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‣ Einsatz eines aus den Oberflächenproteinen des Hepatitis B-Virus abgeleiteten Zellpermeabilitätsmotives für den Antigentransfer und für die Induktion einer CD8+ T-Zellantwort; Use of the cell permeable motif derived from surface antigens of Hepatitis B-virus for antigen transfer and induction of CD8+ T-cell mediated immune responses

Bleifuß, Elke
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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Professionell antigenpräsentierende Zellen, z.B. dendritische Zellen, sind für die Induktion einer spezifischen zellulären Immunantwort verantwortlich. Obwohl antigenpräsentierende Zellen sehr effizient Antigene aufnehmen können, gestaltet sich insbesondere die gezielte Einschleusung von Antigenen für die Präsentation über den MHC-Klasse I-Weg schwierig, welche zur Induktion einer CD8+ T-Zellantwort, z.B. gegen Tumorzellen, erwünscht ist. Zellpermeable Moleküle stellen für einen Antigentransfer attraktive Kandidaten dar; sie können die an sie fusionierten bzw. assoziierten Antigene direkt in das Zytoplasma von antigenpräsentierenden Zellen eintransportieren und somit dem MHC-I-abhängigen Präsentationsweg zugänglich machen. Eine in der PreS2-Domäne der viralen Oberflächenproteine des humanen Hepatitis B-Virus charakterisierte 12 AS lange Sequenz (TLM) weist die Eigenschaft der Zellpermeabilität auf. Das TLM gelangt in einem energie-, rezeptor- und temperaturunabhängigen Diffusionsprozess in das Zytoplasma von Zellen, ohne die Zellintegrität zu beeinflussen. Im Rahmen dieser Arbeit wurde das Potential des TLM als Vehikel für einen Antigentransfer untersucht. Verschiedene mit dem TLM modifizierte Antigenspezies (spezifisches CD8+ T-Zellepitop...

‣ Untersuchungen zur Charakterisierung des gegen Hepatitis A-Virus gerichteten monoklonalen IgM-Antikörpers 4E1

Gottstein, Martin
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
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Die hohe Kontagiosität und jährlich Millionen Fälle von Neuerkrankungen von Hepatitis A durch Infektionen mit HAV demonstrieren auch nach der Entwicklung eines gut wirksamen Impfstoffes Ende der 1980er Jahre die gesundheitsökonomische Relevanz der Erkrankung. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit richtete sich auf die Charakterisierung des monoklonalen gegen Hepatitis A-Virus gerichteten Antikörpers IgM 4E1 in der Labordiagnostik. In dieser Arbeit wurden zwei Methoden entwickelt, um den im Hybridoma-Expressmedium produzierten monoklonalen Antikörper (MAK) IgM 4E1 hoch zu reinigen. Dies gelang mit Hilfe der Größenausschluss-Chromatographie (SEC) und der Thiophilen Adsorptions-Chromatographie (TAC). Der Reinheitsgrad wurde mit Hilfe von SDS-PAGE mit anschließender Silberfärbung sowie Bestimmung der Proteinkonzentration durch BCA- und Bradford Protein Assay bestimmt. Beim Vergleich der Methoden zur Bestimmung der Proteinkonzentration sowohl im Zellkulturüberstand als auch in den Elutionsfraktionen der SEC und TAC zeigte sich, dass der BCA Protein Assay dem Bradford Protein Assay aufgrund eines größeren Arbeitsbereiches, höherer Sensitivität und besserer Reproduzierbarkeit überlegen ist. Die Verwendbarkeit des MAK IgM 4E1 in der Hepatitis A-Diagnostik wurde durch die Herstellung eines IgM-basierten HAV-Antigen-Sandwich-ELISA charakterisiert...

‣ Cuidados al binomio madre-hijo en el transcurso de la Hepatitis B.; Cuidados ao binomio mae-filho em decorrência da Hepatite B.

