A significant number of Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) radars are used in various military applications, from guided weapons (such anti-ship missile), to large platforms (aircrafts, ships), to large systems (Integrated Air Defense Systems - IADS). The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the performance of netted LPI radar systems. To do so, it commences with establishing the theoretical background for the LPI radar techniques and detection methods. Additionally, it presents existing LPI assets along with their operational characteristics to provide the reader with a useful tool for comparative analysis of the LPI radar market. As this work focuses on LPI radar networks, specific emphasis is given to clarifying the notion of a netted system; the conceptual and mathematical background for such are presented in a separate chapter.
Radar guided anti-shipping missiles are the primary threat for most modern Navies. The inherent nature of the monopulse radar employed by most anti- shipping missiles makes it highly resistant to active ECM techniques. Decoys are attractive because they provide a source of radiation that can capture the radar seeker and direct the missile away from the ship. However the time and direction of launch are critical parameters which determine the operational success of the decoy. This thesis evaluates the protection provided by active off-board decoys which are deployed by ships during an engagement against a radar guided anti- shipping missile. The research emphasizes launching active decoys. Many of the operational characteristics of the launching decoy are investigated, including direction of launch, timing of launch and the RF characteristics of the decoy.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The purpose of this research is to determine the applicability of Navy Working Capital Fund repairable inventory on small combatant platforms. The majority of these platforms are funded, as of June 2013, using appropriated Operating Target funds. This project analyzes NWCF versus end-use funded inventories using data from the pilot project launched by Commander Naval Surface Forces East on USS Normandy (CG 60) in 2008. We use supply effectiveness and financial data to identify if there is an inventory readiness gap between the two sources of funding, and compare and contrast performance with other CNSF Guided Missile Cruiser and Amphibious Assault class ships. From this analysis, we identify the advantages and disadvantages of both NWCF and end-use inventories and provide an impact matrix for the three major stakeholders: the ship, the Type Commander, and the Navy. We also provide a recommendation to Naval Supply Systems Command on the future implementation of these methods for existing and future classes of small combatants, specifically, Zumwalt-class destroyers.
This thesis is a cost comparison between Active Fleet and Naval Reserve Force (NRF) Oliver Hazard Perry class guided missile frigates (FFG). It examines the rationale for having a Naval Reserve surface ships program and documents the cost savings attribut
"If lucky, a surface ship has ten to twenty seconds to defend itself once a guided missile is launched from a nearby shore, or a sea-skimming missile is detected coming over the horizon. Because reaction times are so short, especially with ships now closer to shore missile batteries due to the Navy's focus on littoral missions, a directed energy weapon travelling near the speed of light becomes critical for survival, let alone defense..."
The primary objective of this project is to estimate the effectiveness of decoys against incoming missile attacks in a multiple-ship battle group (BG) environment. In this problem, we allow the number of ships, number of decoys, and the values of ships to vary. We also vary the values of the hard kill probabilities, the splash probabilities of decoyed missiles, probabilities that a missile's lock is broken by seduction decoys and the quality factor of the distraction decoys. When an Antiship Cruise Missile (ASCM) attacks a BG, it may hit a ship, it may get shot down, or it may get diverted. If it gets diverted it may lock onto a neighboring friendly ship. The measure of effectiveness is the probability that all ships survive the missile attack. Keywords: Ship defense systems; Battle group level organizations; Guided missile countermeasures; Theses. (EDC); http://archive.org/details/decoyeffectivene00seng
The Naval Postgraduate School In conjunction with Port Hueneme Division (PHD), Naval Surface Warfare Center is developing a diagnostic expert system for troubleshooting casualties in the MK 92 MOD 2 fire control system deployed in US Navy Oliver Hazard class (FFG-7) guided missile frigates. The high turnover rate of student developers and the frequency with which changes are made to the expert system have highlighted a need for controlling the change process and the management of resources applied to implementing those changes to the expert system's knowledge base and software. This thesis develops a configuration management plan for the MK92 Maintenance Advisor Expert System (MK92 MAES) to assist object members in the management of changes to software and domain knowledge. The concept of configuration management is examined in detail with specific emphasis on the challenges of its implementation to expert systems. Two automated configuration management tools, CCC/Manager and PVCS Version Control, are evaluated for suitability for application in an expert system development environment. Finally, specific recommendations are presented for establishing a configuration management process for MK92 MAES project.; U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author.
