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‣ Crescimento econômico e desigualdade de renda no estado de São Paulo: uma análise das disparidades regionais; Income Inequality in the state of Sao Paulo: an analysis of regional disparities

Pinto, Jeronymo Marcondes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/12/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Esta pesquisa visa realizar uma radiografia da desigualdade de renda no estado de São Paulo a partir da base de dados disponibilizada pelos Censos de 1991 e 2000. Nesse sentido, avaliar-se-á qual o valor dos indicadores de desigualdade de renda para os diferentes níveis de agregação existentes no Estado disponibilizados pelo Censo. No caso, a metodologia aplicada é a mesma utilizada por Bourguignon e Morrisson em seu trabalho seminal "Inequality among world citizens: 1820 - 1992" (2002), que ressalta o fato de que os estudos sobre a desigualdade mundial são, em sua maioria, simplistas demais ao só considerarem a desigualdade de renda entre países, mas não levar em conta desigualdade dentro dos mesmos. Assim, baseados nos indicadores tratados em Bourguignon (1979), os autores estimam a desigualdade entre países e dentro dos países, dado que a soma de ambas seria igual à desigualdade de renda total. A presente pesquisa faz a mesma análise, mas tendo como foco o estado de São Paulo ao invés do mundo e utilizando-se da variável rendimento mensal domiciliar - dada pelo Censo - dividida pelo número de moradores por domicílio. A radiografia da desigualdade de renda no Estado é feita nos seguinte níveis de agregação: Mesorregiões...

‣ Life Satisfaction and Income Inequality

Verme, Paolo
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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68.41882%
Do people care about income inequality and does income inequality affect subjective well-being? Welfare theories can predict either a positive or a negative impact of income inequality on subjective well-being and empirical research has found evidence on a positive, negative or non significant relation. This paper attempts to determine some of the possible causes of such empirical heterogeneity. Using a very large sample of world citizens, the author tests the consistency of income inequality in predicting life satisfaction. The analysis finds that income inequality has a negative and significant effect on life satisfaction. This result is robust to changes in regressors and estimation choices and also persists across different income groups and across different types of countries. However, this relation is easily obscured or reversed by multicollinearity generated by the use of country and year fixed effects. This is particularly true if the number of data points for inequality is small, which is a common feature of cross-country or longitudinal studies.

‣ Rising Income Inequality in China : A Race to the Top

Luo, Xubei; Zhu, Nong
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.409116%
Income inequality in China has risen rapidly in the past decades across regions, between rural and urban sectors, and within provinces. The dynamics of divergence across these sub-national areas have taken the form of a "race to the top" - meaning that all segments of the population, including the poor with low education in lagging inland rural areas, have experienced gains in average income. The largest gains have been registered by those with higher income and education in leading coastal urban areas. Using the China Economic, Population, Nutrition and Health Survey data of 1989 and 2004, we show that the most important factors explaining overall inequality are differential returns to schooling and sector of employment. A decomposition analysis based on household income determination shows that the increase in returns to education explains two-thirds of income changes in urban areas and one-sixth in rural areas. The widening income gaps are the consequence of higher growth in leading urban and coastal areas and that the skilled population has benefited more from the economic reforms carried out during the last 25 years. The authors argue that rising income inequality can be part of a normal process of development at a certain stage...

‣ Exiting Belindia? Lesson from the Recent Decline in Income Inequality in Brazil

Lopez-Calva, Luis F.; Rocha, Sonia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.385327%
After decades of persistent disparities, inequality in Brazil has fallen steadily over the last fifteen years. This robust rate of decline has surpassed the pace of the Latin American region as a whole, and is taking place as inequality rises in several rapid-growth emerging economies in other regions. This document examines the recent trend in income inequality in Brazil, its key policy drivers and some of the challenges ahead. It aims at capturing some of the lessons behind Brazil?s experience to share with other economies in the region and beyond.

‣ Inequality of Opportunity, Income Inequality and Economic Mobility : Some International Comparisons

Brunori, Paolo; Ferreira, Francisco H.G.; Peragine, Vito
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Despite a recent surge in the number of studies attempting to measure inequality of opportunity in various countries, methodological differences have so far prevented meaningful international comparisons. This paper presents a comparison of ex-ante measures of inequality of economic opportunity (IEO) across 41 countries, and of the Human Opportunity Index (HOI) for 39 countries. It also examines international correlations between these indices and output per capita, income inequality, and intergenerational mobility. The analysis finds evidence of a "Kuznets curve" for inequality of opportunity, and finds that the IEO index is positively correlated with overall income inequality, and negatively with measures of intergenerational mobility, both in incomes and in years of schooling. The HOI is highly correlated with the Human Development Index, and its internal measure of inequality of opportunity yields very different country rankings from the IEO measure.

