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‣ Intramolecular control of transcriptional activity by the NK2-specific domain in NK-2 homeodomain proteins

Watada, Hirotaka; Mirmira, Raghavendra G.; Kalamaras, Julie; German, Michael S.
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/08/2000 Português
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The developmentally important homeodomain transcription factors of the NK-2 class contain a highly conserved region, the NK2-specific domain (NK2-SD). The function of this domain, however, remains unknown. The primary structure of the NK2-SD suggests that it might function as an accessory DNA-binding domain or as a protein–protein interaction interface. To assess the possibility that the NK2-SD may contribute to DNA-binding specificity, we used a PCR-based approach to identify a consensus DNA-binding sequences for Nkx2.2, an NK-2 family member involved in pancreas and central nervous system development. The consensus sequence (TCTAAGTGAGCTT) is similar to the known binding sequences for other NK-2 homeodomain proteins, but we show that the NK2-SD does not contribute significantly to specific DNA binding to this sequence. To determine whether the NK2-SD contributes to transactivation, we used GAL4-Nkx2.2 fusion constructs to map a powerful transcriptional activation domain in the C-terminal region beyond the conserved NK2-SD. Interestingly, this C-terminal region functions as a transcriptional activator only in the absence of an intact NK2-SD. The NK2-SD also can mask transactivation from the paired homeodomain transcription factor Pax6...

‣ Did homeodomain proteins duplicate before the origin of angiosperms, fungi, and metazoa?

Bharathan, Geeta; Janssen, Bart-Jan; Kellogg, Elizabeth A.; Sinha, Neelima
Fonte: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA Publicador: The National Academy of Sciences of the USA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/12/1997 Português
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Homeodomain proteins are transcription factors that play a critical role in early development in eukaryotes. These proteins previously have been classified into numerous subgroups whose phylogenetic relationships are unclear. Our phylogenetic analysis of representative eukaryotic sequences suggests that there are two major groups of homeodomain proteins, each containing sequences from angiosperms, metazoa, and fungi. This result, based on parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses of primary amino acid sequences, was supported by two additional features of the proteins. The two protein groups are distinguished by an insertion/deletion in the homeodomain, between helices I and II. In addition, an amphipathic alpha-helical secondary structure in the region N terminal of the homeodomain is shared by angiosperm and metazoan sequences in one group. These results support the hypothesis that there was at least one duplication of homeobox genes before the origin of angiosperms, fungi, and metazoa. This duplication, in turn, suggests that these proteins had diverse functions early in the evolution of eukaryotes. The shared secondary structure in angiosperm and metazoan sequences points to an ancient conserved functional domain.

‣ Transcriptional control of the tissue-specific, developmentally regulated osteocalcin gene requires a binding motif for the Msx family of homeodomain proteins.

Hoffmann, H M; Catron, K M; van Wijnen, A J; McCabe, L R; Lian, J B; Stein, G S; Stein, J L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/12/1994 Português
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The OC box of the rat osteocalcin promoter (nt -99 to -76) is the principal proximal regulatory element contributing to both tissue-specific and developmental control of osteocalcin gene expression. The central motif of the OC box includes a perfect consensus DNA binding site for certain homeodomain proteins. Homeodomain proteins are transcription factors that direct proper development by regulating specific temporal and spatial patterns of gene expression. We therefore addressed the role of the homeodomain binding motif in the activity of the OC promoter. In this study, by the combined application of mutagenesis and site-specific protein recognition analysis, we examined interactions of ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cell nuclear proteins and purified Msx-1 homeodomain protein with the OC box. We detected a series of related specific protein-DNA interactions, a subset of which were inhibited by antibodies directed against the Msx-1 homeodomain but which also recognize the Msx-2 homeodomain. Our results show that the sequence requirements for binding the Msx-1 or Msx-2 homeodomain closely parallel those necessary for osteocalcin gene promoter activity in vivo. This functional relationship was demonstrated by transient expression in ROS 17/2.8 osteosarcoma cells of a series of osteocalcin promoter (nt -1097 to +24)-reporter gene constructs containing mutations within and flanking the homeodomain binding site of the OC box. Northern blot analysis of several bone-related cell types showed that all of the cells expressed msx-1...