Gimeniz Galvão, M.T.; Gonçalves Vasconcelos, S.; Veríssimo Oliveira, M.I.
Fonte: Murcia : Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia Publicador: Murcia : Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Murcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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La Hepatitis B es una enfermedad infecciosa grave, transmisible, cuya forma crónica es responsable de la cirrosis y carcinoma hepatocelular. La prevalencia de la Hepatitis B en embarazadas varía de acuerdo con las diversas regiones del país. La exposición perinatal puede ocurrir durante el parto, por la exposición del recién nacido a sangre o líquido amniótico, durante el pasaje en el canal del parto, y raramente por el amamantamiento o por vía transplacentaria. En el transcurso de la experiencia del cuidado de enfermería en Maternidad, hubo oportunidad de asistir a puérperas con esta patología. En este intervalo se tiene como objetivo presentar la asistencia de enfermería dirigida a la puérpera con Hepatitis B. Se trata de un relato situacional ocurrido en 2004 en una Maternidad de Fortaleza-CEBrasil. La asistencia de enfermería prestada se basó en las normas del Ministerio de la Salud sobre bioseguridad, así como en la atención humanizada al binomio madre-hijo. Las intervenciones de enfermería se enfocaron en las precauciones de contacto para disminuir el riesgo de transmisión vertical, con el cuidado en la manipulación de las secreciones en el momento del parto, administración de la vacuna contra hepatitis B y de la gammaglobulina hiperinmune en RN al nacer...

‣ Modulación de la expresión de los receptores de quimioquinas CCR5 y CXCR3 en las células T CD8+ durante el tratamiento de la infección crónica por virus de la hepatitis C y su correlación con el desarrollo de respuesta virológica sostenida

Miquel Plaza, Joaquín
Fonte: Universidade de Alcalá Publicador: Universidade de Alcalá
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
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La infección por el virus de la hepatitis C (VHC) se caracteriza por su gran capacidad para evadir la respuesta inmune y cronificarse. Un posible mecanismo de escape viral a la respuesta inmune podría ser la alteración de la capacidad quimiotáctica de las células T citotóxicas hacia el hígado infectado, actuando sobre la interacción de los receptores de quimioquinas y sus ligandos. Por ello analizamos la capacidad del VHC para modificar la expresión de quimioquinas asociadas a respuesta T citotóxica tipo 1 y sus receptores en las células T citotóxicas como mecanismo de escape viral, e investigar los efectos del tratamiento antiviral con interferón PEGilado (PEG-IFN) y Ribavirina (RBV) sobre dicho proceso y su correlación con el desarrollo de respuesta virológica sostenida (RVS). METODOS Se determinó el grado de expresión de CCR5 y CXCR3 (receptores de quimioquinas asociados a respuesta Tc1) en los linfocitos T CD8+ intrahepáticos y en sangre periférica de pacientes con infección crónica por VHC genotipo 1, así como la concentración de sus ligandos en suero (CXCL10 y CCL3), correlacionando dichos hallazgos con el grado de inflamación y fibrosis hepática en estos pacientes. Además, en pacientes tratados con PEG-IFN alfa-2b y RBV se cuantificó en sangre periférica la expresión de estos receptores y sus ligandos a lo largo del tratamiento. Se analizó el valor predictivo positivo (VPP) y negativo (VPN) de las variaciones de la frecuencia de células T CD8+ CCR5elevado y CXCR3elevado durante el tratamiento para predecir el desarrollo de RVS. RESULTADOS En los pacientes con hepatitis crónica C...

‣ Hepatitis E virus infection in Brazil: results of laboratory-based surveillance from 1998 to 2013

Passos-Castilho,Ana Maria; Sena,Anne de; Reinaldo,Mônica Renata; Granato,Celso Francisco Hernandes
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 Português
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INTRODUCTION:Data on hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Brazil are limited. We analyzed 15 years of HEV surveillance data in a major clinical laboratory in São Paulo, Brazil.METHODS:The seroprevalence of HEV of 2,271 patients subjected to anti-HEV tests from 1998 to 2013 were analyzed.RESULTS:HEV seroprevalence was 2.1%, and the anti-HEV IgM positivity rate was 4.9%. Six hepatitis E patients were identified.CONCLUSIONS:HEV seroprevalence and detection rates appear to have increased in recent years. Hepatitis E should be investigated further and included in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis in Brazil.

