glucose = 199.4 mg/dl and the end = 326.1 mg/dl. In spite of extended fasting (minimum of 2 hours for the absolute fasting and maximum of 8.5 hours for liquids, and 20.5 hours for solids) all animals presented at the end of the surgical procedure any gastric content and a blood glucose increase. Those with fasting for liquids and solids when compared to the quantity of solid gastric content, presented a moderate negative degree of correlation. CONCLUSION: The rabbit is a good model to be used in training of surgery...

‣ Fasting does not induce gastric emptying in rats

Brito,Marcus Vinicius Henriques; Yasojima,Edson Yuzur; Teixeira,Renan Kleber Costa; Houat,Abdallah de Paula; Yamaki,Vitor Nagai; Costa,Felipe Lobato da Silva
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 Português
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PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of fasting on gastric emptying in mice. METHODS: Twenty-eight mice were distributed into three study groups: a normal group (N=4): normal standard animals; a total fasting group (N=12): subjected to food and water deprivation and a partial fasting group (N=12): subjected to food deprivation only. The fasting groups were subdivided into three subgroups of four animals each, according to the date of euthanasia: 24, 48 and 72 hours. Was analyzed: the gastric volume, degree of the gastric wall distention and the presence of food debris in gastrointestinal tract. RESULTS: The mean gastric volume was 1601 mm3in the normal group, 847 mm3in total fasting group and 997 mm3in partial fasting group. There was difference between the fasting groups in any analyzed period (p<0.05). Regarding the presence of food debris in the gastrointestinal tract and the degree of distension of the stomach, there was no difference between the groups that underwent total or partial fasting (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Total fasting or only-solids deprivation does not induce gastric emptying in mice.

‣ Influence of sex, age, and fasting on blood parameters and body, bursa, spleen and yolk sac weights of broiler chicks

Pires,DL; Malheiros,EB; Boleli,IC
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
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The effects of water and feed fasting for 24, 48 and 72 hours post-hatching on blood parameters (mean corpuscular volume, MCV; red blood-cell, RBC; hematocrit, HCT; hemoglobin, HGB; plasma glucose, CGP; plasma total protein, PP, and differential leukocytes count), and on body, liver, spleen, bursa, and yolk sac weights were analyzed. Erythrogram data were obtained with a blood cell counter. Total plasma protein and plasma glucose were determined by using the Bradford method (1976) and a glucose PAP liquiform kit (Labtest, cat. n. 84), respectively. Specific leukocyte counts were carried out on blood smears stained with Rosenfeld solution. According to the obtained data, water and feed post-hatching fasting reduced MCV values, which also were lower in males than that in females. Fasting for 48 hours promoted an increase in PP, while fasting for 72 hours reduced HCT. Chicks submitted to fasting presented lower body weights as compared to fed chicks, but their liver weight did not increase between 48 and 72 hours of age. Fasting decreased spleen weight, but bursa and yolk sac weight were not affected. Data showed that female and male chicks react in a similar way to post-hatching fasting, which affects body weight, liver and spleen weight...

‣ Evaluation of different pre-slaughter light intensities and fasting duration in broilers

Ramão,IB; Nunes,RV; Bruno,LDG; Tsutsumi,CY; Silva,WTM; Pozza,MSS
Fonte: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas Publicador: Fundação APINCO de Ciência e Tecnologia Avícolas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
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The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of light intensity (0, 5 or 20 lx) and different pre-slaughter feed fasting duration (3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 hours) on the parameters body weight loss, carcass yield, commercial cuts yield, water carcass retention, bacterial counts and breast meat pH. A number of 72 broiler chickens at 45 days of age (Cobb 500 strain) was distributed in three chambers, in a total of 24 broilers per chamber. The results showed that feed fasting significantly influenced (p<0.05) body weight losswhen broilers were submitted to 9 hours of fasting. Broilers kept in the chamber with 0 lx presented higher body weight loss compared with other light intensities. The results showed an increase in carcass yield (p<0.05) as pre-slaughter feed fasting duration increased, but it did not affect commercial cuts yield or breast meat pH (p>0.05). The presence of feed in the crop and gizzard did not depend on light intensity, but was affected by pre-slaughter feed fasting duration. Bacterial counts decreased with feed fasting duration (p<0.05).

