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‣ Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and its correlation with risk factors among new recruits in Turkey

Altay,Tulin; Uskun,Ersin; Akcam,Fusun Zeynep
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 Português
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OBJECTIVES: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and related risk factors among new recruits in a military unit in Turkey. METHODS: Eight thousand five hundred eighty-nine newly-recruited soldiers were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were drawn from them between January 2006 and December 2006 and ELISA technique was applied to the samples. In addition, questions on the risk factors of hepatitis B exposure were asked to the participants in the survey. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that HBsAg seroprevalence was 2.8%. Further survey results indicated that seropositivity increased depending on certain risk factors. In multiple regression analysis, significant correlations were determined between HBsAg positivity and certain risk factors such as living in the Southeast Anatolia region (p < 0.01), having a history of living with a hepatitis B carrier (p < 0.001), and presence of a hepatitis B carrier in the neighborhood or at work (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The HBsAg seropositivity found in this study supports the fact that Turkey remains in the medium endemicity zone, and that horizontal transmission is predominant.

‣ Profile of users of drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B available through the Brazilian Public Health System

Wiens,Astrid; Lenzi,Luana; Grochocki,Mônica Cavichiolo; Correr,Cassyano Januário; Pontarolo,Roberto
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2012 Português
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Treatment for chronic hepatitis B in Brazil are funded by the Ministry of Health and by the state Departments of Health. Clinical protocol and therapeutic guidelines approve the use of adefovir, entecavir, interferon-a, lamivudine, and tenofovir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B. The aim of this study was to establish the profile of users of these drugs in the state of Paraná. A cross-sectional study was conducted with patients under treatment in Paraná in August 2011. The following data were obtained: gender, hepatitis B used drug, International Classification of Diseases, and regional health unit. The monthly cost of these drugs for the public health system was also calculated. 1,093 patients registered were found, 70% male, and 2.6% co-infected with the delta agent. Tenofovir was the drug most commonly used (355 users). The highest prevalence was found in the regional health units of Pato Branco, Cascavel, Foz do Iguaçú, Francisco Beltrão, Toledo, Londrina, and Maringá. The annual cost for the public health system in Paraná was U$1,066,867. Through this study it was possible to investigate the distribution and profile of users of drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in Paraná in August 2011.

‣ Epidemiological, serological and molecular aspects of hepatitis B and C in children and teenagers of municipal daycare facilities schools and schools in the city of Santos

Ciaccia,Maria Célia Cunha; Moreira,Regina Célia; Lemos,Marcílio Figueiredo; Oba,Isabel Takano; Porta,Gilda
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Saúde Coletiva
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2014 Português
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Objective: To estimate the prevalence of the serological markers anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs of hepatitis B and anti-HCV of hepatitis C among children and teenagers enrolled at daycare facilities, kindergartens and municipal elementary education network in the city of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from June 28 to December 14, 2007, in which 4,680 finger-prick blood samples were collected from children and teenagers. A survey questionnaire was applied to their family members. The sample was dimensioned using the software Epi Info version 6 with expected frequency of 1%, acceptable error of 0.5% and confidence interval of 95%. The serological tests were performed using the ELISA technique. The molecular analysis was performed using the technique of polymerase chain reaction in House. Results: Age of the studied population ranged from 7 months to 18 years and 1 month. The general prevalence of anti-HBc reagent was 0.1%, HBsAg was 0.02% and anti-HCV was 0.02%. Conclusions: In children, the general prevalence of serological markers for hepatitis B and C in the city of Santos was low when compared with literature data.

‣ Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C markers at the population level in the municipality of Caxias do Sul, southern Brazil

Menegol,Débora; Spilki,Fernando Rosado
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
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Chronic viral hepatitis are main public health problems worldwide. Data about the seroprevalence to Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV e HCV) at the population level are scarce on Brazil and especially for the Southern region of the country. The seroprevalence to HBV and HBC antigens was evaluated on a large portion of the population of the municipality of Caxias do Sul (427,858 inhabitants), Brazil. A total of 60,604 individual serum samples collected from 2008 to 2011 were screened for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and for antibodies against HBsAg; anti HCV antibodies were measured by ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay). Overall, 1.63% of the individuals were positive for HBsAg and 1.43% showed seropositivity to HCV. From the total, 31,749 samples were analyzed for HBsAg and 28,855 for HCV. For HBsAg, 519 samples showed positive (1.63%) while the results for 37 patients (0.12%) remained inconclusive. For the anti-HCV test, 412 individuals (1.43%) showed positive. From the positive samples for HBsAg 216 (50.6%) were from male individuals whereas for anti-HCV the seroprevalence was slightly higher for females 216 (52.4%). The higher prevalence for both hepatitis viruses were found among individuals at the age group of 40 to 59 years and the lower levels of positivity for both HBV and HBC were among children and teenagers.