‣ The Yeast a1 and α2 Homeodomain Proteins Do Not Contribute Equally to Heterodimeric DNA Binding

Jin, Yisheng; Zhong, Hualin; Vershon, Andrew K.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/1999 Português
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In diploid cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the α2 and a1 homeodomain proteins bind cooperatively to sites in the promoters of haploid cell-type-specific genes (hsg) to repress their expression. Although both proteins bind to the DNA, in the α2 homeodomain substitutions of residues that are involved in contacting the DNA have little or no effect on repression in vivo or cooperative DNA binding with a1 protein in vitro. This result brings up the question of the contribution of each protein in the heterodimer complex to the DNA-binding affinity and specificity. To determine the requirements for the a1-α2 homeodomain DNA recognition, we systematically introduced single base-pair substitutions in an a1-α2 DNA-binding site and examined their effects on repression in vivo and DNA binding in vitro. Our results show that nearly all substitutions that significantly decrease repression and DNA-binding affinity are at positions which are specifically contacted by either the α2 or a1 protein. Interestingly, an α2 mutant lacking side chains that make base-specific contacts in the major groove is able to discriminate between the wild-type and mutant DNA sites with the same sequence specificity as the wild-type protein. These results suggest that the specificity of α2 DNA binding in complex with a1 does not rely solely on the residues that make base-specific contacts. We have also examined the contribution of the a1 homeodomain to the binding affinity and specificity of the complex. In contrast to the lack of a defective phenotype produced by mutations in the α2 homeodomain...

‣ Combinatorial interactions of two amino acids with a single base pair define target site specificity in plant dimeric homeodomain proteins

Tron, Adriana E.; Bertoncini, Carlos W.; Palena, Claudia M.; Chan, Raquel L.; Gonzalez, Daniel H.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/2001 Português
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Four groups of plant homeodomain proteins contain a dimerization motif closely linked to the homeodomain. We here show that two sunflower homeodomain proteins, Hahb-4 and HAHR1, which belong to the Hd-Zip I and GL2/Hd-Zip IV groups, respectively, show different binding preferences at a defined position of a pseudopalindromic DNA-binding site used as a target. HAHR1 shows a preference for the sequence 5′-CATT(A/T)AATG-3′, rather than 5′-CAAT(A/T)ATTG-3′, recognized by Hahb-4. To analyze the molecular basis of this behavior, we have constructed a set of mutants with exchanged residues (Phe→Ile and Ile→Phe) at position 47 of the homeodomain, together with chimeric proteins between HAHR1 and Hahb-4. The results obtained indicate that Phe47, but not Ile47, allows binding to 5′-CATT(A/T)AATG-3′. However, the preference for this sequence is determined, in addition, by amino acids located C-terminal to residue 53 of the HAHR1 homeodomain. A double mutant of Hahb-4 (Ile47→Phe/Ala54→Thr) shows the same binding behavior as HAHR1, suggesting that combinatorial interactions of amino acid residues at positions 47 and 54 of the homeodomain are involved in establishing the affinity and selectivity of plant dimeric homeodomain proteins with different DNA target sequences.