‣ Fasting and nutrient-stimulated plasma peptide-YY levels are elevated in critical illness and associated with feed intolerance: an observational, controlled study

Nguyen, Q.; Fraser, R.; Chapman, M.; Bryant, L.; Wishart, J.; Holloway, R.; Horowitz, M.
Fonte: Current Science Ltd Publicador: Current Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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INTRODUCTION: Delayed gastric emptying and feed intolerance occur frequently in the critically ill. In these patients, gastric motor responses to nutrients are disturbed. Peptide YY (PYY) slows gastric emptying. The aim of this study was to determine fasting and nutrient-stimulated plasma PYY concentrations and their relationship to cholecystokinin (CCK) in critically ill patients. METHODS: Studies were performed in 19 unselected mechanically ventilated critically ill patients (12 males; 48 ± 7 years old) in a randomised, single-blind fashion. Subjects received a 60-minute duodenal infusion of Ensure® at either 1 or 2 kcal/minute. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 20, 40, 60, and 180 minutes following commencement of the nutrient infusion for the measurement of plasma PYY and CCK concentrations (using radioimmunoassay). Patient data were compared to 24 healthy subjects (17 males; 43 ± 2 years old). RESULTS: Fasting PYY concentration was higher in patients (P < 0.05), particularly in those with feed intolerance (P < 0.05). Plasma PYY concentrations were higher in patients during nutrient infusion (area under the curve [AUC] at 1 kcal/minute: 2,265 ± 718 versus 1,125 ± 138 pmol/l.min, P < 0.05; at 2 kcal/minute: 2...

‣ New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk

Dupuis, J.; Palmer, L.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Levels of circulating glucose are tightly regulated. To identify new loci influencing glycemic traits, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide association studies informative for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 nondiabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with fasting glucose and HOMA-B and two loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB-TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes. Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes.; Josée Dupuis ... Lyle J Palmer ... et al.

‣ Desenvolvimento biométrico e desempenho de frangos de corte submetidos a diferentes períodos de jejum pós-eclosão; Biometric development and performance of broilers submitted to different periods of post-hatching fasting

Carvalho, Letícia Souza Silva; Machado, Camila Alves; Fagundes, Naiara Simarro; Litz, Fernanda Heloisa; Fernandes, Evandro de Abreu
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/08/2014 Português
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Foram avaliados os efeitos do tempo de jejum pós-eclosão sobre a biometria dos órgãos do trato digestório e o desempenho zootécnico de frangos de corte. Foram utilizadas 640 aves, sexadas, distribuídas em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro períodos de jejum pós-eclosão (0, 12, 24 e 36 horas) e quatro repetições de 40 aves cada (20 fêmeas e 20 machos). A avaliação do peso vivo e da biometria dos órgãos no alojamento das aves revelou perda de peso relativo do saco vitelino e que a redução no peso vivo nesta fase foi tanto maior quanto maior o tempo decorrido entre nascimento e alojamento. O jejum influenciou o peso relativo de todos os órgãos do trato digestório, exceto para esôfago + papo que permaneceram inalterados. Com o aumento do tempo de jejum houve aumento do peso relativo de proventrículo + moela, intestino delgado + pâncreas, intestino grosso e fígado + vesícula biliar. O peso vivo aos 7 e 21 dias de idade foi maior nas aves que permaneceram em restrição de 24 e 36 horas de jejum. Todavia, as demais variáveis de desempenho não foram influenciadas pelo jejum. Portanto, o uso de até 36 horas de jejum póseclosão afetou o desenvolvimento biométrico do trato digestório...

‣ Correlação de diferentes períodos de jejum com níveis séricos de cortisol, glicemia plasmática, estado clínico e equilíbrio ácido-base em cães submetidos à anestesia geral inalatória; Correlation of the diferent fasting periods with serum cortisol, plasma glycemia, condition clinic and acid-base balance in dogs submitted to inhalation of general anaesthesia

Guimarães, Simone Machado; Oliva, Valéria Nobre Leal de Souza; Maia, Camila Aparecida de Almeida; Ciarlini, Luciana Del Rio Pinoti; Perri, Silvia Helena Venturolli; Silva, Alexandre Redson Soares da; Oliveira, Daniela Boaventura de; Vivan, Maria Carolin
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2007 Português
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Este estudo correlacionou os tempos de jejum sólido pré-anestésico com alterações nos níveis de glicemia plasmática, cortisol sérico, estado clínico e equilíbrio ácido-base em cães submetidos a anestesia geral inalatória. Utilizaram-se oito animais, adultos, sem raça definida, distribuídos de acordo com o período de jejum sólido: Grupo 1 (12 horas), Grupo 2 (18 horas) e Grupo 3 (24 horas). Foi acompanhado o esvaziamento do conteúdo gástrico e em seguida, todos animais foram submetidos ao mesmo procedimento anestésico. Freqüência cardíaca e respiratória, temperatura retal, tempo de reperfusão capilar, grau de hidratação e pressão arterial não-invasiva foram mensurados previamente à administração de acepromazina, 10 minutos decorridos da mesma e a cada 10 minutos durante a manutenção anestésica, incluindo-se ETCO2; valores hemogasométricos (pH, PaCO2, PaO2, HCO3, CO2 total, SatO2, déficit de base), glicêmicos e de cortisol sérico foram avaliados previamente à MPA e a cada trinta minutos durante a manutenção anestésica. No período de recuperação anestésica, novas dosagens glicêmicas e de cortisol foram realizadas. Constataram-se poucas alterações cardiocirculatórias e respiratórias durante a anestesia...