Página 1 dos resultados de 1094 itens digitais encontrados em 0.042 segundos

‣ Review of experimental animal models of acute pancreatitis

Hue Su, Kim; Cuthbertson, Christine; Christophi, Christopher
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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The underlying mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis are ill understood. The mortality rate of this disease has not significantly improved over the past few decades. Current treatment options are limited, and predominantly aimed at supportive therapy. A key feature of severe acute pancreatitis is the presence of extensive tissue necrosis with both local and systemic manifestations of inflammatory response syndromes. A better understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of severe acute pancreatitis may lead to more targeted therapeutic options, potentially leading to improved survival. Animal models of acute pancreatitis are therefore an essential investigative tool for these aims to be achieved. This review discusses the suitability of recent non-invasive models of acute pancreatitis such as hormone-induced, alcohol-induced, immune-mediated, diet-induced, gene knockout and L-arginine; and invasive models including closed duodenal loop, antegrade pancreatic duct perfusion, biliopancreatic duct injection, combination of secretory hyperstimulation with minimal intraductal bile acid exposure, vascular-induced, ischaemia/reperfusion and duct ligation.

‣ Systematic review of tests to identify the disc, SIJ or facet joint as the source of low back pain

Hancock, M. J.; Maher, C. G.; Latimer, J.; Spindler, M. F.; McAuley, J. H.; Laslett, M.; Bogduk, N.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Clinical practice guidelines state that the tissue source of low back pain cannot be specified in the majority of patients. However, there has been no systematic review of the accuracy of diagnostic tests used to identify the source of low back pain. The aim of this systematic review was therefore to determine the diagnostic accuracy of tests available to clinicians to identify the disc, facet joint or sacroiliac joint (SIJ) as the source of low back pain. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched up to February 2006 with citation tracking of eligible studies. Eligible studies compared index tests with an appropriate reference test (discography, facet joint or SIJ blocks or medial branch blocks) in patients with low back pain. Positive likelihood ratios (+LR) > 2 or negative likelihood ratios (-LR) < 0.5 were considered informative. Forty-one studies of moderate quality were included; 28 investigated the disc, 8 the facet joint and 7 the SIJ. Various features observed on MRI (high intensity zone, endplate changes and disc degeneration) produced informative +LR (> 2) in the majority of studies increasing the probability of the disc being the low back pain source. However, heterogeneity of the data prevented pooling. +LR ranged from 1.5 to 5.9...

‣ Feature Detection Techniques for Preprocessing Proteomic Data

Sellers, Kimberly F.; Miecznikowski, Jeffrey C.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Numerous gel-based and nongel-based technologies are used to detect protein changes potentially associated with disease. The raw data, however, are abundant with technical and structural complexities, making statistical analysis a difficult task. Low-level analysis issues (including normalization, background correction, gel and/or spectral alignment, feature detection, and image registration) are substantial problems that need to be addressed, because any large-level data analyses are contingent on appropriate and statistically sound low-level procedures. Feature detection approaches are particularly interesting due to the increased computational speed associated with subsequent calculations. Such summary data corresponding to image features provide a significant reduction in overall data size and structure while retaining key information. In this paper, we focus on recent advances in feature detection as a tool for preprocessing proteomic data. This work highlights existing and newly developed feature detection algorithms for proteomic datasets, particularly relating to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Note, however, that the associated data structures (i.e., spectral data, and images containing spots) used as input for these methods are obtained via all gel-based and nongel-based methods discussed in this manuscript...

‣ How do we define the condition ‘recurrent low back pain’? A systematic review

Stanton, Tasha R.; Latimer, Jane; Maher, Chris G.; Hancock, Mark J.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Recurrent low back pain (recurrent LBP) is a common condition, however, it is unclear if uniform definitions are used in studies investigating the prevalence and management of this condition. The aim of this systematic review was to identify how recurrent LBP is defined in the literature. A literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PEDro. Studies were considered eligible if they investigated a cohort of subjects with recurrent LBP or if they were measuring the prevalence of recurrent LBP. Two independent reviewers assessed inclusion of studies and extracted definitions of recurrent LBP. Forty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies (63%) gave an explicit definition of recurrent LBP; however, the definitions varied greatly and only three definitions for recurrent LBP were used by more than one study. The most common feature given as part of the definition was the frequency of previous episodes of low back pain. Only 8% (3/36) of studies used previously recommended definitions for recurrent LBP. Large variation exists in definitions of recurrent LBP used in the literature, making interpretation of prevalence rates and treatment outcomes very difficult. Achieving consensus among experts in this area is required.

