Página 1 dos resultados de 2118 itens digitais encontrados em 0.009 segundos

‣ A relação entre expansão territorial do crédito bancário e desigualdade econômica inter-regional no Brasil contemporâneo (2000-2010); The relationship between territorial expansion of bank credit and interregional economic inequality in contemporary Brazil (2000-2010)

Ribeiro, Clarisse Coutinho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/03/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.325825%
Esta pesquisa aborda a relação entre território e moeda. O objetivo central é analisar a relação entre a expansão territorial do crédito bancário e a desigualdade econômica inter-regional no Brasil contemporâneo (2000-2010). A hipótese subjacente é que a redução das desigualdades econômicas inter-regionais favoreceu a expansão territorial do crédito bancário no país durante o período analisado. Para alcançar o objetivo e comprovar a hipótese central, a metodologia utilizada abarca uma análise teórica por meio do diálogo entre três das principais abordagens sobre o tema, a saber: marxista, pós-keynesiana e economia cultural. Além disso, analisamos o contexto histórico e apresentamos um estudo empírico, que abrange tanto as análises estatísticas de regressões temporais quanto as análises cartográficas. Os resultados principais da pesquisa mostram que as quebras das barreiras financeiras, sobretudo regulatórias e macroeconômicas, associadas com políticas sociais propiciaram um maior poder de compra em especial às populações de regiões com alta demanda reprimida, como também um maior acesso ao crédito para consumo para essas regiões. Isso acarretou no maior crescimento do crédito que o país já presenciou e também em uma significativa expansão territorial do crédito dos bancos comerciais.; This research addresses the relationship between territory and money. The main objective is to analyze the relationship between territorial expansion of bank credit and interregional economic inequality in contemporary Brazil (2000-2010). The underlying hypothesis is that the reduction of inter-regional economic inequalities favored the territorial expansion of bank credit in the country during the above period. To achieve the objective and prove the central hypothesis a methodology is used...

‣ Situational and financial barriers to prenatal care in a sample of low-income, inner-city women.

St Clair, P A; Smeriglio, V L; Alexander, C S; Connell, F A; Niebyl, J R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1990 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.591113%
The relationship between the use of prenatal care and factors that may impede access to care was examined in a sample of low-income, inner-city women. Situational and financial barriers to care were not important correlates of utilization. In unadjusted analyses, only insurance status and employment status were associated with utilization. Of the sociodemographic characteristics studied, only parity was strongly associated with the use of prenatal care. When the apparent associations between utilization and insurance status and utilization and employment were analyzed controlling for parity, the estimated strength and statistical significance of these relationships diminished considerably. Multiparous women who were more likely than primiparous women to be underutilizers were also more likely to be on medical assistance and to be unemployed. These findings suggest that situational and financial barriers are not important correlates of utilization for low-income, adult women living in urban areas where there are accessible clinic facilities and public transportation. Efforts to identify and surmount other kinds of barriers may prove to be a more effective approach to prenatal outreach for women in these circumstances.

‣ The impact of reducing financial barriers on utilisation of a primary health care facility in Rwanda

Dhillon, Ranu S.; Bonds, Matthew H.; Fraden, Max; Ndahiro, Donald; Ruxin, Josh
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.178794%
This study investigates the impact of subsidising community-based health insurance (mutuelle) enrolment, removing point-of-service co-payments, and improving service delivery on health facility utilisation rates in Mayange, a sector of rural Rwanda of approximately 25,000 people divided among five ‘imidugudu’ or small villages. While comprehensive service upgrades were introduced in the Mayange Health Centre between April 2006 and February 2007, utilisation rates remained similar to comparison sites. Between February 2007 and April 2007, subsidies for mutuelle enrolment established virtually 100% coverage. Immediately after co-payments were eliminated in February 2007, patient visits levelled at a rate triple the previous value. Regression analyses using data from Mayange and two comparison sites indicate that removing financial barriers resulted in about 0.6 additional annual visits for curative care per capita.

‣ A Financing Model to Solve Financial Barriers for Implementing Green Building Projects

Lee, Sanghyo; Lee, Baekrae; Kim, Juhyung; Kim, Jaejun
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 24/11/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.178794%
Along with the growing interest in greenhouse gas reduction, the effect of greenhouse gas energy reduction from implementing green buildings is gaining attention. The government of the Republic of Korea has set green growth as its paradigm for national development, and there is a growing interest in energy saving for green buildings. However, green buildings may have financial barriers that have high initial construction costs and uncertainties about future project value. Under the circumstances, governmental support to attract private funding is necessary to implement green building projects. The objective of this study is to suggest a financing model for facilitating green building projects with a governmental guarantee based on Certified Emission Reduction (CER). In this model, the government provides a guarantee for the increased costs of a green building project in return for CER. And this study presents the validation of the model as well as feasibility for implementing green building project. In addition, the suggested model assumed governmental guarantees for the increased cost, but private guarantees seem to be feasible as well because of the promising value of the guarantee from CER. To do this, certification of Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs) for green buildings must be obtained.

