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‣ Probiotic cheese attenuates exercise-induced immune suppression in Wistar rats

Lollo, P. C. B.; Cruz, A. G.; Morato, P. N.; Moura, C. S.; Carvalho-Silva, L. B.; Oliveira, C. A. F.; Faria, J. A. F.; Amaya-Farfan, J.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC; NEW YORK Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC; NEW YORK
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Intense physical activity results in a substantial volume of stress and hence a significant probability of immunosuppression in athletes, with milk proteins being, perhaps, the most recommended protein supplements. Consumption of a probiotic cheese can attenuate immune suppression induced by exhausting exercise in rats. A popular Brazilian fresh cheese (Minas Frescal cheese) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 and Bifidobacterium longum BL05 was fed for 2 wk to adult Wistar rats, which then were brought to exhaustion on the treadmill. Two hours after exhaustion, the rats were killed and material was collected for the determination of serum uric acid, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, total protein, triacylglycerols, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and blood cell (monocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and leukocyte) counts. Exercise was efficient in reducing lymphocyte counts, irrespective of the type of ingested cheese, but the decrease in the group fed the probiotic cheese was 22% compared with 48% in the animals fed regular cheese. Monocyte counts were unaltered in the rats fed probiotic cheese compared with a significant decrease in the rats fed the regular cheese. Most importantly...

‣ Probiotic cheese attenuates exercise-induced immune suppression in Wistar rats

Lollo, P. C. B.; Cruz, A. G.; Morato, P. N.; Moura, C. S.; Carvalho-Silva, L. B.; Oliveira, C. A. F.; Faria, J. A. F.; Amaya-Farfan, J.
Fonte: Elsevier; New York Publicador: Elsevier; New York
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.081606%
Intense physical activity results in a substantial volume of stress and hence a significant probability of immunosuppression in athletes, with milk proteins being, perhaps, the most recommended protein supplements. Consumption of a probiotic cheese can attenuate immune suppression induced by exhausting exercise in rats. A popular Brazilian fresh cheese (Minas Frescal cheese) containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LA14 and Bifidobacterium longum BL05 was fed for 2 wk to adult Wistar rats, which then were brought to exhaustion on the treadmill. Two hours after exhaustion, the rats were killed and material was collected for the determination of serum uric acid, total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, total protein, triacylglycerols, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, and blood cell (monocyte, lymphocyte, neutrophil, and leukocyte) counts. Exercise was efficient in reducing lymphocyte counts, irrespective of the type of ingested cheese, but the decrease in the group fed the probiotic cheese was 22% compared with 48% in the animals fed regular cheese. Monocyte counts were unaltered in the rats fed probiotic cheese compared with a significant decrease in the rats fed the regular cheese. Most importantly...

‣ Virus-induced immunosuppression: immune system-mediated destruction of virus-infected dendritic cells results in generalized immune suppression.

Borrow, P; Evans, C F; Oldstone, M B
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1995 Português
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Despite the clinical importance of virus-induced immunosuppression, how virus infection may lead to a generalized suppression of the host immune response is poorly understood. To elucidate the principles involved, we analyzed the mechanism by which a lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) variant produces a generalized immune suppression in its natural host, the mouse. Whereas adult mice inoculated intravenously with LCMV Armstrong rapidly clear the infection and remain immunocompetent, inoculation with the Armstrong-derived LCMV variant clone 13, which differs from its parent virus at only two amino acid positions, by contrast results in persistent infection and a generalized deficit in responsiveness to subsequent immune challenge. Here we show that the immune suppression induced by LCMV clone 13 is associated with a CD8-dependent loss of interdigitating dendritic cells from periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths in the spleen and, functionally, with a deficit in the ability of splenocytes from infected mice to stimulate the proliferation of naive T cells in a primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Dendritic cells are not depleted in immunocompetent Armstrong-infected mice. LCMV Armstrong and clone 13 exhibit differences in their tropism within the spleen...

‣ Antibodies to the costimulatory molecule CD86 interfere with ultraviolet radiation-induced immune suppression.