‣ A review on the clinical implementation of respiratory-gated radiation therapy

Saw, CB; Brandner, E; Selvaraj, R; Chen, H; Saiful Huq, M; Heron, DE
Fonte: Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia Publicador: Department of Biomedical Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2007 Português
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Respiratory-gated treatment techniques have been introduced into the radiation oncology practice to manage target or organ motions. This paper will review the implementation of this type of gated treatment technique where the respiratory cycle is determined using an external marker. The external marker device is placed on the abdominal region between the xyphoid process and the umbilicus of the patient. An infrared camera tracks the motion of the marker to generate a surrogate for the respiratory cycle. The relationship, if any, between the respiratory cycle and the movement of the target can be complex. The four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scanner is used to identify this motion for those patients that meet three requirements for the successful implementation of respiratory-gated treatment technique for radiation therapy. These requirements are (a) the respiratory cycle must be periodic and maintained during treatment, (b) the movement of the target must be related to the respiratory cycle, and (c) the gating window can be set sufficiently large to minimise the overall treatment time or increase the duty cycle and yet small enough to be within the gate. If the respiratory-gated treatment technique is employed, the end-expiration image set is typically used for treatment planning purposes because this image set represents the phase of the respiratory cycle where the anatomical movement is often the least for the longest time. Contouring should account for tumour residual motion...

‣ Radiofrequency Ablation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Literature Review

Minami, Yasunori; Kudo, Masatoshi
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver cancers can be performed safely using percutaneous, laparoscopic, or open surgical techniques, and much of the impetus for the use of RFA has come from cohort series that have provided an evidence base for this technique. Here, we give an overview of the current status of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), including its physical properties, to assess the characteristics that make this technique applicable in clinical practice. We review the technical development of probe design and summarize current indications and outcomes of reported clinical use. An accurate evaluation of treatment response is very important to secure successful RFA therapy since a sufficient safety margin (at least 0.5 cm) can prevent local tumor recurrences. We also provide a profile of side effects and information on the integration of this technique into the general management of patients with HCC. To minimize complications of RFA, physicians should be familiar with each feature of complication. Appropriate management of complications is essential for successful RFA treatment. Moreover, adjuvant therapy, such as molecular targeted therapies following curative therapy, is expected to further improve survival after RFA.

‣ Pharmacologic reduction of angiographic vasospasm in experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage: systematic review and meta-analysis

Zoerle, Tommaso; Ilodigwe, Don C; Wan, Hoyee; Lakovic, Katarina; Sabri, Mohammed; Ai, Jinglu; Macdonald, R Loch
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Animal models have been developed to simulate angiographic vasospasm secondary to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to test pharmacologic treatments. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of pharmacologic treatments that have been tested in humans and in preclinical studies to determine if animal models inform results reported in humans. A systematic review and meta-analysis of SAH studies was performed. We investigated predictors of translation from animals to humans with multivariate logistic regression. Pharmacologic reduction of vasospasm was effective in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, nonhuman primates (standard mean difference of −1.74; 95% confidence interval −2.04 to −1.44) and humans. Animal studies were generally of poor methodologic quality and there was evidence of publication bias. Subgroup analysis by drug and species showed that statins, tissue plasminogen activator, erythropoietin, endothelin receptor antagonists, calcium channel antagonists, fasudil, and tirilazad were effective whereas magnesium was not. Only evaluation of vasospasm >3 days after SAH was independently associated with successful translation. We conclude that reduction of vasospasm is effective in animals and humans and that evaluation of vasospasm >3 days after SAH may be preferable for preclinical models.