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; We model the problem of minimum-cost procurement and allocation of anti-ship cruise missiles to naval combat ships as a two-period chance-constrained program with recourse. Discrete scenarios in two periods define "demands" for missiles (i.e., targets and number of missiles required to kill those targets), which must be met with acceptable probabilities. After the first combat period, ships may replenish their inventories from a depot, if the depot's inventory suffices. A force commander assigns targets to ships based on missile load-outs and target demands. The deterministic-equivalent integer program solves too slowly for practical use. We propose a specialized decomposition algorithm, implemented in MATLAB, which solves the two-period model via a series of single-period problems. The algorithm yields optimal solutions for a wide range of missile-allocation directives, and usually near-optimal solutions otherwise. We exploit the fact that each single-period problem is a probabilistic integer program, whose solution must be a p-efficient point (PEP) of that period's demand distribution. Our algorithm uses PEP-enumeration techniques developed by Beraldi and Ruszczyski, and a specialized algorithm from Kress...
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This thesis develops (a) a mission-planning tool for a Navy Mine Counter Measure (MCM) force to find a minimum-risk route for a surface ship through a mapped minefield, and (b) a heuristic to identify a sequence of mines whose clearance (removal and/or deactivation) leads to a rapid reduction of the risk of a minimum-risk path. All modeling concepts reflect the requirements of the Republic of China Navy's MCM operations. The problem is formulated and solved as a shortest-path problem in a network. A grid of nodes, representing waypoints, is embedded in a representation of the operating area, while arcs are created to link waypoints. The risk function is defined in terms of the closest point of approach distance between each mine that falls within a maximum danger radius along a route. A complete planning tool is implemented using Excel and Visual Basic for Applications. A basic test scenario describes an operational area of 1,000 by 3,000 yards containing 30 mines; node spacing is 100 yards. The minimum-risk path is found in few seconds on a laptop computer, while a greedy "mine clearance list" is found in a few minutes.; Republic of China (Taiwan) Navy author.
MBA Professional Report; Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The purpose of this MBA Project is to review the current budgeting model and existing ship's Operating Target (OPTAR) data for fiscal year (FY) 2006 and 2007. The scope of analysis is limited to the Ticonderoga Class Cruiser (CG) 1B1B OPTAR other consumable (SO) account. The objective of this paper is to analyze the operating costs supporting the funding allocation method used by Commander, Naval Surface Force (CNSF) in support of his stakeholders and to identify and evaluate the underlying costs and cost drivers in relation to each cruiser's location in the Fleet Response Plan (FRP). An analysis was performed by fiscal year, expense element, federal supply group (FSG) and FRP phase to find outliers or anomalies with regard to ships expenditures. Additionally, an examination was done to identify expenditure differences between fleets within the cruiser class squadron (CG CLASSRON) and in an attempt to understand the spending disparity between Pacific (PAC) and Atlantic (LANT) Fleets.; Outstanding Thesis
This thesis develops a methodology for updating the Navy's Logistics Factors File, which has been neglected in recent years and requires updating. This study is limited to Repair Parts (Class IX of the Department of Defense Supply Class Codes) for the following four classes of ships: CVN-68 (Nimitz class) Aircraft Carriers, CG-47 (Ticonderoga class) Guided Missile Cruisers, DD- 963 (Spruance class) Destroyers, and FFG-7 (Oliver Hazard Perry class) Guided Missile Frigates. The current Logistics Factors File structure includes a single data entry in pounds per unit per day to describe the sustainment requirements of these units for all of the supply classes and their respective subclasses. For Repair Parts, these values are severely understated when compared to contemporary data. These 'pounds per unit per day' random variables have heavily skewed distributions. These distributions can be fitted with mixtures of standard probability distributions, and it seems wise to recommend that associated variability information be included either directly in the Logistics Factors File, or in a readily available companion source.; NA; U.S. Navy (U.S.N.) author
MBA Professional Report; This project is designed to provide a class-wide list of items for inclusion in the Phased Replacement Program (PRP) for each ship in the DDG 51 Arleigh Burke Class of Guided Missile Destroyers (DDGs). Current business practice involves the Supply Officer on each ship generating and maintaining an independent ship-specific list. This practice reduces the efficiency in the supply chain for these items by not maximizing the demand and ordering structure. The intention of the generation of a class-wide list is to improve the ordering periodicity and provide visibility for replenishment of these parts at the unit level for further consolidation at the class-wide level for oversight, management, and guidance. Research was conducted using PRP lists gathered during ship visits, review of Naval Surface Forces' online financial management Continuous Monitoring Program, and cross referencing the data with Defense Logistics Agency's inventory management databases to validate the PRP items selected for inclusion in the class-wide list for items that should be tracked, stored, and managed on all DDGs. The resulting PRP list is meant to provide a baseline for ship Supply Departments to use and does not include every PRP item that ships must have.