Ullrich, S E; Pride, M W; Moodycliffe, A M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1998 Português
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Although almost all of the energy contained within the ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths of solar radiation is absorbed within the epidermis and upper layers of the dermis, UV irradiation can suppress the immune response to antigens introduced at distant, non-irradiated body sites. The production of immune modulatory cytokines, such as interleukin-10 (IL-10), by UV-irradiated keratinocytes and its effect on T helper type 1 (Th1)/Th2-cell balance are thought to play a major role in the induction of systemic immune suppression. Because it is suggested that costimulatory molecules, such as CD80 and CD86, differentially stimulate Th1 and Th2 cells we wished to investigate the role of these costimulatory molecules in the activation of immune suppression. We injected UV-irradiated mice with monoclonal antibodies to CD80 and CD86 and asked what effect, if any, this would have on UV-induced immune suppression. Anti-CD86, but not anti-CD80 or control rat IgG, blocked UV-induced immune suppression. Moreover, monoclonal anti-CD86 blocked the induction of suppressor T cells normally found in the spleens of the UV-irradiated mice. Monoclonal anti-CD86 also reversed the UV-induced impairment of systemic antigen-presenting cell function. IL-10 was detectable in the serum of UV-irradiated mice as compared with normal controls...

‣ Maternal T cells of immunized pregnant mice induce immune suppression in their offspring.

Fujii, Y; Yamaguchi, N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1992 Português
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The present study focused on the influence of maternal immunity during pregnancy on the responsiveness of the immune system(s) in offspring. Maternal immunization of pregnant mice with T-dependent foreign antigen sheep red blood cells (SRBC) induced suppression of anti-SRBC plaque-forming cell (PFC) responses in their offspring. We attempted to identify the cell species among the maternal lymphoid cells of the immunized pregnant mice that induced this suppression in their offspring, by separating the maternal cells into T cells, B cells and macrophages, or T-cell subsets, and then adoptively transferring them into other normal pregnant mice. The results demonstrated the following: first, maternal CD4+ T cells of immunized pregnant mice induced immune suppression in their offspring. Second, maternal T cells could be activated during pregnancy in the same fashion as in non-pregnant mice. The T-cell factor(s) for the immune suppression in offspring is produced not only by maternal T cells of immunized pregnant mice but also by T cells activated in non-pregnant mice. Third, cellular organization was required for maternal T cells to induce this immune suppression in their offspring.

‣ Platelet-Activating Factor Is Crucial in Psoralen and Ultraviolet A-Induced Immune Suppression, Inflammation, and Apoptosis

Wolf, Peter; Nghiem, Dat X.; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Byrne, Scott; Matsumura, Yumi; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Bucana, Cora; Ananthaswamy, Honnavara N.; Ullrich, Stephen E.
Fonte: American Society for Investigative Pathology Publicador: American Society for Investigative Pathology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2006 Português
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Psoralen plus UVA (PUVA) is used as a very effective treatment modality for various diseases, including psoriasis and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. PUVA-induced immune suppression and/or apoptosis are thought to be responsible for the therapeutic action. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PUVA acts are not well understood. We have previously identified platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent phospholipid mediator, as a crucial substance triggering ultraviolet B radiation-induced immune suppression. In this study, we used PAF receptor knockout mice, a selective PAF receptor antagonist, a COX-2 inhibitor (presumably blocking downstream effects of PAF), and PAF-like molecules to test the role of PAF receptor binding in PUVA treatment. We found that activation of the PAF pathway is crucial for PUVA-induced immune suppression (as measured by suppression of delayed type hypersensitivity to Candida albicans) and that it plays a role in skin inflammation and apoptosis. Downstream of PAF, interleukin-10 was involved in PUVA-induced immune suppression but not inflammation. Better understanding of PUVA’s mechanisms may offer the opportunity to dissect the therapeutic from the detrimental (ie, carcinogenic) effects and/or to develop new drugs (eg...