‣ Prevalence of hepatitis C in patients with renal disease undergoing hemodialysis treatment

Bastiani,Marcos Frank; Baiocco,Graziella Gasparotto; Wagner,Sandrine Comparsi
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica; Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia; Sociedade Brasileira de Citopatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia Clínica; Sociedade Brasileira de Patologia; Sociedade Brasileira de Citopatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2014 Português
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Introduction and Objective: This study aimed at determining the prevalence of hepatitis C among 649 patients diagnosed with chronic or acute kidney disease − patients were undergoing hemodialysis treatment at a large hemodialysis center in Porto Alegre-RS, from January through December, 2012 –, as well as relating our data to that presented in the national census, reporting cases of coinfection by hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and defining the demographic profile of these patients. Method: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted and data was obtained from information in patients’ electronic medical records. Result and conclusion: The prevalence of hepatitis C in this study was 10.17% of the sampled population. However, further analysis of other liver centers would be required to estimate an accurate prevalence rate of infection caused by the hepatitis C virus in patients undergoing hemodialysis in Porto Alegre.

‣ Correlation of hepatitis C and prostate cancer, inverse correlation of basal cell hyperplasia or prostatitis and epidemic syphilis of unknown duration

Krystyna,Annika; Safi,Tarang; Briggs,William M.; Schwalb,Murray D.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2011 Português
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PURPOSE: The accuracy of prostate specific antigen (PSA) to detect prostate cancer has not yet been determined. Autopsy evidence suggests one-third of men have evidence of prostate cancer. Correlation between prostate cancer and sexually transmitted infection is indeterminate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective database was created of all men who underwent transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy over 3 years. Men were 49% African or African Caribbean, and 51% Central or South American. Information about prostate specific antigen, cholesterol, hepatitis A, B and C, human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, tuberculin skin testing and histology were collected. RESULTS: Hepatitis C antibody detection correlated with prostate cancer OR 11.2 (95% CI 3.0 to 72.4). The odds of prostate cancer increased annually (p = 0.0003). However, no correlation was found between prostate cancer and the following: PSA, biopsy date, repeat biopsy, more than 12 cores at biopsy, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein, risk measure reported with free and total PSA, hepatitis B surface antibody, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or atypical small acinar proliferation. Histologic prostatitis and basal cell hyperplasia were inversely correlated with prostate cancer. Syphilis of unknown duration occurred in 17% of men with indeterminate correlation to prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: In inner city men of African and African-Caribbean...

‣ Hepatitis B antigen and viral hepatitis type B in India*

John, T. Jacob; Carman, Robert H.; Hill, Peter G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1974 Português
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Surveys were conducted to determine the occurrence of overt hepatitis manifested by jaundice in groups of hospital patients who had survived their initial illness. Of those who had been given blood that had not been screened for the presence of hepatitis B antigen (HB Ag) 9.4% reported that they had had jaundice during the 6 months following transfusion. During a similar period jaundice was reported by only 1.1% of those who had received blood found to be negative for HB Ag by the cross-over electrophoresis test. This difference is highly significant. Jaundice was reported by 25.5% of recipients of HB Ag-positive blood. Of a control population of hospitalized but non-transfused patients 2.2% reported jaundice within 6 months of hospitalization. The risk of overt hepatitis from HB Ag in transfused blood is high in southern India and is similar to that in temperate countries where the occurrence of antigen carriers, and presumably of immune status, are lower than in the tropics.

‣ Importance of adequate immunosuppressive therapy for the recovery of patients with “life-threatening” severe exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B

Fujiwara, Keiichi; Yokosuka, Osamu; Kojima, Hiroshige; Kanda, Tatsuo; Saisho, Hiromitsu; Hirasawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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AIM: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) re-activation often occurs spontaneously or after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Severe exacerbation, sometimes developing into fulminant hepatic failure, is at high risk of mortality. The efficacy of corticosteroid therapy in “clinically severe” exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B has not been well demonstrated. In this study we evaluated the efficacy of early introduction of high-dose corticosteroid therapy in patients with life-threatening severe exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B.