‣ The HOX Homeodomain Proteins Block CBP Histone Acetyltransferase Activity

Shen, Wei-fang; Krishnan, Keerthi; Lawrence, H. J.; Largman, Corey
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2001 Português
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Despite the identification of PBC proteins as cofactors that provide DNA affinity and binding specificity for the HOX homeodomain proteins, HOX proteins do not demonstrate robust activity in transient-transcription assays and few authentic downstream targets have been identified for these putative transcription factors. During a search for additional cofactors, we established that each of the 14 HOX proteins tested, from 11 separate paralog groups, binds to CBP or p300. All six isolated homeodomain fragments tested bind to CBP, suggesting that the homeodomain is a common site of interaction. Surprisingly, CBP-p300 does not form DNA binding complexes with the HOX proteins but instead prevents their binding to DNA. The HOX proteins are not substrates for CBP histone acetyltransferase (HAT) but instead inhibit the activity of CBP in both in vitro and in vivo systems. These mutually inhibitory interactions are reflected by the inability of CBP to potentiate the low levels of gene activation induced by HOX proteins in a range of reporter assays. We propose two models for HOX protein function: (i) HOX proteins may function without CBP HAT to regulate transcription as cooperative DNA binding molecules with PBX, MEIS, or other cofactors, and (ii) the HOX proteins may inhibit CBP HAT activity and thus function as repressors of gene transcription.

‣ The Arabidopsis BELL1 and KNOX TALE Homeodomain Proteins Interact through a Domain Conserved between Plants and Animals

Bellaoui, Mohammed; Pidkowich, Mark S.; Samach, Alon; Kushalappa, Kumuda; Kohalmi, Susanne E.; Modrusan, Zora; Crosby, William L.; Haughn, George W.
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2001 Português
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Interactions between TALE (three–amino acid loop extension) homeodomain proteins play important roles in the development of both fungi and animals. Although in plants, two different subclasses of TALE proteins include important developmental regulators, the existence of interactions between plant TALE proteins has remained unexplored. We have used the yeast two-hybrid system to demonstrate that the Arabidopsis BELL1 (BEL1) homeodomain protein can selectively heterodimerize with specific KNAT homeodomain proteins. Interaction is mediated by BEL1 sequences N terminal to the homeodomain and KNAT sequences including the MEINOX domain. These findings validate the hypothesis that the MEINOX domain has been conserved between plants and animals as an interaction domain for developmental regulators. In yeast, BEL1 and KNAT proteins can activate transcription only as a heterodimeric complex, suggesting a role for such complexes in planta. Finally, overlapping patterns of BEL1 and SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) expression within the inflorescence meristem suggest a role for the BEL1–STM complex in maintaining the indeterminacy of the inflorescence meristem.

‣ The conserved KNOX domain mediates specificity of tobacco KNOTTED1-type homeodomain proteins.

Sakamoto, T; Nishimura, A; Tamaoki, M; Kuba, M; Tanaka, H; Iwahori, S; Matsuoka, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/1999 Português
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Overproduction of the tobacco KNOTTED1-type homeodomain proteins NTH1, NTH15, and NTH23 in transgenic tobacco plants causes mild, severe, and no morphological alterations, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the homeodomains and adjacent ELK domains are highly conserved, and the N-terminal KNOX domains also are moderately conserved. To investigate the contributions of both the conserved and divergent regions to the severity of morphological alterations, we generated chimeric proteins by exchanging different regions of NTH1, NTH15, and NTH23. The severity of the abnormal phenotype was dependent upon the synergistic action of both the N terminus, containing the KNOX domain, and the C terminus, containing the ELK homeodomain. Detailed analysis focusing on the C terminus revealed that the C-terminal half of the ELK domain is more effective in inducing the abnormal phenotypes than are the homeodomains. For the N terminus, severe morphological alterations were induced by exchanging a part of the KNOX domain of NTH1 with the corresponding region of NTH15. This limited region in the KNOX domain of all homeodomain proteins includes a predicted alpha-helical region, but only that in NTH15 is predicted to form a typical amphipathic structure. We discuss the possibility...

‣ Sequence-specific targeting of nuclear signal transduction pathways by homeodomain proteins.