‣ BARRIERS TO THE USE OF BASIC HEALTH SERVICES AMONG WOMEN IN RURAL SOUTHERN EGYPT (UPPER EGYPT)

CHIANG, CHIFA; ADLY LABEEB, SHOKRIA; HIGUCHI, MICHIYO; GHAREDS MOHAMED, ASMAA; AOYAMA, ATSUKO
Fonte: Nagoya University Publicador: Nagoya University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.938843%
This cross-sectional study examined potential demand-side barriers to women’s use of basic health services in rural southern Egypt (Upper Egypt). Face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire were carried out on 205 currently-married women, inquiring about their use of health facilities: regular antenatal care (ANC) during the last pregnancy and medical treatment services when they suffered from common illness. Questions about their perceptions of barriers to the use of health services were categorized into three primary dimensions: structural, financial, and personal/cultural barriers. Distance and transportation to health facilities (structural barriers) prevented about 30 % of the women from seeing a doctor. Forty-two percent of them felt the difficulty paying for health services (financial barriers). Approximately a quarter of women answered that gaining family permission, allocating time to go to health facilities, or concern about lack of female physicians (personal/cultural barriers) was a big problem for them. After controlling for potential confounding factors, structural barriers showed an inverse association with the use of health services. Financial barriers indicated a strong association (OR=0.18, P<0.001) with the use of curative services (medical treatment)...

‣ Financial Services and Preferential Trade Agreements : Lessons from Latin America

Haddad, Mona; Stephanou, Constantinos
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.002092%
This book deals with financial liberalization issues in the context of trade negotiations. The liberalization of trade and investment in financial services is only a subset of the broader financial liberalization agenda. The purpose of trade and investment liberalization is to increase financial market access and remove discriminatory and other access-impeding barriers to foreign competition. By contrast, the main purpose of financial liberalization is to remove distortions in domestic financial systems that impede competition and the allocation of capital to its most productive and profitable uses. In turn, financial liberalization can be divided into domestic financial reform and capital account opening, and there is a rich literature on its appropriate speed and sequencing. The first part of the book covers the fundamental principles that affect trade liberalization in financial services at both the multilateral and the regional levels. It analyzes the various models of preferential trade agreements (PTAs) used by negotiators and the architectural differences of these models. The second part of this book provides concrete examples of how countries have negotiated these agreements by focusing on the specific country experiences of Chile...

‣ Banking Services for Everyone? Barriers to Bank Access and Use around the World

Beck, Thorsten; Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.93853%
Using information from 193 banks in 58 countries, the authors develop and analyze indicators of physical access, affordability, and eligibility barriers to deposit, loan, and payment services. They find substantial cross-country variation in barriers to banking and show that in many countries these barriers can potentially exclude a significant share of the population from using banking services. Correlations with bank- and country-level variables show that bank size and the availability of physical infrastructure are the most robust predictors of barriers. Further, the authors find evidence that in more competitive, open, and transparent economies, and in countries with better contractual and informational frameworks, banks impose lower barriers. Finally, though foreign banks seem to charge higher fees than other banks, in foreign dominated banking systems fees are lower and it is easier to open bank accounts and to apply for loans. On the other hand, in systems that are predominantly government-owned, customers pay lower fees but also face greater restrictions in terms of where to apply for loans and how long it takes to have applications processed. These findings have important implications for policy reforms to broaden access.

‣ Social Inclusion and Financial Protection through Community Financing : Initial Results from Five Household Surveys