‣ Cis-urocanic acid, a sunlight-induced immunosuppressive factor, activates immune suppression via the 5-HT2A receptor

Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Nghiem, Dat X.; Kazimi, Nasser; Nutt, Leta K.; McConkey, David J.; Norval, Mary; Ullrich, Stephen E.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Exposure to UV radiation induces skin cancer and suppresses the immune response. To induce immune suppression, the electromagnetic energy of UV radiation must be absorbed by an epidermal photoreceptor and converted into a biologically recognizable signal. Two photoreceptors have been recognized: DNA and trans-urocanic acid (UCA). Trans-UCA is normally found in the outermost layer of skin and isomerizes to the cis isomer upon exposure to UV radiation. Although UCA was identified as a UV photoreceptor years ago, and many have documented its ability to induce immune suppression, its exact mode of action remains elusive. Particularly vexing has been the identity of the molecular pathway by which cis-UCA mediates immune suppression. Here we provide evidence that cis-UCA binds to the serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] receptor with relatively high affinity (Kd = 4.6 nM). Anti-cis-UCA antibody precipitates radiolabeled 5-HT, and the binding is inhibited by excess 5-HT and/or excess cis-UCA. Similarly, anti-5-HT antibody precipitates radiolabeled cis-UCA, and the binding is inhibited by excess 5-HT or excess cis-UCA. Calcium mobilization was activated when a mouse fibroblast line, stably transfected with the human 5-HT2A receptor, was treated with cis-UCA. Cis-UCA-induced calcium mobilization was blocked with a selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonist. UV- and cis-UCA-induced immune suppression was blocked by antiserotonin antibodies or by treating the mice with 5-HT2A receptor antagonists. Our findings identify cis-UCA as a serotonin receptor ligand and indicate that the immunosuppressive effects of cis-UCA and UV radiation are mediated by activation of the 5-HT2A receptor.

‣ Genetic control of specific immune suppression. II. H-2-linked dominant genetic control of immune suppression by the random copolymer L- glutamic acid50-L-tyrosine50 (GT)

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/1975 Português
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Several inbred as well as congenic resistant strains of mice, which fail to respond to the random copolymer of L-glutamic acid50-L- tyrosine50 (GT), were shown to develop specific PFC responses when stimulated by GT complexed to an immunogenic carrier such as methylated bovine serum albumin (MBSA). In these studies we have found that GT preimmunization has a tolerogenic effect on the response to GT-MBSA in some mouse strains; whereas in other strains of mice, GT fails to inhibit the GT-MBSA response. We may, therefore, conclude that immune suppression cannot account for nonresponsiveness in all cases. The development of specific immune suppression in response to GT was shown to be inherited as a dominant trait in F1 hybrids resulting from the mating of suppressor with nonsuppressor strains. This trait is, therefore, under the control of a gene or genes that we have designated as specific immune suppression gene(s) Is genes. The strain distribution of GT induced suppression demonstrates that Is genes are coded for in the H-2 complex. Furthermore, immune suppression by the two related copolymers, GT and GAT, are distinct in different strains of mice. The significance of these data for our understanding of the regulation of the immune response is discussed.

‣ Platelet-activating Factor, a Molecular Sensor for Cellular Damage, Activates Systemic Immune Suppression

Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Ullrich, Stephen E.; Nghiem, Dat X.
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/01/2002 Português
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Ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays a critical role in the induction of nonmelanoma skin cancer. UV radiation is also immune suppressive, and the immune suppression induced by UV irradiation has been identified as a major risk factor for skin cancer induction. Previously, we showed that UV exposure activates a cytokine cascade involving prostaglandin (PG)E2, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-10 that induces immune suppression. However, the earliest molecular events that occur immediately after UV exposure, especially those upstream of PGE2, are not well defined. UV-irradiated keratinocytes secrete the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF). Because PAF upregulates the production of immunomodulatory compounds, including PGE2, we tested the hypothesis that UV-induced PAF activates cytokine production and initiates UV-induced immune suppression. Both UV and PAF activated cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and IL-10 reporter gene construct transcription. PAF mimicked the effects of UV in vivo and suppressed delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). Furthermore, immune suppression was blocked when UV-irradiated mice were injected with PAF receptor antagonists. In addition to the well-known role of PAF as a proinflammatory lipid mediator...