‣ Non-Farm Diversification, Poverty, Economic Mobility and Income Inequality : A Case Study in Village India

Himanshu; Lanjouw, Peter; Murgai, Rinku; Stern, Nicholas
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.35359%
This paper assembles data at the all-India level and for the village of Palanpur, Uttar Pradesh, to document the growing importance, and influence, of the non-farm sector in the rural economy between the early 1980s and late 2000s. The suggestion from the combined National Sample Survey and Palanpur data is of a slow process of non-farm diversification, whose distributional incidence, on the margin, is increasingly pro-poor. The village-level analysis documents that the non-farm sector is not only increasing incomes and reducing poverty, but appears as well to be breaking down long-standing barriers to mobility among the poorest segments of rural society. Efforts by the government of India to accelerate the process of diversification could thus yield significant returns in terms of declining poverty and increased income mobility. The evidence from Palanpur also shows, however, that at the village-level a significant increase in income inequality has accompanied diversification away from the farm. A growing literature argues that such a rise in inequality could affect the fabric of village society...

‣ Dynamics of Income Inequality and Welfare in Latvia in the Late 1990s

Fofack, Hippolyte; Monga, Celestin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Português
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This paper analyzes the dynamics of poverty and income inequality during the recovery phase of the transition that characterized the Republic of Latvia in the late 1990s. Despite a continued rise in income inequality, empirical evidence suggests an improvement in living standards, owing largely to a significant surge in per capita income growth, particularly in urban areas. In a context of rising income inequality and widening urban-rural income and poverty gaps, the benefits of growth were not equally distributed, and poverty persisted in a number of regions (particularly the regions of Latgale and Vitzeme) and among some socioeconomic groups (particularly households deriving their main income from social benefits). In addition to income inequality and asset endowments, poverty appears to be highly correlated with a number of labor market-related variables, particularly unemployment, suggesting that the labor market could be an important transmission channel from growth to poverty. However, though positive...

‣ Finance and Income Inequality : Test of Alternative Theories

Clarke, George; Xu, Lixin Colin; Zou, Heng-fu
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Although theoretical models make distinct predictions about the relationship between financial sector development and income inequality, little empirical research has been conducted to compare their relative explanatory power. The authors examine the relation between financial intermediary development and income inequality in a panel data set of 91 countries for the period 1960-95. Their results provide evidence that inequality decreases as economies develop their financial intermediaries, consistent with the theoretical models in Galor and Zeira (1993) and Banerjee and Newman (1993). Moreover, consistent with the insight of Kuznets, the relation between the Gini coefficient and financial intermediary development appears to depend on the sectoral structure of the economy: a larger modern sector is associated with a smaller drop in the Gini coefficient for the same level of financial intermediary development. But there is no evidence of an inverted-U-shaped relation between financial sector development and income inequality...

‣ Fiscal Adjustment and Income Inequality : Sub-national Evidence from Brazil

Azevedo, Joao Pedro; David, Antonio C.; Rodrigues Bastos, Fabiano; Pineda, Emilio
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The paper combines state-level fiscal data with household survey data to assess the links between sub-national fiscal policy and income inequality in Brazil over the period 1995-2011. The results indicate that a tighter fiscal stance at the sub-national level is not associated with a deterioration in inequality measures. This finding contrasts with the conclusions of several papers in the burgeoning literature on the effects of fiscal consolidation on inequality using national data for OECD economies. In addition, the authors find that a tighter stance is typically positively associated with a measure of "shared prosperity". Hence, the results caution against extrapolating policy implications of the literature focusing on advanced economies to other settings.

‣ Effects of Income Inequality on Aggregate Output

Brueckner, Markus; Lederman, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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This paper estimates the effect of income inequality on real gross domestic product per capita using a panel of 104 countries during the period 1970–2010. The empirical analysis addresses endogeneity issues by using instrumental variables estimation and controlling for country and time fixed effects. The analysis finds that, on average, income inequality has a significant negative effect on transitional gross domestic product per capita growth and the long-run level of gross domestic product per capita. However, the impact varies by the level of economic development, so much so that in poor countries income inequality has a significant positive effect on gross domestic product per capita.