‣ Acute hepatitis and myositis associated with Erythema infectiosum by Parvovirus B19 in an adolescent

Koliou, Maria; Karaoli, Evaggelia; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Pavlides, Sylvie; Bashiardes, Stavros; Christodoulou, Christina
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Erythema infectiosum is the most common clinical manifestation of Parvovirus B19 infection although it has also been associated with rheumatologic diseases and various types of systemic vasculitides. Acute hepatitis and benign myositis however are rarely reported in association with Parvovirus B19 infection. Case presentation: Here we report a 14-year old male, who developed acute hepatitis and benign myositis associated with erythema infectiosum following Parvovirus B19 infection. Conclusion: Parvovirus B19 infection has rarely been associated with acute hepatitis and exceptionally rarely with benign myositis. Parvovirus B19 should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute non-A to E hepatitis and in the case of acute benign myositis presenting with a rash especially in children.

‣ Rastreamento sorológico e epidemiologia da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B em reeducandas do complexo prisional da regional metropolitana de Goiás; Serological screening and epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection among female inmates of the prision complex from the metropolitan regional of Goiás

PESSONI, Grécia Carolina
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Enfermagem; Cuidado em Enfermagem Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Enfermagem; Cuidado em Enfermagem
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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In order to investigate the seroepidemiological profile of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among female inmates from the Metropolitan Region of Goiânia, 148 women were interviewed on sociodemographic and risk factors for HBV. After, blood samples were collected for the detection of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The majority of women had less than 36 years of age (77.1%), less than nine years of education (69.8%) and family income less than two Brazilian minimum wage (65.2%). Almost half (46.6%) of female inmates reported stable relationships. An overall HBV prevalence of 18.9% was found. One (0.7%) woman was HBsAg-positive. The anti-HBc was detected in 27 (18.2%) women, being 25/27 associated to anti-HBs, and 2/27 alone. In only 36 (24.3%) female inmates the anti-HBs isolated was detected, suggesting previous hepatitis B vaccination. The analysis of risk factors showed that age over 35 years, less than ten years of education, sexual partner in the prison , and previous STD were independently associated to HBV markers. The results of this study highlight the need for action to prevent the hepatitis B in the prison environment, including health education and immunization against hepatitis B.; Com o objetivo de investigar o perfil soroepidemiológico da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B (HBV) em reeducandas da Regional Metropolitana de Goiás...

‣ Estudo soroepidemiológico da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B(HBV) e avaliação da soroconversão à vacina butang em adolescentes da periferia da região metropolitana de Goiânia, Goiás; Soroepidemiologic study about hepatitis B vírus infection (HBV) and evaluation of Butang vaccine seroconversion in teenagers living in the suburbs of Goiânia, Goiás

OLIVEIRA, Michele Dias da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Enfermagem; Cuidado em Enfermagem Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Enfermagem; Cuidado em Enfermagem
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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To evaluate the seroepidemiology profile of the hepatitis B virus infection, and the response to Butang® vaccine in adolescents from a low-income region in the Metropolitan Area of Goiânia city Goiás 664 individuals with 12 to 19 years old were interviewed regarding socio-demographic and HBV risk factors After blood samples were collected and serum samples were tested for HBV markers (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) HBsAg positive samples were subtyped by ELISA and HBV DNA detected by polymerase chain reaction Positive samples were genotyped by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method Three doses of 20μg of the Butang® vaccine were offered to all susceptible adolescents and the vaccine response was evaluated nearly 45 days after A global prevalence of 5.9% (CI 95%: 4.3 8.0) was found ranging from to 2.4% (CI 95%: 0.7 - 6.3) to 17.3% (CI 95%:11.0 - 26.0) All HBsAg positive adolescents were infected with HBV isolates of subtype adw2 and genotype A Age of 16 to 19 years attending in evening classes school B birth in other state and body piercing were independently associated to HBV positivity A total of 304 adolescents were susceptible to hepatitis B virus Of them 182 compliance with the full vaccine scheme and in 170 the vaccine response was evaluated All developed protector anti-HBs titers being the majority with titers higher than 1.000 mUI/mL The anti-HBs geometric means titers (GMT) were equal to 4.344 mUI/mL (CI 95%: 3.492 5.404) These findings ratify the importance of hepatitis B vaccine to adolescents mainly to low income ones whose social conditions should support the viral dissemination The administration of the present scheme of Butang® should guarantee protective anti-HBs levels to individuals at a critical time for hepatitis B acquiring such as latter adolescence and adulthood; Para investigar o perfil soroepidemiológico da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B e avaliar a soroconversão à vacina Butang® em adolescentes da periferia da Região Metropolitana de Goiânia Goiás 664 indivíduos de 12 a 19 anos foram entrevistados sobre dados pessoais e fatores de risco para a infecção pelo HBV A seguir foram coletadas amostras sanguíneas para detecção dos marcadores sorológicos do HBV (HBsAg...