‣ Reversal of ultraviolet radiation-induced immune suppression by recombinant interleukin-12: suppression of cytokine production

Schmitt, D A; Walterscheid, J P; Ullrich, S E
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2000 Português
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Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, a complete carcinogen, suppresses the immune response. Data from a number of laboratories have indicated that one consequence of UV exposure is suppressed T helper type 1 (Th1) cell function with normal Th2 cell activation, resulting in a shift to a Th2-like phenotype. The reversal of UV-induced immune suppression and tolerance induction by recombinant interleukin-12 (rIL-12) supports this observation. The focus of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) by which rIL-12 reverses UV-induced immune suppression. Two possibilities were considered: up-regulation of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secretion by rIL-12 and suppression of UV-induced cytokine secretion by rIL-12. To our surprise we found that the ability of rIL-12 to overcome UV-induced immune suppression was independent of its ability to up-regulate IFN-γ secretion. Rather, rIL-12 suppressed the production of cytokines that are known to be important in UV-induced immune suppression. Injecting UV-irradiated mice with rIL-12, or adding rIL-12 to UV-irradiated keratinocyte cultures suppressed IL-10 secretion, in part by affecting the transcription of the IL-10 gene. Furthermore, we found that rIL-12 suppressed UV-induced tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production. Because IL-10 is involved in the UV-induced suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity and TNF-α in the UV-induced suppression of contact allergy...

‣ Immunoglobulin G-mediated regulation of the murine immune response to transfused red blood cells occurs in the absence of active immune suppression: implications for the mechanism of action of anti-D in the prevention of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn?

Brinc, Davor; Le-Tien, Hoang; Crow, Andrew R; Siragam, Vinayakumar; Freedman, John; Lazarus, Alan H
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2008 Português
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Anti-D has been widely and effectively used in Rhesus blood group D negative mothers for the prevention of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn; its mechanism of action however, often referred to as antibody-mediated immune suppression (AMIS), remains largely unresolved. We investigated, in a murine model, whether active immune suppression or clonal deletion mediated by anti-red blood cell (RBC) immunoglobulin G (IgG) could explain the phenomenon of AMIS. Transfusion of IgG-opsonized foreign RBCs (i.e. AMIS) strongly attenuated antibody responses compared to transfusion of untreated foreign RBCs. When the AMIS-mice were subsequently transfused with untreated RBCs, no immune suppression was observed at 5 and 35 days after AMIS induction; in fact, the mice responded to retransfusion with untreated RBCs in a manner that was characteristic of a secondary immune response. When IgG-opsonized RBCs were transfused concurrently with untreated RBCs, a dose-dependent reduction of the antibody response was observed. This work suggests that the attenuation of the antibody responsiveness by anti-RBC IgG is not associated with active immune suppression or clonal deletion at either the T-cell or B-cell level; rather, the effect appears more characteristic of B-cell unresponsiveness to IgG-opsonized RBCs. These results may have implications for the understanding of the mechanism of action of anti-D in haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn.

‣ JP-8 Induces Immune Suppression via a Reactive Oxygen Species NF-κβ–Dependent Mechanism

Ramos, Gerardo; Limon-Flores, Alberto Y.; Ullrich, Stephen E.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Applying jet fuel (JP-8) to the skin of mice induces immune suppression. JP-8–treated keratinocytes secrete prostaglandin E2, which is essential for activating immune suppressive pathways. The molecular pathway leading to the upregulation of the enzyme that controls prostaglandin synthesis, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, is unclear. Because JP-8 activates oxidative stress and because reactive oxygen species (ROS) turn on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κβ), which regulates the activity of COX-2, we asked if JP-8–induced ROS and NF-κβ contributes to COX-2 upregulation and immune suppression in vivo. JP-8 induced the production of ROS in keratinocytes as measured with the ROS indicator dye, aminophenyl fluorescein. Fluorescence was diminished in JP-8–treated keratinocytes overexpressing catalase or superoxide dismutase (SOD) genes. JP-8–induced COX-2 expression was also reduced to background in the catalase and SOD transfected cells, or in cultures treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC). When NAC was injected into JP-8–treated mice, dermal COX-2 expression, and JP-8–induced immune suppression was inhibited. Because ROS activates NF-κβ, we asked if this transcriptional activator played a role in the enhanced COX-2 expression and JP-8–induced immune suppression. When JP-8–treated mice...