Grueneberg, D A; Simon, K J; Brennan, K; Gilman, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1995 Português
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Cells translate extracellular signals into specific programs of gene expression that reflect their developmental history or identity. We present evidence that one way this interpretation may be performed is by cooperative interactions between serum response factor (SRF) and certain homeodomain proteins. We show that human and Drosophila homeodomain proteins of the paired class have the ability to recruit SRF to DNA sequences not efficiently recognized by SRF on its own, thereby imparting to a linked reporter gene the potential to respond to polypeptide growth factors. This activity requires both the DNA-binding activity of the homeodomain and putative protein-protein contact residues on the exposed surfaces of homeodomain helices 1 and 2. The ability of the homeodomain to impart signal responsiveness is DNA sequence specific, and this specificity differs from the simple DNA-binding specificity of the homeodomain in vitro. The homeodomain imparts response to a spectrum of signals characteristic of the natural SRF-binding site in the c-fos gene. Response to some of these signals is dependent on the secondary recruitment of SRF-dependent ternary complex factors, and we show directly that a homeodomain can promote the recruitment of one such factor...

‣ The yeast alpha2 and Mcm1 proteins interact through a region similar to a motif found in homeodomain proteins of higher eukaryotes.

Mead, J; Zhong, H; Acton, T B; Vershon, A K
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1996 Português
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Homeodomain proteins are transcriptional regulatory factors that, in general, bind DNA with relatively low sequence specificity and affinity. One mechanism homeodomain proteins use to increase their biological specificity is through interactions with other DNA-binding proteins. We have examined how the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) homeodomain protein alpha2 specifically interacts with Mcm1, a MADS box protein, to bind DNA specifically and repress transcription. A patch of predominantly hydrophobic residues within a region preceding the homeodomain of alpha2 has been identified that specifies direct interaction with Mcm1 in the absence of DNA. This hydrophobic patch is required for cooperative DNA binding with Mcm1 in vitro and for transcriptional repression in vivo. We have also found that a conserved motif, termed YPWM, frequently found in homeodomain proteins of insects and mammals, partially functions in place of the patch in alpha2 to interact with Mcm1. These findings suggest that homeodomain proteins from diverse organisms may use analogous interaction motifs to associate with other proteins to achieve high levels of DNA binding affinity and specificity.

‣ Transcriptional synergy between LIM-homeodomain proteins and basic helix-loop-helix proteins: the LIM2 domain determines specificity.

Johnson, J D; Zhang, W; Rudnick, A; Rutter, W J; German, M S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1997 Português
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LIM-homeodomain proteins direct cellular differentiation by activating transcription of cell-type-specific genes, but this activation requires cooperation with other nuclear factors. The LIM-homeodomain protein Lmx1 cooperates with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein E47/Pan-1 to activate the insulin promoter in transfected fibroblasts. In this study, we show that two proteins originally called Lmx1 are the closely related products of two distinct vertebrate genes, Lmx1.1 and Lmx1.2. We have used yeast genetic systems to delineate the functional domains of the Lmx1 proteins and to characterize the physical interactions between Lmx1 proteins and E47/Pan-1 that produce synergistic transcriptional activation. The LIM domains of the Lmx1 proteins, and particularly the second LIM domain, mediate both specific physical interactions and transcriptional synergy with E47/Pan-1. The LIM domains of the LIM-homeodomain protein Isl-1, which cannot mediate transcriptional synergy with E47/Pan-1, do not interact with E47/Pan-1. In vitro studies demonstrate that the Lmx1.1 LIM2 domain interacts specifically with the bHLH domain of E47/Pan-1. These studies provide the basis for a model of the assembly of LIM-homeodomain-containing complexes on DNA elements that direct cell-type-restricted transcription in differentiated tissues.

‣ AbdB-like Hox proteins stabilize DNA binding by the Meis1 homeodomain proteins.