Jakab, Melitta; Preker, Alexander S.; Krishnan, Chitra; Schneider, Pia; Diop, François; Jütting, Johannes; Gumber, Anil; Ranson, Kent; Supakankunt, Siripeni
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.581533%
This paper provides empirical evidence regarding the performance of community-based health care financing in terms of (a) social inclusion and (b) financial protection. Five non-standardized household surveys were analyzed from India (two samples), Senegal, Rwanda, and Thailand. Common methodology was applied to the five data sets. Logistic regression was used to estimate the determinants of enrolling in a community financing scheme. A two-part model was used to assess the determinants of financial protection: part one used logistic regression to estimate the determinants of the likelihood of visiting a health care provider; part two used ordinary least-squares regression to estimate the determinants of out-of-pocket payments. The research finds: (a) Social inclusion. The findings suggest that community financing can be inclusive of the poorest even in the most economically deprived context. Nevertheless, this targeting outcome is not automatically attributable to the involvement of the community; rather it depends on key design and implementation characteristics of the schemes. (b) Financial protection. Community financing reduces financial barriers to health care as demonstrated by higher utilization and simultaneously lower out-of-pocket expenditure of scheme members controlling for a range of socioeconomic variables. The paper concludes: (a) Social inclusion. Design and implementation characteristics of community financing schemes matter to achieve good targeting outcome-community involvement alone does not guarantee social inclusion. Further research is needed to delineate which design and implementation characteristics allow better inclusion of the poor. (b) Financial protection. Prepayment and risk sharing...

‣ Addressing Regulatory Software Barriers to Business Growth

Kularatne, Chandana; Lopez-Calix, Jose
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
38.000137%
This policy paper explores the relative importance of the software regulatory barriers to growth in Pakistan. Such software barriers have been identified as part of the major constraint in the Framework for Economic Growth of the Government of Pakistan. Indeed, adequate software is needed to provide an environment in which the hardware of growth (physical infrastructure) could be expanded and made more productive. Among possible software constraints, the findings of various international surveys allow to disentangle the relative importance of multiple possible regulatory barriers; first by identifying what is in the books, and then by assessing what is actually experienced on the ground by entrepreneurs. Following the ensuing prioritization of the identified barriers, this paper suggests that the new growth strategy would benefit from focused policy efforts in seven key areas, where regulatory barriers and perceived obstacles are most constraining to business development: getting electricity, paying taxes...

‣ Why Has Energy Efficiency Not Scaled-up in the Industrial and Commercial Sectors in Ukraine? An Empirical Analysis

Hochman, Gal; Timilsina, Govinda R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.044404%
Improvement of energy efficiency is one of the main options to reduce energy demand and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Ukraine. However, large-scale deployment of energy efficient technologies has been constrained by several financial, technical, information, behavioral, and institutional barriers. This study assesses these barriers through a survey of 500 industrial and commercial firms throughout Ukraine. The results from the survey were used in a cumulative multi-logit model to understand the importance of the barriers. The analysis shows that financial barriers caused by high upfront costs of energy efficient technologies, higher costs of finance, and higher opportunity costs of energy efficiency investment are key barriers to the adoption of energy efficiency measures in Ukraine. Institutional barriers particularly lack government policies, which also contributes to the slow adoption of energy efficient technologies in the country. The results suggest targeted policy and credit enhancements could help trigger adoption of energy efficient measures. The empirical analysis shows strong inter-linkages among the barriers and finds heterogeneity between industrial and commercial sectors on the realization of the barriers.

‣ Small and Medium Enterprise Finance

Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion; International Finance Corporation
Fonte: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC Publicador: International Finance Corporation, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.968403%
This update considers new findings since the initial Stocktaking report, substantiating the contribution of the private sector, and of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in particular, for new jobs and investment. These findings further illustrate the key role access to finance plays in SMEs abilities and willingness to add jobs including the special circumstances of fast-growing SMEs, or gazelles. The new findings further detail availability and gaps in SME financing, including for specific subsectors such as women-owned firms and agri-enterprises. New trends include progress made in recent years to improve financial markets infrastructure, and expanded lending in countries such as China, which have made progress in this area. The findings also include key private sector innovations pioneered by the SME Finance Challenge winners and other private sector institutions, focusing on key sector opportunities (such as agribusiness and energy), product innovation (such as expanded local currency options), and risk management alternatives. The new findings and trends highlight the potential of collaborative platforms that have emerged from the G-20/GPFI (Global Partnership for Financial Inclusion) process to combine resources to improve SME access to finance...

‣ Trends in dental visiting avoidance due to cost in Australia, 1994 to 2010: an age-period-cohort analysis

Chrisopoulos, S.; Luzzi, L.; Brennan, D.
Fonte: BioMed Central Ltd. Publicador: BioMed Central Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.178794%
Background: The cost of dental care may be a barrier to regular dental attendance with the proportion of the Australian population avoiding or delaying care due to cost increasing since 1994. This paper explores the extent to which age, period and cohort factors have contributed to the variation in avoiding or delaying visiting a dentist because of cost. Methods: Data were obtained from four national dental telephone interview surveys of Australian residents aged five years and over conducted in 1994, 1999, 2004 and 2010 (response rates 48% - 72%). The trend in the percentage of persons avoiding or delaying visiting a dentist because of cost was analysed by means of a standard cohort table and more formal age-period-cohort analyses using a nested models framework. Results: There was an overall increase in the proportion of people avoiding or delaying visiting a dentist indicating the presence of period effects. Financial barriers were also associated with age such that the likelihood of avoiding because of cost was highest for those in their mid-late twenties and lowest in both children and older adults. Cohort effects were also present although the pattern of effects differed between cohorts. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that...