‣ Mast Cells Mediate the Immune Suppression Induced by Dermal Exposure to JP-8 Jet Fuel

Limón-Flores, Alberto Y.; Chacón-Salinas, Rommel; Ramos, Gerardo; Ullrich, Stephen E.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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47.61212%
Applying jet propulsion-8 (JP-8) jet fuel to the skin of mice induces immune suppression. Applying JP-8 to the skin of mice suppresses T-cell–mediated immune reactions including, contact hypersensitivity (CHS) delayed-type hypersensitivity and T-cell proliferation. Because dermal mast cells play an important immune regulatory role in vivo, we tested the hypothesis that mast cells mediate jet fuel–induced immune suppression. When we applied JP-8 to the skin of mast cell deficient mice CHS was not suppressed. Reconstituting mast cell deficient mice with wild-type bone marrow derived mast cells (mast cell “knock-in mice”) restored JP-8–induced immune suppression. When, however, mast cells from prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)–deficient mice were used, the ability of JP-8 to suppress CHS was not restored, indicating that mast cell–derived PGE2 was activating immune suppression. Examining the density of mast cells in the skin and lymph nodes of JP-8-treated mice indicated that jet fuel treatment caused an initial increase in mast cell density in the skin, followed by increased numbers of mast cells in the subcutaneous space and then in draining lymph nodes. Applying JP-8 to the skin increased mast cell expression of CXCR4, and increased the expression of CXCL12 by draining lymph node cells. Because CXCL12 is a chemoattractant for CXCR4+ mast cells...

‣ Tumor infiltrating PD-1+ dendritic cells mediate immune suppression in ovarian cancer

Krempski, James; Karyampudi, Lavakumar; Behrens, Marshall D.; Erskine, Courtney L.; Hartmann, Lynn; Dong, Haidong; Goode, Ellen L.; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Knutson, Keith L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Within the ovarian cancer microenvironment there are several mechanisms that suppress the actions of anti-tumor immune effectors. Delineating the complex immune microenvironment is an important goal towards developing effective immune-based therapies. A dominant pathway of immune suppression in ovarian cancer involves tumor-associated and dendritic cell-associated, B7-H1. The interaction of B7-H1 with PD-1 on tumor-infiltrating T cells is a widely cited theory of immune suppression involving B7-H1 in ovarian cancer. Recent studies suggest that the B7-H1 ligand, PD-1, is also expressed on myeloid cells complicating interpretations of how B7-H1 regulates dendritic cell (DC) function in the tumor. In this study we found that ovarian cancer-infiltrating DCs progressively expressed increased levels of PD-1 over time in addition to B7-H1. These dual-positive PD-1+B7-H1+ DCs have a classical DC phenotype (i.e. CD11c+CD11b+CD8−) but are immature, suppressive and respond poorly to danger signals. Accumulation of PD-1+B7-H1+ DC in the tumor was associated with suppression of T cell activity and decreased infiltrating T cells in advancing tumors. T cell suppressor function of these DCs appeared to be mediated by T cell associated PD-1. In contrast...

‣ Measles Immune Suppression: Lessons from the Macaque Model

de Vries, Rory D.; McQuaid, Stephen; van Amerongen, Geert; Yüksel, Selma; Verburgh, R. Joyce; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Duprex, W. Paul; de Swart, Rik L.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Measles remains a significant childhood disease, and is associated with a transient immune suppression. Paradoxically, measles virus (MV) infection also induces robust MV-specific immune responses. Current hypotheses for the mechanism underlying measles immune suppression focus on functional impairment of lymphocytes or antigen-presenting cells, caused by infection with or exposure to MV. We have generated stable recombinant MVs that express enhanced green fluorescent protein, and remain virulent in non-human primates. By performing a comprehensive study of virological, immunological, hematological and histopathological observations made in animals euthanized at different time points after MV infection, we developed a model explaining measles immune suppression which fits with the “measles paradox”. Here we show that MV preferentially infects CD45RA− memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, resulting in high infection levels in these populations. After the peak of viremia MV-infected lymphocytes were cleared within days, followed by immune activation and lymph node enlargement. During this period tuberculin-specific T-lymphocyte responses disappeared, whilst strong MV-specific T-lymphocyte responses emerged. Histopathological analysis of lymphoid tissues showed lymphocyte depletion in the B- and T-cell areas in the absence of apoptotic cells...