‣ Prevalência dos marcadores da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite B em candidatos a primodoadores de sangue em Jataí, sudoeste goiano; Prevalence of hepatitis B infection markers among first-time blood donnors in Jataí, southwest of Goias

ANJOS, Giulena Rosa Leite Cardoso dos
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Enfermagem; Cuidado em Enfermagem Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Enfermagem; Cuidado em Enfermagem
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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To estimate the prevalence and evaluate risk factors to hepatitis B virus infection among candidates to first-time blood donnors in Jataí, southwest region of Goiás, 984 individulas were interviewed, blood samples were collected and screened for HBV markers (HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc) by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA). Most subjects were male (55.6%), from Jataí city (74.4%), aged < 40 years (71.5%) and had secundary education (77.2%). Almost half of them reported family income over US$500.00. An overall HBV prevalence of 6.9% (95% CI: 5.4 to 8.7) was found: 68 (6.9%) were anti-HBc-positive, three (0.3%) HBsAg-positive, and 41 (4.2%) anti-HBs-positive. Being from Jataí city (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.0 to 5.0), having a history of blood transfusion (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2 to 4.9), having a piercing/tatooing (OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2 to 3.6), having a history of drug use (OR: 2.6; CI 95%: 1.2-5.5), having unsafe sex (OR: 2.0; CI 95%: 1.1-3.6), having a sexual partner with hepatitis (OR: 16.5, 95% CI: 3.1 to 86.4), history of STD (OR 2.9, CI 95%: 1.4-5.8), and prostitution (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.02-5.4) were factors independently associated with HBV positivity. It was found that the clinical screening had a sensitivity of 69%, specificity of 60.8%...

‣ Genotipagem do vírus da hepatite C e avaliação da resposta ao tratamento em Goiânia-Goiás, com ênfase no polimorfismo relacionado ao gene IL28B; Genotyping of hepatitis C virus and evaluation of treatment response in Goiânia-Goiás, with emphasis on the polymorphism upstream of IL28B gene

Silva, Ágabo Macêdo da Costa e
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Medicina Tropical e Saúde Pública (IPTSP); Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública - IPTSP (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Medicina Tropical e Saúde Pública (IPTSP); Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública - IPTSP (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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Hepatitis C represents a public health problem worldwide. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is classified into seven genotypes and many subtypes. Besides their epidemiological importance, these genotypes have influence on the response to hepatitis C treatment, as well as other factors related to the virus and its host, such as polymorphisms upstream of interleukin (IL) 28B locus. Despite the importance of these factors in the response to treatment of hepatitis C, there are no data regarding the subject in the Midwest Region of Brazil. The present study aimed to identify the genotypes of HCV among patients attended at a reference laboratory in Goiânia-GO, and also to assess response to treatment of patients infected with genotype 1 with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), with emphasis on the polymorphism upstream of IL28B gene (rs 12979860). For HCV genotyping, a cross-sectional study was conduct in an anti-HCV positive patients in a reference laboratory in Goiânia-GO, during in a period of 10 years (2003 to 2012) (n = 1300). From January/2012 to December/2013 (n = 101), a cohort was conduct among patients infected with HCV genotype 1 treated with PEG-IFN and RBV in order to evaluate treatment response. Patients were interviewed and blood samples collected for detection of viral RNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers complementary to the region 5’ noncoding (NC) of HCV. All HCV RNA positive samples were genotyped by line probe assay – LiPA...