Shen, W F; Montgomery, J C; Rozenfeld, S; Moskow, J J; Lawrence, H J; Buchberg, A M; Largman, C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1997 Português
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Recent studies show that Hox homeodomain proteins from paralog groups 1 to 10 gain DNA binding specificity and affinity through cooperative binding with the divergent homeodomain protein Pbx1. However, the AbdB-like Hox proteins from paralogs 11, 12, and 13 do not interact with Pbx1a, raising the possibility of different protein partners. The Meis1 homeobox gene has 44% identity to Pbx within the homeodomain and was identified as a common site of viral integration in myeloid leukemias arising in BXH-2 mice. These integrations result in constitutive activation of Meis1. Furthermore, the Hoxa-9 gene is frequently activated by viral integration in the same BXH-2 leukemias, suggesting a biological synergy between these two distinct classes of homeodomain proteins in causing malignant transformation. We now show that the Hoxa-9 protein physically interacts with Meis1 proteins by forming heterodimeric binding complexes on a DNA target containing a Meis1 site (TGACAG) and an AbdB-like Hox site (TTTTACGAC). Hox proteins from the other AbdB-like paralogs, Hoxa-10, Hoxa-11, Hoxd-12, and Hoxb-13, also form DNA binding complexes with Meis1b, while Hox proteins from other paralogs do not appear to interact with Meis1 proteins. DNA binding complexes formed by Meis1 with Hox proteins dissociate much more slowly than DNA complexes with Meis1 alone...

‣ A central role of Arabidopsis thaliana ovate family proteins in networking and subcellular localization of 3-aa loop extension homeodomain proteins

Hackbusch, Jana; Richter, Klaus; Müller, Judith; Salamini, Francesco; Uhrig, Joachim F.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The organization of living cells is based on networks of interacting molecules. Systematic analysis of protein interactions of 3-aa loop extension (TALE) homeodomain proteins, fundamental regulators of plant meristem function and leaf development, revealed a highly connected, complex network. The network includes nine members of Arabidopsis thaliana ovate family proteins (AtOFPs), a plant-specific protein family, indicating a close functional connection to TALE homeodomain proteins. Evidence is provided that AtOFP1 is an essential pleiotropic developmental regulator. AtOFP1 and AtOFP5 are shown to associate with the cytoskeleton and to regulate subcellular localization of TALE homeodomain proteins, suggesting a previously unrecognized control mechanism in plant development.

‣ Sex-Specific Homeodomain Proteins Sxi1α and Sxi2a Coordinately Regulate Sexual Development in Cryptococcus neoformans

Hull, Christina M.; Boily, Marie-Josee; Heitman, Joseph
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2005 Português
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Homeodomain proteins are central regulators of development in eukaryotes. In fungi, homeodomain proteins have been shown to control cell identity and sexual development. Cryptococcus neoformans is a human fungal pathogen with a defined sexual cycle that produces spores, the suspected infectious particles. Previously, only a single homeodomain regulatory protein involved in sexual development, Sxi1α, had been identified. Here we present the discovery of Sxi2a, a predicted but heretofore elusive cell-type-specific homeodomain protein essential for the regulation of sexual development. Our studies reveal that Sxi2a is necessary for proper sexual development and sufficient to drive this development in otherwise haploid α cells. We further show that Sxi1α and Sxi2a interact with one another and impart similar expression patterns for two key mating genes. The discovery of Sxi2a and its relationship with Sxi1α leads to a new model for how the sexual cycle is controlled in C. neoformans, with implications for virulence.

‣ The third helix of the homeodomain of paired class homeodomain proteins acts as a recognition helix both for DNA and protein interactions