‣ Fine Tuning Inflammation at the Front Door: Macrophage Complement Receptor 3-mediates Phagocytosis and Immune Suppression for Francisella tularensis

Dai, Shipan; Rajaram, Murugesan V. S.; Curry, Heather M.; Leander, Rachel; Schlesinger, Larry S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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47.539375%
Complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18) is a major macrophage phagocytic receptor. The biochemical pathways through which CR3 regulates immunologic responses have not been fully characterized. Francisella tularensis is a remarkably infectious, facultative intracellular pathogen of macrophages that causes tularemia. Early evasion of the host immune response contributes to the virulence of F. tularensis and CR3 is an important receptor for its phagocytosis. Here we confirm that efficient attachment and uptake of the highly virulent Type A F. tularensis spp. tularensis strain Schu S4 by human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs) requires complement C3 opsonization and CR3. However, despite a>40-fold increase in uptake following C3 opsonization, Schu S4 induces limited pro-inflammatory cytokine production compared with non-opsonized Schu S4 and the low virulent F. novicida. This suggests that engagement of CR3 by opsonized Schu S4 contributes specifically to the immune suppression during and shortly following phagocytosis which we demonstrate by CD11b siRNA knockdown in hMDMs. This immune suppression is concomitant with early inhibition of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, TLR2 siRNA knockdown shows that pro-inflammatory cytokine production and MAPK activation in response to non-opsonized Schu S4 depends on TLR2 signaling providing evidence that CR3-TLR2 crosstalk mediates immune suppression for opsonized Schu S4. Deletion of the CD11b cytoplasmic tail reverses the CR3-mediated decrease in ERK and p38 activation during opsonized Schu-S4 infection. The CR3-mediated signaling pathway involved in this immune suppression includes Lyn kinase and Akt activation...

‣ Systemic immune suppression as a stage-independent predictor of diminished Merkel cell carcinoma-specific survival

Paulson, Kelly G.; Iyer, Jayasri G.; Blom, Astrid; Warton, E. Margaret; Sokil, Monica; Yelistratova, Lola; Schuman, Louise; Nagase, Kotaro; Bhatia, Shailender; Asgari, Maryam M.; Nghiem, Paul
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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47.59319%
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous malignancy linked to a contributory virus (Merkel cell polyomavirus/MCPyV). Multiple epidemiologic studies have established an increased incidence of MCC among persons with systemic immune suppression. Several forms of immune suppression are associated with increased MCC incidence, including hematologic malignancies, HIV/AIDS, and immunosuppressive medications for autoimmune disease or transplant. Indeed, immune suppressed persons represent approximately 10% of the MCC patients, a significant over-representation relative to the general population. We hypothesized that immune suppressed patients may have a poorer MCC-specific prognosis and examined a cohort of 471 patients with a combined follow-up of 1427 years (median 2.1 years). Immune suppressed persons (n=41) demonstrated reduced MCC-specific survival (40% at 3 years) compared to persons with no known systemic immune suppression (n=430; 74% MCC-specific survival at 3 years). By competing risk regression analysis, immune suppression was a stage-independent predictor of worsened MCC-specific survival (hazard ratio 3.8, p < 0.01). Immune-suppressed persons thus have both an increased chance of developing MCC and poorer MCC-specific survival. It may be appropriate to follow these higher-risk individuals more closely...