‣ NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND DIETARY INTAKE IN NON-CIRRHOTIC ADULT CHRONIC HEPATITIS C PATIENTS

GOTTSCHALL,Catarina B A; PEREIRA,Thainá G; RABITO,Estela I; ÁLVARES-DA-SILVA,Mário R
Fonte: Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Gastroenterologia - IBEPEGE ; Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva - CBCD ; Sociedade Brasileira de Motilidade Digestiva - SBMD ; Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia - FBG; Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia - SBH; Sociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva - SOBED Publicador: Instituto Brasileiro de Estudos e Pesquisas de Gastroenterologia - IBEPEGE ; Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgia Digestiva - CBCD ; Sociedade Brasileira de Motilidade Digestiva - SBMD ; Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia - FBG; Sociedade Brasileira de Hepatologia - SBH; Sociedade Brasileira de Endoscopia Digestiva - SOBED
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2015 Português
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BackgroundThe hepatitis C virus is one of the main causes of liver disease worldwide and may develop nutritional deficiencies.ObjectiveThe objective of this study was to assess and compare different nutritional status methods of adult patients with chronic hepatitis C virus, and to describe inadequacies in dietary intake.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted with adult outpatients with hepatitis C virus at a Brazilian hospital. Nutritional assessment included the 24-hour dietary recall, anthropometry (body weight, height, body mass index, triceps skinfold, mid-upper arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, mid-upper arm muscle area, adductor policis muscle), Subjective Global Assessment, Royal Free Hospital Global Assessment and handgrip strength.ResultsA total of 94 outpatients (ages 30 to 76 years), was included, 46 were men. The prevalence of malnutrition as measured by the different methods was 6.4% (body mass index); 60.6% (handgrip strength), and 53.2% (Royal Free Hospital Global Assessment). There was correlation between mid-upper arm circumference and mid-arm muscle circumference (r=0.821), mid-upper arm circumference and triceps skinfold (r=0.575) and mid-upper arm circumference and mid-upper arm muscle area (r=0.781). Energy and protein intakes were below recommended levels in 49 (52.1%) and 44 (46.8%) of patients...

‣ Resistance to hepatitis C virus: potential genetic and immunological determinants

Mina, M.M.; Luciani, F.; Cameron, B.; Bull, R.A.; Beard, M.R.; Booth, D.; Lloyd, A.R.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Studies of individuals who were highly exposed but seronegative (HESN) for HIV infection led to the discovery that homozygosity for the Δ32 deletion mutation in the CCR5 gene prevents viral entry into target cells, and is associated with resistance to infection. Additionally, evidence for protective immunity has been noted in some HESN groups, such as sex workers in The Gambia. Population studies of individuals at high risk for hepatitis C virus infection suggest that an HESN phenotype exists. The body of evidence, which suggests that protective immunity allows clearance of hepatitis C virus without seroconversion is growing. Furthermore, proof-of-principle evidence from in-vitro studies shows that genetic polymorphisms can confer resistance to establishment of infection. This Review discusses the possibility that genetic mutations confer resistance against hepatitis C virus, and also explores evidence for protective immunity, including via genetically programmed variations in host responses. The data generally strengthens the notion that investigations of naturally arising polymorphisms within the hepatitis C virus interactome, and genetic association studies of well characterised HESN individuals, could identify potential targets for vaccine design and inform novel therapies.; Michael M Mina...

‣ Does Hepatitis B Infection or Son Preference Explain the Bulk of Gender Imbalance in China? A Review of the Evidence

Das Gupta, Monica
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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China has a large deficit of females, and public policies have sought to reduce the son preference that is widely believed to cause this. Recently a study has suggested that up to 75 percent of this deficit is attributable to hepatitis B infection, indicating that immunization programs should form the first plank of policy interventions. However, a large medical dataset from Taiwan (China) shows that hepatitis B infection raises women's probability of having a son by only 0.25 percent. And demographic data from China show that the only group of women who have elevated probabilities of bearing a son are those who have already borne daughters. This pattern makes it difficult to see how any biological factor can explain a large part of the imbalance in China's sex ratios at birth -- unless it can be shown that it somehow selectively affects those who have borne girls, or causes them to first bear girls and then boys. The Taiwanese data suggest that this is not the case with hepatitis B, since its impact is unaffected by the sex composition of previous births. The data support the cultural...