‣ Metropolitan Income Inequality and Working-Age Mortality: A Cross-Sectional Analysis Using Comparable Data from Five Countries

Ross, N.; Dorling, D.; Dunn, J.; Henriksson, G.; Glover, J.; Lynch, J.; Weitoft, G.
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Inc Publicador: Oxford Univ Press Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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The relationship between income inequality and mortality has come into question as of late from many within-country studies. This article examines the relationship between income inequality and working-age mortality for metropolitan areas (MAs) in Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Sweden, and the United States to provide a fuller understanding of national contexts that produce associations between inequality and mortality. An ecological cross-sectional analysis of income inequality (as measured by median share of income) and working-age (25–64) mortality by using census and vital statistics data for 528 MAs (population >50,000) from five countries in 1990–1991 was used. When data from all countries were pooled, there was a significant relationship between income inequality and mortality in the 528 MAs studied. A hypothetical increase in the share of income to the poorest half of households of 1% was associated with a decline in working-age mortality of over 21 deaths per 100,000. Within each country, however, a significant relationship between inequality and mortality was evident only for MAs in the United States and Great Britain. These two countries had the highest average levels of income inequality and the largest populations of the five countries studied. Although a strong ecological association was found between income inequality and mortality across the 528 MAs...

‣ Main Drivers of Income Inequality in Central European and Baltic Countries : Some Insights from Recent Household Survey Data

Zaidi, Salman
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
Português
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Present levels of income inequality in Czech Republic, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia remain considerably higher than their pre-transition levels, although the relative pace of change over time has varied quite a bit across countries. Using data from the 2006 European Union Survey of Income and Living Conditions, this paper finds that prevailing levels of income inequality in these countries continue to be low by international standards, and that this is in large part due to the very high redistributive impact of direct taxes and public transfers. In addition to the instrumental role of tax and transfer policies in redistributing income, the paper highlights the important role played by differences in education levels and labor market participation rates in explaining observed inequalities across people and across different regions (although not in explaining observed differences across countries). The paper includes an analysis of key factors that help explain observed variation across countries in the level of public support for redistribution...

‣ Nonfarm Income, Inequality, and Poverty in Rural Egypt and Jordan

Adams, Richard H.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The rural economy of developing countries has long been regarded as synonymous with agriculture but in recent years this view has begun to change. Such diverse activities as government, commerce, and services are now seen as providing most income in rural households. Applying decomposition analysis to two new nationally representative sets of household data from Egypt and Jordan, the author examines how different sources of income--including nonfarm income--affect inequality in rural income. He concludes: 1) Nonfarm income has different impacts on poverty and inequality in the two countries. In Egypt the poor (those in the lowest quintile) receive almost 60 percent of their per capita income from nonfarm income. In Jordan the poor receive less than 20 percent of their income from nonfarm income. So nonfarm income decreases inequality in Egypt and increases it in Jordan. 2) Access to land accounts for this difference between the two countries. In Egypt the cultivated land base is totally irrigated and very highly productive. Egypt's large rural population seeks access to land but because the land-to-people ratio is so unfavorable...

‣ Democracy and Income Inequality : An Empirical Analysis

Gradstein, Mark; Milanovic, Branko; Ying, Yvonne
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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Standard political economy theories suggest that democratization has a moderating effect on income inequality. But the empirical literature has failed to uncover any such robust relationship. The authors take another look at the issue. The authors argue that prevailing ideology may be an important determinant of inequality and that the democratization effect "works through" ideology. In societies that value equality highly there is less distributional conflict among income groups, so democratization may have only a negligible effect on inequality. But in societies that value equality less, democratization reduces inequality through redistribution as the poor outvote the rich. The authors' cross-country empirical analysis, covering 126 countries in 1960-98, confirms the hypothesis: ideology, as proxied by a country's dominant religion, seems to be related to inequality. In addition, while in Judeo-Christian societies increased democratization appears to lead to lower inequality, in Muslim and Confucian societies it has an insignificant effect. The authors hypothesize that Muslim and Confucian societies rely on informal transfers to reach the desired level of inequality...

‣ Long-Run Effects of Democracy on Income Inequality : Evidence from Repeated Cross-Sections

Balcazar, Carlos Felipe
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper assesses the link between democracy and inequality. Inequality is measured at the cohort level with pseudo-panel data built from nine Latin American countries' household surveys (1995-2009, biannual). Democracy is measured as a stock during long periods of time both before and after each cohort's year of birth. The paper presents evidence that long-run historical patterns in the degree of democracy relate to income inequality. However, this relationship is non-monotonic: inequality first increases with the stock of democracy before falling. The paper also presents evidence that education may be a mechanism explaining this result.

‣ Income Inequality and Violent Crime : Evidence from Mexico's Drug War

Enamorado, Ted; López-Calva, Luis-Felipe; Rodriguez Castelan, Carlos; Winkler, Hernán
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.378486%
The relationship between income inequality and crime has attracted the interest of many researchers, but little convincing evidence exists on the causal effect of inequality on crime in developing countries. This paper estimates this effect in a unique context: Mexico's Drug War. The analysis takes advantage of a unique data set containing inequality and crime statistics for more than 2,000 Mexican municipalities covering a period of 20 years. Using an instrumental variable for inequality that tackles problems of reverse causality and omitted variable bias, this paper finds that an increment of one point in the Gini coefficient translates into an increase of more than 10 drug-related homicides per 100,000 inhabitants between 2006 and 2010. There are no significant effects before 2005. The fact that the effect was found during Mexico's Drug War and not before is likely because the cost of crime decreased with the proliferation of gangs (facilitating access to knowledge and logistics, lowering the marginal cost of criminal behavior)...