‣ Prevalência da infecção pelo vírus da hepatite A em assentados da região Centro-Oeste, Brasil; Prevalence of hepatitis A virus infection in settlers of the Midwest Region, Brazil

Pinheiro, Raquel Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Enfermagem (FEN); Faculdade de Enfermagem - FEN (RG) Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; Brasil; UFG; Programa de Pós-graduação em Enfermagem (FEN); Faculdade de Enfermagem - FEN (RG)
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a major cause of enterically transmitted hepatitis worldwide. Poor sanitary conditions particularly lack of safe water and sewerage systems have been associated with increased prevalence of this infection. In Brazil, there are more than 1, 200, 00 families living in rural settlements. Most of them have no access to safety water, and many had lived previously in landless camping in poor hygiene conditions. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis A among people living in rural settlements in Central Brazil. From 2008 to 2011, individuals living in rural settlement in the municipalities of Jataí and surround (n=466), Goiás/GO and Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul/MS (n= 454) were interviewed and blood samples were collected and tested for HAV antibodies (total anti-HAV) by ELISA, respectively. Globally 85.9% (95% CI: 83.5 – 88.0). Of individuals had been previously infected by HAV. None child aged less than five years was anti-HAV positive. Otherwise, almost the totality (98.7%) of individuals aged 20 years or more were exposed to HAV. Concerning individuals with 10-19 years old, the overall prevalence of HAV was 69,6%. In the settlements studied in Goiás, age, history of life in landless...

‣ Hepatocellular carcinoma following neonatal hepatitis

Moore, L.; Bourne, A.; Moore, D.; Preston, H.; Byard, R.
Fonte: TAYLOR & FRANCIS Publicador: TAYLOR & FRANCIS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1997 Português
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Hepatocellular carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy in young children associated with a variety of congenital and acquired conditions. It has been generally held that idiopathic neonatal hepatitis is not an antecedent of hepatocellular neoplasia in childhood. We report a 28-month-old girl in whom a diagnosis of neonatal giant cell hepatitis was confirmed by liver biopsy at 4 months of age who was followed up with serial liver biopsies. Hepatitis B and C virus infection and metabolic abnormalities had been excluded by appropriate testing. There was no history of parenteral nutrition. The morphologic criteria for a diagnosis of cirrhosis were satisfied in a liver biopsy undertaken at 23 months of age. At 28 months a laparotomy was performed because of continuing jaundice and the development of an abdominal mass. Biopsy of the mass revealed a hepatocellular carcinoma. Ploidy studies showed an aneuploid tumor and a hyperdiploid karyotype was confirmed by chromosomal analysis. This case demonstrates by sequential biopsy the progression from neonatal hepatitis to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in a young child.; Lynette Moore; Anthony J. Bourne; BS David J. Moore; BS Henry Preston; BS Roger W. Byard

‣ Characterization of age- and dose-related outcomes of duck hepatitis B virus infection

Jilbert, A.; Botten, J.; Miller, D.; Bertram, E.; de la M. Hall, P.; Kotlarski, I.; Burrell, C.
Fonte: Academic Press / Elsevier Publicador: Academic Press / Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1998 Português
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Experimental inoculation of naive ducks with duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) can lead to one of three outcomes, namely, persistent viremia, transient infection with or without viremia, or no evidence of infection. The ability of individual ducks to resolve DHBV infection was found to be linked to the age of the duck at the time of inoculation and the dose of inoculated virus. (1) In recently hatched ducks inoculated intravenously (i.v.) with 4 x 10(4) DHBV DNA genomes, a switch from persistent viremia to transient antibody appearance was seen at an age of inoculation between 7 and 14 days. A 25-fold increase in the dose of virus (1 x 10(6) DHBV genomes) delayed this switch by 7 days. (2) When 4-month-old ducks were inoculated i.v. with different doses of virus, only those receiving the highest dose (2 x 10(11) DHBV genomes) showed viremia and extensive viral replication and histological changes in the liver; 2/3 ducks in this group had a transient infection, while the third duck had viral replication and histological changes in the liver that were still present at day 120 postinoculation (p.i.). In all ducks receiving lower doses (1 x 10(3), 1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(9) DHBV genomes) antibodies to viral surface and core antigens developed without detectable viral replication in the liver on days 6...

‣ Hepatitis C virus core protein, cytochrome P450 2E1, and alcohol produce combined mitochondrial injury and cytotoxicity in hepatoma cells