‣ Multivoxel Pattern Analysis for fMRI Data: A Review

Mahmoudi, Abdelhak; Takerkart, Sylvain; Regragui, Fakhita; Boussaoud, Driss; Brovelli, Andrea
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) exploits blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) contrasts to map neural activity associated with a variety of brain functions including sensory processing, motor control, and cognitive and emotional functions. The general linear model (GLM) approach is used to reveal task-related brain areas by searching for linear correlations between the fMRI time course and a reference model. One of the limitations of the GLM approach is the assumption that the covariance across neighbouring voxels is not informative about the cognitive function under examination. Multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) represents a promising technique that is currently exploited to investigate the information contained in distributed patterns of neural activity to infer the functional role of brain areas and networks. MVPA is considered as a supervised classification problem where a classifier attempts to capture the relationships between spatial pattern of fMRI activity and experimental conditions. In this paper , we review MVPA and describe the mathematical basis of the classification algorithms used for decoding fMRI signals, such as support vector machines (SVMs). In addition, we describe the workflow of processing steps required for MVPA such as feature selection...

‣ Primary lung carcinoid, a rare cause of paraparesis: report of a case and review of the literature

Visouli, Aikaterini N.; Darwiche, Kaid; Kourtoglou, Georgios I.; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Mpakas, Andreas; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Stylianaki, Aikaterini; Christofis, Chistos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Courcoutsakis, Nicolaos; Zarogoulidis,
Fonte: Pioneer Bioscience Publishing Company Publicador: Pioneer Bioscience Publishing Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2012 Português
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Carcinoids are neuroendocrine tumors mainly involving the gastrointestinal tract, lungs and bronchi. They were considered benign with slow growth, but they can be malignant in a substantial percentage of patients (metastasizing to liver, bones, skin, etc). Endocrine activity results in carcinoid syndrome. Proximal myopathy has been reported in 7% of patients with carcinoid syndrome. Bronchopulmonary and thymic carcinoids producing adrenocorticotropic hormone can cause Cushing’s syndrome, a main feature of which is myopathy. There are a few reports of carcinoids associated with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, including neuropathy. We hereby present an extremely rare case of a primary lung carcinoid presented with paraparesis due to polyneuropathy, and review the relevant literature. To the best of our knowledge there is no similar previous report. Complete resolution of paraparesis after excision of the lung carcinoid suggests paraneoplastic neurological syndrome.

‣ Optic Neuritis as Isolated Manifestation of Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis: A Case Report and Systematic Review of Ocular Manifestations of Neoplastic Meningitis

Lanfranconi, Silvia; Basilico, Paola; Trezzi, Ilaria; Borellini, Linda; Franco, Giulia; Civelli, Vittorio; Pallotti, Francesco; Bresolin, Nereo; Baron, Pierluigi
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Introduction. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis occurs in about 5% of cancer patients. Ocular involvement is a common clinical manifestation and often the presenting clinical feature. Materials and Methods. We report the case of a 52-year old lady with optic neuritis as isolated manifestation of neoplastic meningitis and a review of ocular involvement in neoplastic meningitis. Ocular symptoms were the presenting clinical feature in 34 patients (83%) out of 41 included in our review, the unique manifestation of meningeal carcinomatosis in 3 patients (7%). Visual loss was the presenting clinical manifestation in 17 patients (50%) and was the most common ocular symptom (70%). Other ocular signs were diplopia, ptosis, papilledema, anisocoria, exophthalmos, orbital pain, scotomas, hemianopsia, and nystagmus. Associated clinical symptoms were headache, altered consciousness, meningism, limb weakness, ataxia, dizziness, seizures, and other cranial nerves involvement. All patients except five underwent CSF examination which was normal in 1 patient, pleocytosis was found in 11 patients, increased protein levels were observed in 16 patients, and decreased glucose levels were found in 8 patients. Cytology was positive in 29 patients (76%). Conclusion. Meningeal carcinomatosis should be considered in patients with ocular symptoms even in the absence of other suggestive clinical symptoms.

‣ Psychomotor Retardation in Depression: A Systematic Review of Diagnostic, Pathophysiologic, and Therapeutic Implications

Bennabi, Djamila; Vandel, Pierre; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Pozzo, Thierry; Haffen, Emmanuel
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Psychomotor retardation is a central feature of depression which includes motor and cognitive impairments. Effective management may be useful to improve the classification of depressive subtypes and treatment selection, as well as prediction of outcome in patients with depression. The aim of this paper was to review the current status of knowledge regarding psychomotor retardation in depression, in order to clarify its role in the diagnostic management of mood disorders. Retardation modifies all the actions of the individual, including motility, mental activity, and speech. Objective assessments can highlight the diagnostic importance of psychomotor retardation, especially in melancholic and bipolar depression. Psychomotor retardation is also related to depression severity and therapeutic change and could be considered a good criterion for the prediction of therapeutic effect. The neurobiological process underlying the inhibition of activity includes functional deficits in the prefrontal cortex and abnormalities in dopamine neurotransmission. Future investigations of psychomotor retardation should help improve the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mood disorders and contribute to improving their therapeutic management.

