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‣ Características hidrográficas, da circulação e dos transportes de volume e sal na Baía de Guanabara (RJ): variações sazonais e moduladas pela maré; Characteristic of the hydrography, circulation and transports of volume and salt in the Guanabara Bay (RJ): seasonal and tidal variations

Bérgamo, Alessandro Luvizon
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/10/2006 Português
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Esta pesquisa foi conduzida para o conhecimento da estrutura tridimensional de propriedades hidrográficas e de correntes na Baía de Guanabara (RJ, Brasil). Para atingir esse objetivo foi feita a análise de um conjunto de medições quase-sinóticas de propriedades hidrográficas e de velocidade em experimentos realizados na escala de tempo sazonal e de modulação da maré (quinzenal e semidiurna). Quatro estações fixas foram distribuídas na baía, no inverno e no verão austral (julho de 2000 e fevereiro de 2001); três seções latitudinais e uma longitudinal, e adicionalmente uma estação fixa, foram realizadas na baía em julho de 2003 e fevereiro de 2004. Os perfilamentos hidrográficos e de correntes foram feitos com equipamentos Condutividade-Temperatura-Pressão-Correntógrafo Acústico e um Perfilador Acústico Doppler. Em julho de 2000 os extremos de correntes de enchente e vazante, durante modulação quinzenal da maré, variaram de 0,70 m s-1 a -0,50 m s-1 e 0,80 m s-1 a -0,60 m s-1, na estação fixa localizada na entrada da baía. A salinidade (temperatura) apresentou distribuições verticais fracamente estratificadas e seus valores extremos foram modulados pelas correntes, durante o ciclo de maré de enchente e vazante...

‣ Estudo hidrogeológico do flanco norte do vulcão central do fogo (São Miguel - Açores)

Cabral, Letícia Mónica Raposo
Fonte: Universidade dos Açores Publicador: Universidade dos Açores
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Publicado em 02/10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Dissertação de Mestrado em Vulcanologia e Riscos Geológicos.; O estudo hidrogeológico do flanco norte do vulcão central do Fogo (São Miguel, Açores) consistiu na caracterização hidrogeoquímica de 46 pontos de água subterrânea, complementada pelo estudo de 12 pontos de água superficial na bacia hidrográfica da Ribeira Grande. Com o propósito de compreender a evolução hidrogeoquímica das águas, realizaram-se três amostragens, entre janeiro e junho de 2012, para registo da variação dos parâmetros físico-químicos das águas e para determinação dos catiões e aniões em solução. A caracterização hidrogeoquímica das águas subterrâneas no que diz respeito à temperatura (12,3ºC - 82,3ºC) contempla um número significativo de águas termais ortotermais e hipotermais. Os valores da condutividade média determinados em cada amostragem (respetivamente iguais a 330 μS/cm, 291 μS/cm e 425 μS/cm) indicam a presença de águas pouco mineralizadas Os valores de pH registados (entre 2 e 7 unidades de pH) indicam a presença de águas neutras e de águas com um caráter ácido muito pronunciado (fumarolas). Quanto à dureza total, de um modo geral são classificadas como águas brandas, apresentando valores de dureza total inferiores a 50 mg CaCO3/L. A avaliação do estado de equilíbrio das águas subterrâneas revela a subsaturação destas em calcite...

‣ Unleashing the Potential of Renewable Energy in India

Sargsyan, Gevorg; Bhatia, Mikul; Banerjee, Sudeshna Ghosh; Raghunathan, Krishnan; Soni, Ruchi
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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India has 150 GW of renewable energy potential, about half in the form of small hydropower, biomass, and wind and half in solar, cogeneration, and waste-to-energy. Developing renewable energy can help India increase its energy security, reduce the adverse impacts on the local environment, lower its carbon intensity, contribute to more balanced regional development, and realize its aspirations for leadership in high-technology industries. This diagnostic note draws on a detailed analysis conducted by a PricewaterhouseCoopers India consulting team in 2008-09 for the World Bank. The data are based on information on about 180 wind, biomass, and small hydropower projects in 20 states, as well as information from and norms of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) and the Central Electricity Regulatory Commission (CERC). The study is intended to provoke discussions of the feasibility of renewable energy development in India. Why is renewable energy development relevant? How much development is economically feasible? What needs to be done to realize the potential? Each of these topics is addressed in a separate chapter...