‣ Clinical and histological characteristics of HIV and hepatitis C virus-co-infected patients in Brazil: a case series study; Características clínicas e histológicas de pacientes co-infectados pelo HIV e vírus da hepatite C no Brasil: estudo de uma série de casos

MENDES-CORREA, Maria Cássia; WIDMAN, Azzo; BRUSSI, Maria Luiza Paes; GUASTINI, Cristina Fátima; CAVALHEIRO, Norma de Paula; MELO, Carlos Eduardo; BARONE, Antonio Alci; GIANINI, Reinaldo José
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important factor contributing to morbidity and mortality in patients co-infected with HIV and HCV. In addition, liver biopsy is an important tool in the clinical management of these patients. Although liver biopsy is controversial, it is recommended for all patients. Data regarding the clinical and histological characteristics of these patients are scarce not only in Brazil but in Latin America as a whole. With the goal of better understanding these characteristics and the benefit of liver biopsy indications in this disease setting, data collected from 234 patients followed from 1996 to 2004 at Casa da AIDS, São Paulo, were analyzed. The following variables were extracted from the patients' medical files at the time of liver biopsy: sex, age, hepatitis C infection risk factors, hepatitis C infection duration, ALT levels, CD4+ T cell counts, history of alcohol abuse, history of antiretroviral therapy, HCV genotype, and liver histological alterations. CONCLUSIONS: 1 - Hepatitis C virus 1 and 3 were the most frequently identified genotypes and were diagnosed in 72% and 25.5% of cases respectively; 2 - Structural liver alterations were found to be mild or absent in 48.2% (113/234) of the analyzed patients; 3 - Fifty-three patients (23%) had normal ALT levels and 4 - Significant liver architectural changes (F2-F3) were evident in 22.5% of the patients with normal ALT levels.; A infecção causada pelo vírus da hepatite C (VHC) constitui importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade entre pacientes co-infectados pelo HIV e VHC. A indicação da realização de biópsia hepática nesses pacientes é controversa...

‣ "Hepatite C: transmissão entre casais" ; Hepatitis C: transmission between couples.

Cavalheiro, Norma de Paula
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/03/2004 Português
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RESUMO Cavalheiro, NP. Hepatite C: transmissão entre casais. São Paulo, 2004. 111p. Tese (Doutorado) - Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo. Introdução: A ocorrência e eficiência da transmissão sexual do VHC na ausência de outros fatores de risco ainda é muito controversa. Foram investigados e analisados 24 casais, ambos cônjuges infectados com o VHC. Destes, 22 apresentaram o mesmo subtipo viral e a análise filogenética de parte da região NS5b mostrou altos índices de homologia nas seqüências entre os vírus dos casais infectados. Objetivo: Análise da transmissão da Hepatite C entre casais heterossexuais. Método: O estudo recrutou 45 casais. Destes, 24 foram selecionados e incluídos na pesquisa, com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial para a Hepatite C crônica. A infecção foi diagnosticada por testes imunoenzimáticos de terceira geração e pela presença da partícula viral circulante detectada pela PCR. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas entre os anos de 1999 e 2002. Foram seqüenciadas partes das regiões 5’NC e NS5b do VHC, para determinação dos subtipos virais. Os testes utilizados para as PCRs estão disponíveis para pesquisa e foram respectivamente TRUGENE 5’NC Test (Bayer Health Care Diagnostics...