Bruun, Jack-Ansgar; Thomassen, Ernst Ivan Simon; Kristiansen, Kurt; Tylden, Garth; Holm, Turid; Mikkola, Ingvild; Bjørkøy, Geir; Johansen, Terje
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The transcription factor Pax6 is essential for the development of the eyes and the central nervous system of vertebrates and invertebrates. Pax6 contains two DNA-binding domains; an N-terminal paired domain and a centrally located homeodomain. We have previously shown that the vertebrate paired-less isoform of Pax6 (Pax6ΔPD), and several other homeodomain proteins, interact with the full-length isoform of Pax6 enhancing Pax6-mediated transactivation from paired domain-DNA binding sites. By mutation analyses and molecular modeling we now demonstrate that, surprisingly, the recognition helix for specific DNA binding of the homeodomains of Pax6 and Chx10 interacts with the C-terminal RED subdomain of the paired domain of Pax6. Basic residues in the recognition helix and the N-terminal arm of the homeodomain form an interaction surface that binds to an acidic patch involving residues in helices 1 and 2 of the RED subdomain. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays to demonstrate such interactions between Pax6 molecules in the nuclei of living cells. Interestingly, two mutations in the homeodomain recognition helix, R57A and R58A, reduced protein–protein interactions, but not DNA binding of Pax6ΔPD. These findings suggest a critical role for the recognition helix and N-terminal arm of the paired class homeodomain in protein–protein interactions.

‣ Cognate Site Identifier analysis reveals novel binding properties of the Sex Inducer homeodomain proteins of Cryptococcus neoformans

Stanton, Brynne C.; Giles, Steven S.; Kruzel, Emilia K.; Warren, Christopher L.; Ansari, Aseem Z.; Hull, Christina M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Homeodomain proteins function in fungi to specify cell types and control sexual development. In the meningoencephalitis-causing fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans, sexual development leads to the production of spores (suspected infectious particles). Sexual development is controlled by the homeodomain transcription factors Sxi1α and Sxi2a, but the mechanism by which they act is unknown. To understand how the Sxi proteins regulate development, we characterized their binding properties in vitro, showing that Sxi2a does not require a partner to bind DNA with high affinity. We then utilized a novel approach, Cognate Site Identifier (CSI) arrays, to define a comprehensive DNA-binding profile for Sxi2a, revealing a consensus sequence distinct from those of other fungal homeodomain proteins. Finally, we show that the homeodomains of both Sxi proteins are required for sexual development, a departure from related fungi. Our findings support a model in which Sxi1α and Sxi2a control sexual development in a homeodomain-dependent manner by binding to DNA sequences that differ from those defined in previously established fungal paradigms.

‣ TALE Homeodomain Proteins Regulate Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression Independently and via Interactions with Oct-1*

Rave-Harel, Naama; Givens, Marjory L.; Nelson, Shelley B.; Duong, Hao A.; Coss, Djurdjica; Clark, Melody E.; Hall, Sara Barth; Kamps, Mark P.; Mellon, Pamela L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of reproductive function. Expression of the GnRH gene is confined to a rare population of neurons scattered throughout the hypothalamus. Restricted expression of the rat GnRH gene is driven by a multicomponent enhancer and an evolutionarily conserved promoter. Oct-1, a ubiquitous POU homeodomain transcription factor, was identified as an essential factor regulating GnRH transcription in the GT1-7 hypothalamic neuronal cell line. In this study, we conducted a two-hybrid interaction screen in yeast using a GT1-7 cDNA library to search for specific Oct-1 cofactors. Using this approach, we isolated Pbx1b, a TALE homeodomain transcription factor that specifically associates with Oct-1. We show that heterodimers containing Pbx/Prep1 or Pbx/Meis1 TALE homeodomain proteins bind to four functional elements within the GnRH regulatory region, each in close proximity to an Oct-1-binding site. Cotransfection experiments indicate that TALE proteins are essential for GnRH promoter activity in the GT1-7 cells. Moreover, Pbx1 and Oct-1, as well as Prep1 and Oct-1, form functional complexes that enhance GnRH gene expression. Finally, Pbx1 is expressed in GnRH neurons in embryonic as well as mature mice...