Otani, K.; Korenaga, M.; Beard, M.; Li, K.; Qian, T.; Showalter, L.; Singh, A.; Wang, T.; Weinman, S.
Fonte: W B Saunders Co Publicador: W B Saunders Co
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol consumption exacerbates liver injury in chronic hepatitis C, and enhanced mitochondrial oxidative stress is one possible mechanism. The aim of this study was to determine whether hepatitis C virus core protein and alcohol-inducible cytochrome P450 2E1 contribute to reactive oxygen species production and cytotoxicity in human hepatoma cells. METHODS: Huh-7 cells expressing core protein, cytochrome P450 2E1, or both were exposed to 0.1 mmol/L tertiary butyl hydroperoxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and/or 25 mmol/L ethanol. Cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species production, glutathione content, and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured. RESULTS: Expression of core/cytochrome P450 2E1 synergistically enhanced cell death induced by either tertiary butyl hydroperoxide or tumor necrosis factor alpha. After tertiary butyl hydroperoxide treatment, total reactive oxygen species production was increased more than 3-fold compared with cells that did not express core and cytochrome P450 2E1. Mitochondrial depolarization and reduced glutathione depletion occurred as well, and cell death was prevented by inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition or caspase activity. Confocal microscopy showed that the mitochondria themselves were the origin of the reactive oxygen species. In the absence of core/cytochrome P450 2E1 expression...

‣ Characterisation of the events involved in the resolution of acute duck hepatitis B virus infection.

Reaiche, Georget Yacknisa
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2008 Português
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The human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the prototype member of the Hepadnaviridae family of viruses. Various other hepadnaviruses are used as models to study human HBV infections as all Hepadnaviridae family members have similar virus structure and replication strategies. The studies performed and described in this thesis were carried out using duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infection of Pekin ducks as a model system. Hepadnavirus infections can have either an acute or a chronic outcome. The factors that contribute to these outcomes include the immune response, the age of the host at the time of infection as well as size of viral inoculum. The overall aim of this project was to gain a detailed understanding of the mechanisms involved in clearance of virus and resolution of acute DHBV infections. As a first step, molecular and immunohistochemical detection methods for a range of cellular markers in ducks had to be developed as assays were not readily available. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays (qRT-PCR) were developed for the detection of mRNA of the duck T-lymphocyte markers, CD3, CD4, CD8, duck cytokines, IFN-α, IFN-γ, TNF-α and the duck housekeeping genes, β-actin and GAPDH. Immunohistochemistry was developed for the detection of duck CD4 + and CD8 + on T cells and for the detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a marker of cell proliferation. These methods were then widely used throughout the project. The innate immune response during HBV infections is not well understood. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are a family of pattern recognition receptors that form part of the innate immune response and are involved in the recognition of bacterial...

‣ Molecular analysis of acute and chronic duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infections in ducks.

Low, Huey Chi
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2012 Português
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The hepadnavirus family contains two genera, Orthohepadnaviruses that infect mammals and Avihepadnaviruses that infect birds. The most thoroughly studied members of the hepadnavirus family include hepatitis B virus (HBV), which infects humans and chimpanzees, woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV), which infects woodchucks, and duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), which infects ducks. All hepadnaviruses have similar genome structure and organisation of the open reading frames on their genome, and also show extensive nucleotide sequence homology within, but not between, genera. All hepadnaviruses primarily infect hepatocytes and have similar infection outcomes in their natural hosts. The outcome of hepadnavirus infection can be divided into either acute, with successful clearance of infection from the host and establishment of immune control, or chronic, where infection is not cleared, resulting in persistent lifelong infection that is linked to various forms of liver disease. The mechanisms involved in immune clearance of hepadnavirus infections are poorly understood. It has been hypothesised that virus DNA and proteins are, 1) cleared from the liver cytolytically by killing of the infected hepatocytes, or 2) can be destroyed noncytolytically by cytokines...

‣ Bioinformatics methods for the analysis of hepatitis viruses

Moriconi, F.; Beard, M.; Yuen, L.
Fonte: Int Medical Press Ltd Publicador: Int Medical Press Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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HBV and HCV are the only hepatotropic viruses capable of establishing chronic infections. More than 500 million people worldwide are estimated to have chronic infections with HBV and/or HCV, and they have an increased risk of developing liver complications, such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. During the past decade, several antiviral agents including immune-modulatory drugs and nucleoside/nucleotide analogues have been approved for the treatment of HBV and HCV infections. In recent years, the focus has been on the development of new and better therapeutic agents for management of chronic HCV infections. Bioinformatics has only been applied recently to the field of viral hepatitis research. In addition to the wide range of general tools freely available for identification of open reading frames, gene prediction, homology searching, sequence alignment, and motif and epitope recognition, several public database systems designed specifically for HBV and HCV research have now been developed. The focus of these databases ranged from being viral sequence repositories for the provision of bioinformatics tools for viral genome analysis, as well as HBV or HCV drug resistance prediction. This review provides an overview of these public databases...