‣ Niveis de zinco plasmatico e leucocitario em adolescentes com hepatite auto-imune; Plasma and leukocyte zinc levels in adolescents with autoimmune hepatitis

Thalita Cremonesi Pereira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2009 Português
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A deficiência de zinco em crianças ou adolescentes acarreta danos ao crescimento, desenvolvimento e ao sistema imune dos indivíduos. Essa deficiência ainda não foi investigada em pacientes com hepatite auto-imune que apresentam comprometimento hepático e utilizam medicamentos que podem causar a deficiência de vitaminas e minerais no organismo. Esta pesquisa teve por finalidade verificar a existência de deficiência de zinco plasmático e/ou leucocitário em adolescentes com hepatite auto-imune. Para isso, participaram do estudo 23 pacientes com hepatite auto-imune entre 10 e 18 anos atendidos no Ambulatório de Hepatologia Pediátrica do Hospital de Clínicas da Unicamp e 23 adolescentes com idade pareada com os pacientes formaram o grupo controle. Foi coletado sangue dos indivíduos dos dois grupos em quantidade suficiente para preencher dois tubos de heparina para a dosagem de zinco leucocitário e um tubo de EDTA para a análise de glutationa reduzida eritrocitária. O zinco plasmático foi analisado pelo HC/Unicamp como exame de rotina. Foi avaliado nos grupos o estado nutricional por meio da aferição de dados antropométricos como peso, altura, circunferência do braço, prega cutânea tricipital e subescapular. Somente no grupo de pacientes também foi realizado o exame de bioimpedância elétrica com aparelho que fornecia dados de resistência e reactância que foram utilizados em cálculos por equações preditivas para estimar a gordura corporal dos pacientes. A ingestão alimentar dos pacientes e do grupo controle foi avaliada pelo preenchimento...

‣ Clinical and histological characteristics of HIV and hepatitis C virus-co-infected patients in Brazil: a case series study

Mendes-Correa,Maria Cássia; Widman,Azzo; Brussi,Maria Luiza Paes; Guastini,Cristina Fátima; Cavalheiro,Norma de Paula; Melo,Carlos Eduardo; Barone,Antonio Alci; Gianini,Reinaldo José
Fonte: Instituto de Medicina Tropical Publicador: Instituto de Medicina Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2008 Português
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important factor contributing to morbidity and mortality in patients co-infected with HIV and HCV. In addition, liver biopsy is an important tool in the clinical management of these patients. Although liver biopsy is controversial, it is recommended for all patients. Data regarding the clinical and histological characteristics of these patients are scarce not only in Brazil but in Latin America as a whole. With the goal of better understanding these characteristics and the benefit of liver biopsy indications in this disease setting, data collected from 234 patients followed from 1996 to 2004 at Casa da AIDS, São Paulo, were analyzed. The following variables were extracted from the patients' medical files at the time of liver biopsy: sex, age, hepatitis C infection risk factors, hepatitis C infection duration, ALT levels, CD4+ T cell counts, history of alcohol abuse, history of antiretroviral therapy, HCV genotype, and liver histological alterations. CONCLUSIONS: 1 - Hepatitis C virus 1 and 3 were the most frequently identified genotypes and were diagnosed in 72% and 25.5% of cases respectively; 2 - Structural liver alterations were found to be mild or absent in 48.2% (113/234) of the analyzed patients; 3 - Fifty-three patients (23%) had normal ALT levels and 4 - Significant liver architectural changes (F2-F3) were evident in 22.5% of the patients with normal ALT levels.

‣ The absence of the human platelet antigen polymorphism effect on fibrosis progression in human immunodeficiency virus-1/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients

Picelli,Natália; Tanikawa,Aline Aki; Grotto,Rejane Maria Tommasini; Silva,Giovanni Faria; Barbosa,Alexandre Naime; Ferrasi,Adriana Camargo; Silveira,Liciana Vaz de Arruda; Pardini,Maria Inês de Moura Campos
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 Português
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AbstractINTRODUCTION:Hepatic fibrosis progression in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infections has been associated with viral and host factors, including genetic polymorphisms. Human platelet antigen polymorphisms are associated with the rapid development of fibrosis in HCV-monoinfected patients. This study aimed to determine whether such an association exists in human immunodeficiency virus-1/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients.METHODS:Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid from 36 human immunodeficiency virus-1/hepatitis C virus-coinfected patients was genotyped to determine the presence of human platelet antigens-1, -3, or -5 polymorphisms. Fibrosis progression was evaluated using the Metavir scoring system, and the patients were assigned to two groups, namely, G1 that comprised patients with F1, portal fibrosis without septa, or F2, few septa (n = 23) and G2 that comprised patients with F3, numerous septa, or F4, cirrhosis (n = 13). Fisher's exact test was utilized to determine possible associations between the human platelet antigen polymorphisms and fibrosis progression.RESULTS:There were no deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the human platelet antigen systems evaluated. Statistically significant differences were not observed between G1 and G2 with respect to the distributions of the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the human platelet antigen systems.CONCLUSION:The greater stimulation of hepatic stellate cells by the human immunodeficiency virus and...

‣ Viral Hepatitis Markers in Antepartum and Postpartum Women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Lewis-Ximenez,Lia Laura; Gaspar,Ana Maria Coimbra; D'Oro,Antonio Carlos Cavalieri; Mercadante,Luiz Antonio Chilelli; Ginuino,Cleber Ferreira; Yoshida,Clara Fumiko Tachibana
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2002 Português
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A seroprevalence study was carried out among a group of women in Rio de Janeiro to determine the prevalence of different markers for viral hepatitis given the limited data among healthy populations. Blood samples collected and tested from 874 women before or after delivery in a public county maternity hospital demonstrated age to be directly related to markers for hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The prevalence of HBV and hepatitis C virus infection were lower than that observed in the blood donor population and might be explained by the younger age group and gender.

‣ Mix-infections with different genotypes of HCV and with HCV plus other hepatitis viruses in patients with hepatitis C in China

Chen, Yuan-Ding; Liu, Ming-Ying; Yu, Wen-Lin; Li, Jia-Qi; Dai, Qin; Zhou, Zhen-Quan; Tisminetzky, Sergio G.
Fonte: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc Publicador: Baishideng Publishing Group Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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AIM: Clinical therapy and prognosis in HCV infections are not good, and mix-infections with different HCV genotypes or quasispecies and mix-infections with HCV plus other hepatitis viruses are important concerns worldwide. The present report describes the sequence diversity and genotying of the 5’NCR of HCV isolates from hepatitis patients mix-infected with different HCV genotypes or variants, and the conditions of mix-infections with HCV plus other hepatitis viruses, providing important diagnostic and prognostic information for more effective treatment of HCV infections.

‣ Demographic and anthropometrical analysis and genotype distribution of chronic hepatitis C patients treated in public and private reference centers in Brazil

Focaccia,R.; Baraldo,D.C.M.; Ferraz,M.L.G.; Martinelli,A.L.C.; Carrilho,F.J.; Gonçales Jr.,F.L.; Pedroso,M.L.A.; Coelho,H.S.M.; Lacerda,M.A.; Brandão,C.E.; Mattos,A.A.; Lira,L.G.C.; Zamin Jr.,I.; Pinheiro,J.O.P.; Tovo,C.V.; Both,C.T.; Soares,J.A.S.; Dit
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2004 Português
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a serious public health problem, since 80% to 85% of HCV carriers develop a persistent infection that can progress into liver cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. Considering that the response of hepatitis C patients to combination therapy with interferon and ribavirin depends on HCV characteristics as well as on host features, we made a retrospective analysis of demographic and anthropometrical data and HCV genotype distribution of chronic hepatitis C patients treated in public and private reference centers in Brazil. The medical records of 4,996 patients were reviewed, 81% from public and 19% from private institutions. Patients' median age was 46 years, and there was a higher prevalence of male (62%) and white patients (80%). The analysis of HCV-infecting strains showed a predominance of genotype 1 (64%) over genotypes 2 and 3. The patients' mean weight was 70.6 kg, and 65% of the patients weighed less than 77kg. Overweight and obesity were observed in 37.8% and 13.6% of the patients, respectively. Since a body weight of 75 kg or less has been considered an independent factor that significantly increases the odds of achieving a sustained virological response, the Brazilian population seems to have a more favorable body weight profile to achieve a sustained response than the American and European populations. The finding that 65% of chronic hepatitis C patients have a body weight of 77 kg or less may have a positive pharmacoeconomic impact on the treatment of genotype 1 HCV patients with weight-based doses of peginterferon.