‣ Characterization of the dead ringer Gene Identifies a Novel, Highly Conserved Family of Sequence-Specific DNA-Binding Proteins

Gregory, S.; Kortschak, R.; Kalionis, B.; Saint, R.
Fonte: AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY Publicador: AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1996 Português
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58.00285%
We reported the identification of a new family of DNA-binding proteins from our characterization of the dead ringer (dri) gene of Drosophila melanogaster. We show that dri encodes a nuclear protein that contains a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain that bears no similarity to known DNA-binding domains. A number of proteins were found to contain sequences homologous to this domain. Other proteins containing the conserved motif include yeast SWI1, two human retinoblastoma binding proteins, and other mammalian regulatory proteins. A mouse B-cell-specific regulator exhibits 75% identity with DRI over the 137-amino-acid DNA-binding domains of these proteins, indicating a high degree of conservation of this domain. Gel retardation and optimal binding site screens revealed that the in vitro sequence specificity of DRI is strikingly similar to that of many homeodomain proteins, although the sequence and predicted secondary structure do not resemble a homeodomain. The early general expression of dri and the similarity of DRI and homeodomain in vitro DNA-binding specificity compound the problem of understanding the in vivo specificity of action of these proteins. Maternally derived dri product is found throughout the embryo until germ band extension...

‣ ARX homeodomain mutations abolish DNA binding and lead to a loss of transcriptional repression

Shoubridge, C.; Tan, M.; Seiboth, G.; Gecz, J.
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Publicador: Oxford Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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47.84043%
Mutations in the Aristaless-related homeobox (ARX) gene are one of the most frequent causes of X-linked intellectual disability (ID). Several missense mutations, clustered in the paired-type homeodomain of ARX, have been identified. These mutations lead to a range of phenotypes from X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia to seizure disorders without brain malformations including X-linked infantile spasms with ID (ISSX-ID) and X-linked myoclonic epilepsy with spasticity and ID (XMESID). The effect of these mutations on the DNA-binding and transcriptional activity has been evaluated. Luciferase reporter assays showed altered repression activity of ARX by all mutations, causing brain malformations and ISSX-ID phenotypes, but not by the P353L mutation implicated in a milder phenotype of XMESID. Similarly, transient overexpression of wild-type ARX repressed endogenous expression of known ARX targets, LMO1 and SHOX2, when measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Overall, the molecular consequence of missense mutations correlated well with the severity of the clinical phenotype. In all mutations tested, except P353L, the DNA binding was abolished. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay results were validated using chromatin immunoprecipitation following overexpression of normal and selected missense mutations. Unlike wild-type ARX and clinically less severe mutations...

‣ Nucleotides flanking a conserved TAAT core dictate the DNA binding specificity of three murine homeodomain proteins.

Catron, K M; Iler, N; Abate, C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1993 Português
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Murine homeobox genes play a fundamental role in directing embryogenesis by controlling gene expression during development. The homeobox encodes a DNA binding domain (the homeodomain) which presumably mediates interactions of homeodomain proteins with specific DNA sites in the control regions of target genes. However, the bases for these selective DNA-protein interactions are not well defined. In this report, we have characterized the DNA binding specificities of three murine homeodomain proteins, Hox 7.1, Hox 1.5, and En-1. We have identified optimal DNA binding sites for each of these proteins by using a random oligonucleotide selection strategy. Comparison of the sequences of the selected binding sites predicted a common consensus site that contained the motif (C/G)TAATTG. The TAAT core was essential for DNA binding activity, and the nucleotides flanking this core directed binding specificity. Whereas variations in the nucleotides flanking the 5' side of the TAAT core produced modest alterations in binding activity for all three proteins, perturbations of the nucleotides directly 3' of the core distinguished the binding specificity of Hox 1.5 from those of Hox 7.1 and En-1. These differences in binding activity reflected differences in the dissociation rates rather than the equilibrium constants of the protein-DNA complexes. Differences in DNA binding specificities observed in vitro may contribute to selective interactions of homeodomain proteins with potential binding sites in the control regions of target genes.