‣ The effect of social spending on income inequality: An analysis for Latin American countries.

Ospina, Monica
Fonte: Escola de Administração, Finanças e Tecnologia Publicador: Escola de Administração, Finanças e Tecnologia
Tipo: workingPaper; Documento de trabajo de investigación; draf
Português
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Using a panel dataset from 1980 to 2000 this paper analyzes the determinants of income inequality in Latin American countries with special attention paid to education, health, and social security expenditures. I build on previous research by solving for the endogeneity of the social spending variables in the income inequality equation. This study undertakes 2SLS and GMM methods in order to control for the correlation of some of the regressors with the disturbance term. While government expenditure affects inequality, an increase in inequality may be related to social, economic and political changes that can also affect government expenditures. Therefore, social spending is potentially endogenous in the inequality regression and, unless this source of endogeneity is accounted for, the estimated parameters will be not consistent. Results show that social spending variables are endogenous with income inequality index. Once endogeneity is controlled for, education and health expenditures have a negative effect on income inequality, while social security expenditures have no effect on income inequality. I also find that models that do not take into account endogeneity of social spending variables overestimate the effects of education and health spending.; Using a panel dataset from 1980 to 2000 this paper analyzes the determinants of income inequality in Latin American countries with special attention paid to education...

‣ Income Inequality in Urban China: A Comparative Analysis between Urban Residents and Rural-Urban Migrants

Zhang, Lewei
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 22/04/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.48985%
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Since the economic reform in the late 1970s, China’s economy has experienced consistently rapid growth, with a drastic change of production pattern and income distribution. The increasing income inequality, which is of importance to social justice and economic potential, has raised concerns in China. Because of rapid urbanization, millions of Chinese are flowing into cities from rural areas, so the income inequality within urban areas has received more research attention in recent years. Given the unique household registration system (Hukou) in China, the urban population can be divided into urban residents who are born in cities with urban Hukou and rural-urban migrants who are originally from rural areas with rural Hukou. The two subgroups have quite different characteristics and do not enjoy the same level of social benefits. Previous studies have not given enough focus on the migrant subgroup in terms of income inequality. To better understand income inequality issues in urban China, this study performs a comparative analysis between the two subgroups of urban residents and rural-urban migrants, seeking to answer the following questions: What are the income inequality levels between subgroups of urban residents and rural-urban migrants...

‣ Does Income Inequality Hamper or Foster Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa?

Lee, KyuSeon
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 20/04/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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POLICY QUESTION “What is the relationship between inequality and economic growth? Specifically, does income inequality hamper or foster economic growth in developing countries?” BACKGROUND As the global economy experienced rapid economic growth after World War II, an intense debate arose as to whether such growth benefited poor people and reduced income inequality or vice versa. In the 1950s, Kuznets explained that there is a trade-off between income inequality and economic growth. He proposed that income inequality initially rises but then declines as per capita income increases. If this hypothesis is true, the income inequality that developing nations are experiencing is not something that they should be concerned about, as it would eventually decline over the course of their economic growth. Many scholars have attempted to confirm as well as rebut this relationship; however, it remains ambiguous. In contrast, studies of this relationship for sub-Saharan African countries have not been conducted thoroughly. African regions were struggling with extreme poverty and, as a result, dealing with poverty issues was the main concern of the governments and researchers. And sub-Saharan Africa countries had desperate health issues to deal with...

‣ Appraising Cross-National Income Inequality Databases; An Introduction

Ferreira, Francisco H. G.; Lustig, Nora; Teles, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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In response to a growing interest in comparing inequality levels and trends across countries, several cross-national inequality databases are now available. These databases differ considerably in purpose, coverage, data sources, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and quality of documentation. A special issue of the Journal of Economic Inequality, which this paper introduces, is devoted to an assessment of the merits and shortcomings of eight such databases. Five of these sets are microdata-based: CEPALSTAT, Income Distribution Database, Luxembourg Income Study, PovcalNet, and Socio-Economic Database for Latin America and the Caribbean. Two are based on secondary sources: All the Ginis and the World Income Inequality Database; and one is generated entirely through multiple-imputation methods: the Standardized World Income Inequality Database. Although there is much agreement across these databases, there is also a nontrivial share of country/year cells for which substantial discrepancies exist. In some cases...