‣ Autonomic Dysreflexia Causes Chronic Immune Suppression after Spinal Cord Injury

Zhang, Yi; Guan, Zhen; Reader, Brenda; Shawler, Todd; Mandrekar-Colucci, Shweta; Huang, Kun; Weil, Zachary; Bratasz, Anna; Wells, Jonathan; Powell, Nicole D.; Sheridan, John F.; Whitacre, Caroline C.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.; Nash, Mark S.; Popovich, Phi
Fonte: Society for Neuroscience Publicador: Society for Neuroscience
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/08/2013 Português
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Autonomic dysreflexia (AD), a potentially dangerous complication of high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) characterized by exaggerated activation of spinal autonomic (sympathetic) reflexes, can cause pulmonary embolism, stroke, and, in severe cases, death. People with high-level SCI also are immune compromised, rendering them more susceptible to infectious morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying postinjury immune suppression are not known. Data presented herein indicate that AD causes immune suppression. Using in vivo telemetry, we show that AD develops spontaneously in SCI mice with the frequency of dysreflexic episodes increasing as a function of time postinjury. As the frequency of AD increases, there is a corresponding increase in splenic leucopenia and immune suppression. Experimental activation of spinal sympathetic reflexes in SCI mice (e.g., via colorectal distension) elicits AD and exacerbates immune suppression via a mechanism that involves aberrant accumulation of norepinephrine and glucocorticoids. Reversal of postinjury immune suppression in SCI mice can be achieved by pharmacological inhibition of receptors for norepinephrine and glucocorticoids during the onset and progression of AD. In a human subject with C5 SCI...

‣ The Novel Role of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in the Reversal of Immune Suppression and Modulation of Tumor Microenvironment for Immune-Based Cancer Therapies

Ozao-Choy, Junko; Ma, Ge; Kao, Johnny; Wang, George X.; Meseck, Marcia; Sung, Max; Schwartz, Myron; Divino, Celia M.; Pan, Ping-Ying; Chen, Shu-Hsia
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In tumor-bearing hosts, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and T regulatory cells (Treg) play important roles in immune suppression, the reversal of which is vitally important for the success of immune therapy. We have shown that ckit ligand is required for MDSC accumulation and Treg development. We hypothesized that sunitinib malate, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, could reverse MDSC-mediated immune suppression and modulate the tumor microenvironment, thereby improving the efficacy of immune-based therapies. Treatment with sunitinib decreased the number of MDSC and Treg in advanced tumor-bearing animals. Furthermore, it not only reduced the suppressive function of MDSCs but also prevented tumor-specific T-cell anergy and Treg development. Interestingly, sunitinib treatment resulted in reduced expression of interleukin (IL)-10, transforming growth factor-β, and Foxp3 but enhanced expression of Th1 cytokine IFN-γ and increased CTL responses in isolated tumor-infiltrating leukocytes. A significantly higher percentage and infiltration of CD8 and CD4 cells was detected in tumors of sunitinib-treated mice when compared with control-treated mice. More importantly, the expression of negative costimulatory molecules CTLA4 and PD-1 in both CD4 and CD8 T cells...

‣ A Simplified Immune Suppression Scheme Leads to Persistent Micro-dystrophin Expression in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Dogs

Shin, Jin-Hong; Yue, Yongping; Srivastava, Arun; Smith, Bruce; Lai, Yi; Duan, Dongsheng
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Highly abbreviated micro-dystrophin genes have been intensively studied for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) gene therapy. Following adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer, robust microgene expression is achieved in murine DMD models in the absence of immune suppression. Interestingly, a recent study suggests that AAV gene transfer in dystrophic dogs may require up to 18 weeks' immune suppression using a combination of three different immune-suppressive drugs (cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and anti-dog thymocyte globulin). Continued immune suppression is not only costly but also may cause untoward reactions. Further, some of the drugs (such as anti-dog thymocyte globulin) are not readily available. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel 5-week immune suppression scheme using only cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. AAV vectors (either AV.RSV.AP that expresses the heat-resistant human alkaline phosphatase gene, or AV.CMV.μDys that expresses the canine R16-17/H3/ΔC microgene) at 2.85×1012 vg particles were injected into adult dystrophic dog limb muscles under the new immune suppression protocol. Sustained transduction was observed for nearly half year (the end of the study). The simplified immune suppression strategy described here may facilitate preclinical studies in the dog model.