‣ The Health Sector in Ghana : A Comprehensive Assessment

Saleh, Karima
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.555337%
Ghana has committed politically, legislatively, and fiscally to providing universal health insurance coverage for its population with the intent of reducing financial barriers to utilization of health care. In 2005, we launched a publically financed comprehensive health benefits package that included within it preventive care and treatment for communicable and non communicable diseases. To attain universal coverage requires addressing the health system holistically. The Ghana health sector is going through a comprehensive set of reforms. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) is a major step forward. Reforms in the area of human resources have helped reduce attrition, especially of physicians. Decentralization and a policy on retention and use of internally generated insurance funds have ensured a better availability of drugs and incentivized staff in health facilities. The Ghana health sector, like those in all emerging market countries, is, however, facing challenges on many fronts. Health outcomes are not on track to meet several of the health-related Millennium Development Goals...

‣ Clean Energy for Development Investment Framework : Progress Report on the World Bank Group Action Plan

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.477603%
During the 2007 spring meetings, the development committee endorsed the World Bank Group's action plan on the Clean Energy Investment Framework (CEIF). This progress report is a response to the committee's request for an update on the implementation of the action plan for the annual meetings in October 2007. It summarizes accomplishments in the three areas of the action plan: 1) energy for growth, with a particular emphasis on access to energy in Sub-Saharan Africa; 2) transition to a low-carbon development trajectory; and 3) adaptation to the impacts of climate change. This report also outlines an approach to scaling up actions on climate change and provides a review of options to further reduce the financial barriers to support low-carbon and adaptive growth in developing countries. This Progress Report provides an update on the implementation of the CEIF action plan.

‣ Moving toward Universal Coverage of Social Health Insurance in Vietnam : Assessment and Options

Somanathan, Aparnaa; Tandon, Ajay; Dao, Huong Lan; Hurt, Kari L.; Fuenzalida-Puelma, Hernan L.
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.555337%
To address the growth in resultant out-of-pocket (OOP) payments and associated problems of financial barriers to access, the government issued several policies aimed at expanding coverage throughout the 1990s and 2000s, particularly for the poor and other vulnerable groups. Universal coverage (UC) can be an elusive concept and is about three objectives: (a) equity (linking care to need, and not to ability to pay); (b) financial protection (ensuring that health care use does not lead to impoverishment); (c) effective access to a comprehensive set of quality services (ensuring that providers make the right diagnosis and prescribe a treatment that is appropriate and affordable; and (d) to ensure that the financing needed to achieve UC is mobilized in a fiscally sustainable manner, and is used efficiently and equitably. The objective of this report is to assess the implementation of Vietnam social health insurance (SHI) and provide options for moving toward UC, with a view to contributing to the law revision process. It analyzes progress to date on the two major goals of the master plan. The report assesses Vietnam's readiness to meet these goals...

‣ Innovative Financial Mechanism to Implement Energy Efficiency Projects in Mexico

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.0215%
This report provides a summary of Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) supported activities in Mexico focused on the creation of a pooled financing program for multiple energy efficiency projects through a single debt instrument. The report is organized as eight chapters. Chapter one provides additional details regarding the ownership, structure and operation of an special purpose entity (SPE); it discusses the flexibility of this structure and how it can serve a pool of private or public sector projects. Chapter two provides an overview of the Mexican energy sector with a focus on the electricity supply, demand and pricing. Chapter three reviews the market potential for energy efficiency investments and provides comparative data on Mexico's energy prices and costs of capital in other countries where the energy efficiency and energy services company (ESCO) market is active. Chapter four reviews the current financial market conditions in Mexico, and the restrictive nature of commercial lending. Chapter five identifies the market...