‣ Epidemiological and serological aspects of hepatitis A among children and teenagers in the city of Santos: a cross-sectional study

Ciaccia,Maria Célia Cunha; Moreira,Regina Célia; Ferraro,Alexandre Archanjo; Lemos,Marcílio Figueiredo; Oba,Isabel Takano; Porta,Gilda
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Viral hepatitis A is still a concern at public health level in Brazil and around the world, due both to the number of affected subjects and the possibility of complications in the acute forms. The Brazilian Ministry of Health estimates that at least 70% of this country's population has already had contact with the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The aim here was to discover the prevalence of serological markers for the hepatitis A virus among children and teenagers at daycare facilities, kindergartens and elementary schools in the city of Santos. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in kindergartens and elementary schools within the municipal education network in several regions of the city of Santos. METHOD: Students' family members were surveyed using a questionnaire and 4,680 finger-prick blood samples were taken and assayed by means of the ELISA technique. RESULTS: The general prevalence of anti-HAV IgG was 9.72% and, of these cases, 74.6% were reactive to anti-HAV IgM. There was higher prevalence of anti-HAV IgG among older children, females, children who played in streams, those whose homes were not connected to the sewage system, those whose parents had low education levels, those with low household income and those who did not live along the seashore. The prevalence of anti-HAV IgM peaked in the early years and subsequently fell...

‣ Resultados del tratamiento con peginterferón alfa-2a y ribavirina en pacientes con hepatitis crónica C; Results of treatment with peginterferon plus ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C

Venegas Santos, Mauricio Esteban; Hola, Karen; Smok Sahid, Gladys Nachme; Brahm Barril, Javier René; Pizarro, Carolina
Fonte: Universidade do Chile Publicador: Universidade do Chile
Tipo: Artículo de revista
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Background: The current treatment recommendation for chronic hepatitis C virus infection is the combination of peginterferon and ribavirin for 24 or 48 weeks, depending on the viral genotype. The aim of the therapy is to obtain a sustained virological response. Aim: To report our experience in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Material and Methods: Analysis of 52 patients treated between September 2000 and June 2009. Patients with genotype 1 or 5 were treated with peginterferon alpha 2a (180 ug/week) and ribavirin (1000 mg/day for those weighing less than 75 kg and 1200 mg/day for those weighing more than 75 kg) during 48 weeks. Patients with genotypes 2 and 3 were treated for 24 weeks with the same dose of peginterferon and ribavirin 800 mg /day. Results: Viral genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 5 were present in 81, 4, 11 and 4% of patients, respectively. Twenty four patients (46 %), 18 with genotype 1, achieved a sustained viral response. Age was the only variable that infl uenced the response to treatment. Conclusions: Approximately half of the patients with chronic hepatitis C, achieve a sustained viral response with peginterferon and ribavirin.

‣ Prevalence and risk factors of hepatic steatosis and its impact on liver injury in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B infection

Fan, Jian-Gao; Shi, J.; Wu, Rui; Gao, Xiao-qian; Zhang, Li; Wang, Hao; Farrell, Geoffrey
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background and Aims: The clinical significance of hepatic steatosis in chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) is unclear. The aims of this study were thus to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for hepatic steatosis in patients with CHB and its relat

‣ Lamivudine for Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and Advanced Liver Disease

Liaw, Yun-Fan; Sung, Joseph J Y; Chow, Wan Cheng; Farrell, Geoffrey; Lee, Cha-Ze; Yuen, Hon; Tanwandee, Tawesak; Tao, Qi-Min; Shue, Kelly; Keene, Oliver N
Fonte: Massachusetts Medical Society Publicador: Massachusetts Medical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of antiviral therapy in preventing disease progression in patients with chronic hepatitis B and advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis is unknown. METHODS: Patients with chronic hepatitis B who had histologically confirmed cirrhosis