‣ Modeling the Formation Process of Grouping Stimuli Sets through Cortical Columns and Microcircuits to Feature Neurons

Klefenz, Frank; Williamson, Adam
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A computational model of a self-structuring neuronal net is presented in which repetitively applied pattern sets induce the formation of cortical columns and microcircuits which decode distinct patterns after a learning phase. In a case study, it is demonstrated how specific neurons in a feature classifier layer become orientation selective if they receive bar patterns of different slopes from an input layer. The input layer is mapped and intertwined by self-evolving neuronal microcircuits to the feature classifier layer. In this topical overview, several models are discussed which indicate that the net formation converges in its functionality to a mathematical transform which maps the input pattern space to a feature representing output space. The self-learning of the mathematical transform is discussed and its implications are interpreted. Model assumptions are deduced which serve as a guide to apply model derived repetitive stimuli pattern sets to in vitro cultures of neuron ensembles to condition them to learn and execute a mathematical transform.

‣ Insight into the impact of diabetes mellitus on the increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: mini-review

Ali Kamkar, Maisa Mahmoud; Ahmad, Rasheed; Alsmadi, Osama; Behbehani, Kazem
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/05/2014 Português
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Hepatocellular carcinoma is a multifactorial disease which is associated with a background of many causal risk factors. Diabetes mellitus however is one of the most common co-morbid illnesses found in hepatocellular carcinoma patients that are significantly associated with worsening of hepatocellular carcinoma development, patient prognosis and survival. Therefore, efforts have been focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying progression of hepatocellular carcinoma onset and development especially in diabetic patients. To our knowledge, there are no reports which address the impact of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) along with epigenetic regulations associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma confounded by diabetes mellitus. Therefore, this mini-review focuses on the possible intermediary mechanisms involved in worsening the onset and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma development confounded by diabetes mellitus. The first approach is to look at the role of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α and IL-6) in apoptosis and inflammation during hepatocarcinogenesis through monitoring levels of apoptotic regulators, B-cell lymphoma 2 protein which is encoded by BCL2 gene and apoptosis regulator BAX known as bcl-2-like protein 4 which is encoded by the BAX gene. The second approach is to focus on the possible epigenomic reprogramming that drives hepatocellular transformation since epigenetic modification of DNA is a key feature in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinogenesis. Both approaches may suggest role of using Bcl2 and Bax as apoptotic and inflammatory markers for hepatocellular carcinoma detection as well as the importance impact of DNA methylation...

‣ A Review of Feature Extraction Software for Microarray Gene Expression Data

Tan, Ching Siang; Ting, Wai Soon; Mohamad, Mohd Saberi; Chan, Weng Howe; Deris, Safaai; Ali Shah, Zuraini
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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When gene expression data are too large to be processed, they are transformed into a reduced representation set of genes. Transforming large-scale gene expression data into a set of genes is called feature extraction. If the genes extracted are carefully chosen, this gene set can extract the relevant information from the large-scale gene expression data, allowing further analysis by using this reduced representation instead of the full size data. In this paper, we review numerous software applications that can be used for feature extraction. The software reviewed is mainly for Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Independent Component Analysis (ICA), Partial Least Squares (PLS), and Local Linear Embedding (LLE). A summary and sources of the software are provided in the last section for each feature extraction method.

‣ Computer Aided-Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer on Multiparametric MRI: A Technical Review of Current Research

Wang, Shijun; Burtt, Karen; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter; Summers, Ronald M.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among men in the United States. In this paper, we survey computer aided-diagnosis (CADx) systems that use multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) for detection and diagnosis of prostate cancer. We review and list mainstream techniques that are commonly utilized in image segmentation, registration, feature extraction, and classification. The performances of 15 state-of-the-art prostate CADx systems are compared through the area under their receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Challenges and potential directions to further the research of prostate CADx are discussed in this paper. Further improvements should be investigated to make prostate CADx systems useful in clinical practice.