This thesis analyses the Naval Reserve Force Oliver Hazard Perry class (FFG-7) guided missile frigates. It assesses the cost-effectiveness of operating these ships in the Naval Reserve fleet vice the Active fleet. The study begins with a brief history of the Naval Reserve Force (NRF) and outlines its current role and mission. A cost identification and comparison of operating the FFGs in each fleet follows. To capture all of the relevant costs, this comparison is based on a model developed by the RAND Corporation and modified to meet the needs of this study. The analysis then assesses the ship's operational readiness by comparing the ships' performance on Combat System Assessments and the major engineering exams. Following this, the quality of life on board the NRF FFGs is qualitatively evaluated. This analysis concludes that using FFGs in the NRF is not the most cost-effective option. Alternative recommendations are then provided for their more efficient use.; NA; NA; U.S. Naval Reserve (U.S.N.R.) author.
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the role of the United States Navy is changing from that of a blue water navy to one which must meet the challenges of coastal warfare. The mining of the amphibious carrier USS Tripoli (LPH-10) and the Aegis guided missile cruiser USS Princeton (CG-59), during the Persian Gulf War, shows the impact of mine warfare in these littoral regions. Congress, recognizing these trends, has funded a modern mine countermeasures (MCM) fleet of ships and helicopters to deploy with the proposed Naval Expeditionary Force, increased mine warfare research and development, and restructured the Mine Warfare Command. Currently, the Navy has no specific method to measure the efficiency of these mine warfare assets, thus future procurement and present tactics most often result in plans which are feasible but not necessarily optimal. This thesis develops two optimization models to improve the efficiency of present and future mine warfare assets. The first model is a tactical decision aid. Taking the known mine threat for various routes requiring clearance, the model determines the tasking for the available MCM assets to clear the minefields in the fewest number of days. The second model simulates many potential mine threats and determines the expected minefield clearance times for a given mix of MCM assets. By varying the MCM asset mix...
Over the last five years, America has placed an ever-increasing emphasis on missile defense and currently spends nearly $10 billion annually on its development. The United States' current missile Defense system is integrated; it depends on the cooperation of defensive elements aboard ships, on land, in the air and space. The objective is to provide a layered defense with multiple opportunities to destroy an incoming missile. By investing heavily in missile defense technology, the United States is clearly aiming to protect itself and its allies, but it is also attempting to deter its enemies and other terror regimes from spending their dollars on long-range missiles with the capabilities of hitting United States targets. The underlying theory is that rogue regimes possess limited funds and will not invest precious dollars on weapons that will not be effective during an attack. The United States believes its missile defense system is a deterrent to rogue states. However, North Korea's test launches in July 2006, along with subsequent testing of a nuclear device, illustrates that while the United States' missile defense system may protect America from attacks, it may not be an effective deterrent to North Korea's further missile development and future use in offensive action.; US Army (USA) author.
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; In today's world, the United States is the dominant naval power. World powers are trading naval dominance in favor of naval defense, creating fleets of smaller ships to protect their littoral waters. As a result, the United States Navy will be called upon to engage enemy naval forces to ensure access against asymmetrical threats close to enemy coastlines. The Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) is a networked, focused-mission platform, designed to be swift, agile, stealthy, and capable of defeating asymmetric threats in the littorals. Although the LCS has limited capability to handle simultaneous missions, it will not be alone. The experimental guided missile destroyer DD(X) is the U.S. Navy's next-generation; multimission, surface combatant tailored for land attack and littoral dominance, with capabilities designed to defeat current and projected threats. Through simulation, data analysis and design of experiment, this model simulated 15,420 littoral battles to determine if the addition of a multimission platform to an LCS squadron affected overall Blue force casualties and mission effectiveness. The study examined squadron composition, size, and effects of sensors and weapon systems in both a Surface Warfare (SUW) and Anti-Air Warfare (AAW) scenario. The data analysis revealed that a squadron composition of 5 to 11 LCSs with 1 to 2 DDGs in an SUW scenario provided the best outcomes...
The General Purpose Frigate was the centrepiece of the Royal Canadian Navy’s fleet planning for over three years, and its cancellation by the newly elected Liberal government in October 1963 set off a divisive and chaotic yearlong debate over what should be built in its place. After exploring numerous options, such as aircraft carriers and nuclear submarines, the navy came to the conclusion that its best option was to pursue a guided missile destroyer program that was similar to the General Purpose Frigate. What happened next has confounded a number of modern naval historians. Just as the navy was about to acquire its long sought after guided missile destroyers, a decision was made to build four smaller specialized anti-submarine vessels that would repeat the less sophisticated Annapolis class instead.
Although a number of theories have been put forward to explain this decision, the one common factor among these hypotheses is the notion that an egocentric and dominant defence minister named Paul Hellyer forced the Repeat Annapolis upon a reluctant navy that unanimously despised the concept. According to these interpretations, both the Repeat Annapolis and General Purpose Frigate were reflective of a larger debate over whether the navy should have the capability to participate in more versatile operations...