‣ The Nuts & Bolts of Jamkesmas, Indonesia’s Government-Financed Health Coverage Program for the Poor and Near-Poor

Harimurti, Pandu; Pambudi, Eko; Pigazzini, Anna; Tandon, Ajay
Fonte: World Bank, Washington DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.477603%
This case study describes and assesses Jamkesmas, Indonesia's government-financed health coverage program for the poor and near-poor. It provides a detailed description of the scope, depth, and breadth of coverage provided under Jamkesmas, and highlights ways in which the program interacts with the rest of Indonesia's health system. It also summarizes and discusses evidence on whether Jamkesmas is attaining its stated objectives of removing financial barriers and improving access to health care by the poor and near-poor, what could be improved, and what lessons can be learned from the experience of Jamkesmas that could help inform Indonesia's quest for universal coverage. The primary theme underlying the study is that supply-side constraints and supply-side subsidies have not been leveraged to increase the effectiveness of the Jamkesmas program. There are significant geographic deficiencies in the availability and quality of the basic benefits package, especially for those living in relatively remote and rural locations of the country, and this limits the effective availability of benefits for many Jamkesmas beneficiaries. The remainder of the case study is organized as follows. Section two provides general background and information on health system outcomes in Indonesia. Section three is an overview of health care financing and delivery. Section four describes the institutional architecture of Jamkesmas. Section five highlights the process of targeting...

‣ The Impact of Price Subsidies on Child Health Care Use : Evaluation of the Indonesian Healthcard

Somanathan, Aparnaa
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.325825%
Financial barriers to seeking care are frequently cited as one of the main causes of underutilization of child health care services. This paper estimates the impact of Indonesia's healthcard on health care use by children. Evaluation of the healthcard effect is complicated by the fact that card allocation was non-random. The analysis uses propensity score matching to control for systematic differences between treatment and control groups. A second potential source of bias is related to contemporaneous, exogenous influences on health care use unrelated to the healthcard itself. Using panel data collected prior to and after the introduction of the healthcard, a difference-in-differences estimator is constructed to eliminate the effects of exogenous changes over time. The author finds that although health care use declined for all children during the crisis years of 1997-2000, use of public sector outpatient services declined much less for children with healthcards. The protective effect of the healthcard on public sector use was concentrated among children aged 0-5 years. The healthcard had no significant impact on use of private sector services. The results highlight the need to provide adequate protection against the financial burden of health care costs...

‣ Exploring Low-Income Families' Financial Barriers to Food Allergy Management and Treatment

Minaker, Leia M.; Elliott, Susan J.; Clarke, Ann
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.7995%
Objectives. Low-income families may face financial barriers to management and treatment of chronic illnesses. No studies have explored how low-income individuals and families with anaphylactic food allergies cope with financial barriers to anaphylaxis management and/or treatment. This study explores qualitatively assessed direct, indirect, and intangible costs of anaphylaxis management and treatment faced by low-income families. Methods. In-depth, semistructured interviews with 23 participants were conducted to gain insight into income-related barriers to managing and treating anaphylactic food allergies. Results. Perceived direct costs included the cost of allergen-free foods and allergy medication and costs incurred as a result of misinformation about social support programs. Perceived indirect costs included those associated with lack of continuity of health care. Perceived intangible costs included the stress related to the difficulty of obtaining allergen-free foods at the food bank and feeling unsafe at discount grocery stores. These perceived costs represented barriers that were perceived as especially salient for the working poor, immigrants, youth living in poverty, and food bank users. Discussion. Low-income families report significant financial barriers to food allergy management and anaphylaxis preparedness. Clinicians...

‣ Variety more than quantity of fruit and vegetable intake varies by socioeconomic status and financial hardship: Findings from older adults in the EPIC cohort

Conklin, Annalijn I.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Suhrcke, Marc; Surtees, Paul; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Monsivais, Pablo
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; published version
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.164077%
This is the final version. It was first published by Elsevier in Appetite at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666314004413.; Background: Beyond quantity, variety of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake prevents chronic conditions and is widely recommended as critical to healthful eating. FV consumption is socially patterned, especially for women, but little is known about multiple economic determinants of variety or whether they differ from those of quantity. Objective: To examine socioeconomic status and financial hardships in relation to variety and quantity of FV intakes among older British women and men. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 9,580 adults (50?79 y) in the nationally representative EPIC cohort who responded to a postal Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire (1996-2000) and Food Frequency Questionnaire (1998-2002). Variety counted unique items consumed (items/month) and quantity measured total intake (g/d). Results: No consistent differences by any economic factor were observed for quantity of fruits or vegetables, except education in men. Lower education, lower social class and renting were independently associated with lower fruit variety and vegetable variety (p-trend <0.001), with differences stronger in men. Mean vegetable variety differed between top and bottom social classes by 2.9 items/month for men and 2.5 for women. Greater financial hardships were also independently associated with lower variety...