‣ Climate Change and Economic Policies in APEC Economies : Synthesis Report

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
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Drawing on several studies on APEC economies, this report discusses economic policy choices for mitigating and adapting to climate change effects. It highlights that APEC economies will have a central role in both sides of climate change. These economies include some of the largest emitters and also those among the most vulnerable to the impact of climate change. The report suggests that action on climate change will require a wide range of economic policy interventions, including most importantly fiscal policies. These will include setting carbon prices that cost emissions properly, liberalizing and strengthening markets so that prices and costs can be passed- through, offsetting other biases towards capital and emissions intensive economic growth and supporting technology based policies. On the adaptation side, the report emphasizes the importance of fiscal policy and investment choice tools that incorporate the uncertainty surrounding the nature and location of climate change effects. The report discusses how emissions reduction through appropriate climate friendly technologies (CFTs) can be an important complement to more politically sensitive mitigation measures (like carbon pricing). At the same time...

‣ District Energy Trends, Issues, and Opportunities : The Role of the World Bank

Gochenour, Carolyn
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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This study reviews the history and development of district heating and district cooling, together referred to as district energy in North America, Western Europe, Asia, Eastern and Central Europe, and the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Experience from other parts of the world where DH systems exist could be beneficial to DH industry managers and regulators in Eastern and Central Europe and FSU countries in modernizing their management systems and improving their policies and practices to allow for the attraction of capital that is urgently needed. The report reviews, in a systematic manner, the key institutional, economic, financial, technical, and environmental issues in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe and the FSU with the goal of arriving at operationally relevant issues and defining the awareness and understanding of the nature of activities which can lead to increasing energy efficiency and the attractiveness of district energy to private financing.

‣ Renewable Energy Potential in Selected Countries

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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Renewable energy (RE) resources have been attracting growing interest in both the industrialized and the developing world in the last five to eight years. The main drivers for this interest and accelerated activity have been the expected strong demand for energy in the developing world and environmental concerns, particularly of the risk of drastic climate change as a result of the increasing accumulation of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Volume 1 covers : North Africa region, countries of Central Europe and the former Soviet Union (FSU). Volume 2 : Latin America. The decision to conduct regional rather than specific country studies was made to take into account the commonalities of the shared characteristics of a group of countries. Some of the results and conclusion of the study regarding countries of Central and Eastern Europe, as a group, certain regional aspects emerge. First, they all share the legacies of the Soviet Union, notably in their economic structure, mentality, and methodologies. Second, they depend on each other for a number of goods and services and are trying to transition to a modus operandi appropriate to a market economy framework. The development of regional markets would be a natural outcome of this effort on the supply side. Volume 2 covers progress in the use of renewable energy for rural electrification being made in select countries in the LAC Region...

‣ Sources for PM air pollution in the Po Plain, Italy: II. Probabilistic uncertainty characterization and sensitivity analysis of secondary and primary sources

LARSEN Bo; GILARDONI Stefania; STENSTRÖM Kristina; NIEDZIALEK Joanna; JIMENEZ Jose; BELIS CLAUDIO
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Articles in Journals Formato: Printed
Português
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Very high levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) are frequently encountered in the north of Italy and air quality limits are regularly exceeded. To obtain quantitative information on the pollution sources and to gain understanding of the dynamics of pollution episodes in this populated area PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected daily at nine urban to regional sites distributed over the central Po Plain and one site in the Valtelline Valley. In total 23 five-week winter campaigns and one summer/autumn campaign (2007-2009) were organized. The PM was analyzed for 61 chemical constituents and a data-base was built up consisting of approx. 70000 records of the concentrations and their associated uncertainty. In addition 14C/12C ratios were determined in PM10 from four sites. Primary and secondary sources were quantified using macro-tracer methods, chemical mass balance modelling, and positive matrix factorization and the combined results were evaluated by probability- and sensitivity analysis. Monte Carlo simulations yielded probability distributions for seven source categories contributing to the carbonaceous fraction of PM and five source categories contributing to the PM10 and PM2.5 mass. In general, lower uncertainties were evident for the source contribution estimates for the PM mass than for the carbonaceous fractions. Secondary aerosol formed simultaneously over the Po Plain was demonstrated to be the main responsible for the typical...