‣ Severe/Extreme Hypertriglyceridemia and LDL Apheretic Treatment: Review of the Literature, Original Findings

Diakoumakou, Olga; Hatzigeorgiou, Georgios; Gontoras, Nikos; Boutsikou, Maria; Kolovou, Vana; Mavrogeni, Sophie; Giannakopoulou, Vassiliki; Kolovou, Genovefa D.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a feature of numerous metabolic disorders including dyslipidemias, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus type 2 and can increase the risk of premature coronary artery disease. HTG may also be due to genetic factors (called primary HTG) and particularly the severe/extreme HTG (SEHTG), which is a usually rare genetic disorder. Even rarer are secondary cases of SEHTG caused by autoimmune disease. This review considers the causes of SEHTG, and their management including treatment with low density lipoprotein apheresis and analyzes the original findings.

‣ The Efficiency of Laser Application on the Enamel Surface: A Systematic Review

Karandish, Maryam
Fonte: Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center Publicador: Laser Application in Medical Sciences Research Center
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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Used in conjunction with or as a replacement for traditional methods, it is expected that specific laser technologies will become an essential component of contemporary dental practice over the next decade. The current review is designed to focus on the acid resistance of laser application and tries to introduce laser settings capable to achieve this feature for clinical application. Application of laser for its acid resistance might be a valuable adjunct to conventional acid etching for susceptible sites in high caries risk patients such as patients with rampant caries, who cannot follow oral hygiene instructions due to their systematic disabilities, or those under orthodontic treatment with plaque retentive attachment on their teeth. The key words “enamel acid resistance” and “laser” were searched in PubMed. In brief, the current paper involves the results on 5 items: A summary on laser application; Suggested mechanisms of acid resistance; Different types of laser beams used in acid resistance; Comparison of application of different laser types; and Conclusion.

‣ A Review of Feature Selection and Feature Extraction Methods Applied on Microarray Data

Hira, Zena M.; Gillies, Duncan F.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We summarise various ways of performing dimensionality reduction on high-dimensional microarray data. Many different feature selection and feature extraction methods exist and they are being widely used. All these methods aim to remove redundant and irrelevant features so that classification of new instances will be more accurate. A popular source of data is microarrays, a biological platform for gathering gene expressions. Analysing microarrays can be difficult due to the size of the data they provide. In addition the complicated relations among the different genes make analysis more difficult and removing excess features can improve the quality of the results. We present some of the most popular methods for selecting significant features and provide a comparison between them. Their advantages and disadvantages are outlined in order to provide a clearer idea of when to use each one of them for saving computational time and resources.

‣ Nigral Iron Elevation Is an Invariable Feature of Parkinson's Disease and Is a Sufficient Cause of Neurodegeneration

Ayton, Scott; Lei, Peng
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor deficits accompanying degeneration of substantia nigra pars compactor (SNc) neurons. Although familial forms of the disease exist, the cause of sporadic PD is unknown. Symptomatic treatments are available for PD, but there are no disease modifying therapies. While the neurodegenerative processes in PD may be multifactorial, this paper will review the evidence that prooxidant iron elevation in the SNc is an invariable feature of sporadic and familial PD forms, participates in the disease mechanism, and presents as a tractable target for a disease modifying therapy.

‣ Computer Aided Diagnostic Support System for Skin Cancer: A Review of Techniques and Algorithms

Masood, Ammara; Al-Jumaily, Adel Ali
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Image-based computer aided diagnosis systems have significant potential for screening and early detection of malignant melanoma. We review the state of the art in these systems and examine current practices, problems, and prospects of image acquisition, pre-processing, segmentation, feature extraction and selection, and classification of dermoscopic images. This paper reports statistics and results from the most important implementations reported to date. We compared the performance of several classifiers specifically developed for skin lesion diagnosis and discussed the corresponding findings. Whenever available, indication of various conditions that affect the technique's performance is reported. We suggest a framework for comparative assessment of skin cancer diagnostic models and review the results based on these models. The deficiencies in some of the existing studies are highlighted and suggestions for future research are provided.