‣ Mongolia : Improved Space Heating Stoves for Ulaanbaatar

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Access to a reliable source of heat is vital to sustain life in Mongolia. Particularly so, for families living in the traditional tents, who today in Ulaanbaatar - the capital city - rely on burning mineral coal. However, the incomplete combustion of coal by inefficient metal stoves, releases polluting gases, affecting not only households' interior, but the air quality of the entire city. Additionally, air pollution is also caused by three central combined heating, and power stations coal-fueled boilers, and vehicle emissions. Over the 1999-2001 period, the Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP) assessed the situation in terms of household heating habits, and consumption levels, and identified the main local participants, towards improving stoves and their impact on air pollution. Appropriate schemes were designed for widespread uses, and a dissemination program was elaborated, including financial support from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for its implementation. The report presents the findings...

‣ Romania : Urban Sector Rapid Assessment; România - Program privind schimbarile climatice si cresterea ecologica cu emisii reduse de dioxid de carbon : evaluarea rapida a sectorului urban - raport sectorial în cadrul componentei B

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Risk and Vulnerability Assessment
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Cities have long held a central place of importance in society as hubs of commerce, culture, and political power. Because of climate change, however, the clustering together of large numbers of people and high levels of economic activity also creates vulnerabilities. In Romania, where the urbanization rate is roughly 55 percent, the Government of Romania has commissioned this advisory services report from the World Bank to explore how to operationalize an urban climate strategy within the structure of the European Union's new 2014-2020 operating program. This report presents the results for the rapid assessment of the current state of (and opportunities for improved) urban climate planning in Romania; what is known about how cities in Romania contribute to climate change; and how cities in Romania will be affected by climate change. To complete this rapid assessment, the World Bank team relied on an extensive literature review and in-person, semi-structured interviews with more than two dozen central and local government officials...

‣ Remoção de benzeno e tolueno da gasolina automotiva por meio de processo adsortivo mono e bicomponente

Stähelin, Paula Mariana
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Publicador: Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: 140 p.| il., grafs., tabs.
Português
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Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Química, Florianópolis, 2015.; A indústria petrolífera, além de ser uma grande geradora de efluentes contaminados, produz derivados com alto teor de componentes tóxicos, os quais já se encontram presentes no petróleo bruto ou podem ser gerados na própria refinaria. Um exemplo é a gasolina automotiva comercializada nos postos revendedores e contaminada naturalmente com benzeno e tolueno numa concentração de até 1 % v/v (? 113 mmol/L) e 4 % v/v (? 376 mmol/L), respectivamente. O problema desses compostos é o efeito que eles causam à saúde; são depressores poderosos do sistema nervoso central e o benzeno é comprovadamente carcinogênico humano. Este trabalho teve como finalidade estudar a remoção de benzeno e tolueno da gasolina, representada em laboratório pelo iso-octano, por processo adsortivo, utilizando os carvões ativados vegetal de casca de coco e mineral betuminoso como adsorventes, na faixa de 18x30 mesh. Testes iniciais com os carvões permitiram afirmar que o processo de remoção é mais adequado com a utilização do carvão de casca de coco, em uma concentração de 40 g/L...

‣ Assessment of integrated urban energy options

Pine, Gerald Dean
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 8310651 bytes; application/pdf
Português
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An initial comparison is carried out for the following residential space and water heating options: electric resistance heating, electrically- driven heat pumps, distribution of condenser temperature water combined with heat pumps to extract heat at the point of use, district heating via hot water from a combined heat-electric utility energy source, and individual gas furnaces. This comparison indicates that district heating is potentially competitive with conventional technologies for new urban areas. A more detailed analysis of the district heating option is undertaken to clarify its economics. Base case urban models, economic assumptions and distribution networks are defined and a computer program is developed to select optimum pipe sizes for the networks and to calculate life cycle costs. Cost optimization is carried out by considering thermal energy production costs as well as thermal conveyance costs. Because of the large number of variables entering into the cost determination, sensitivity analyses are performed to examine the effects of variations from base case assumptions. Variations in the installed pipe cost, interest rate, maintenance costs and degree of market penetra- tion are shown to have the greatest effect on energy cost. Pumping power and heat loss are found to be relatively insignificant cost items. Proper phasing of system inplementation with urban growth is shown to be very important. Initial use of temporary heat sources located near the loads coupled with implementation of only local piping networks is advantageous for present gas and oil prices if the urban growth occurs over a period of 15-30 years. There is shown to be an economically optimum time for conversion to a large centralized thermal energy source. Several potential institutional barriers to district heating system implementation are identified. These barriers will be more difficult to overcome than any technical or economic barriers...