Página 1 dos resultados de 408 itens digitais encontrados em 0.283 segundos

‣ Genomic and microarray approaches to coral reef conservation biology

Foret, Sylvain; Miller, David J.; Kassahn, K S; Grasso, Lauretta; Hayward, David; Iguchi, A; Ball, Eldon
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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New technologies based on DNA microarrays and comparative genomics hold great promise for providing the background biological information necessary for effective coral reef conservation and management. Microarray analysis has been used in a wide range of

‣ A checklist for ecological management of landscapes for conservation

Lindenmayer, David; Hobbs, Richard J; Montague-Drake, Rebecca; Alexandra, Jason; Bennett, Andrew; Burgmann, M A; Cale, Peter; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Cramer, Viki; Cullen, Peter; Driscoll, Don; Fahrig, Lenore; Fischer, Joern; Franklin, Jerry; Yrjo, Haila; Hun
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The management of landscapes for biological conservation and ecologically sustainable natural resource use are crucial global issues. Research for over two decades has resulted in a large literature, yet there is little consensus on the applicability or e

‣ What do conservation biologists publish?

Fazey, Ioan; Fischer, Joern; Lindenmayer, David
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We provide an overview of publications from three prominent conservation journals (Biodiversity & Conservation, Biological Conservation and Conservation Biology) published in 2001 (n = 547 papers). We found a wide breadth of studies of different topics fr

‣ Is Wildlife research useful for wildlife conservation in the tropics? A review for Borneo with global implications

Meijaard, Erik; Sheil, Douglas
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The urgency of the tropical biodiversity crisis continues to be a major justification for wildlife research and its funding. To examine the benefits of this research for on-the-ground conservation, we focused on Borneo, where conservation has a long histo

‣ Finding Yosemite: a reflection on conservation

Witkowski, Jennifer
Fonte: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia Publicador: Rochester Instituto de Tecnologia
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Yosemite National Park has always been a National treasure of natural beauty, making it a popular tourist attraction by providing protection for unique geological formations, wildlife, and land of historic value. The parks mission is to provide recreation while educating and preserving the history and environment in which the park resides on. Recently, the mission of Yosemite National Park has been threatened by an increase in the number of people who visit the park annually and budget cuts that have a direct effect on the amount of resources the park has available to counteract the environmental impact of the rise of visitors. Each year, the number of visitors who attend Yosemite National Park rises dramatically, with the increase of attendance comes the increase of pollution, environmental degradation and overcrowding within the park. Finding Yosemite was created as a tool of communication to help educate potential visitors about the increasing environmental problems that currently jeopardize the environment of the park. Through interactivity and imagery, the goal of this online resource is to improve the public’s awareness of Yosemite’s environmental conservation initiative while still encouraging positive visitation. With this knowledge...

‣ Koala Conservation Policy Process:appraisal and recommendations

Clark, Tim W; Cork, Steven J; Dovers, Stephen; Harding, Ronnie
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Australia's koalas are a global treasure, yet there is growing concern that present policy may not adequately conserve viable, wild populations in abundant habitats. Problems in the content and particularly the process of policy making for koala conservation include integrating reliable knowledge and diverse perspectives. We reviewed the overall decision process involved in developing Koala conservation policy, including the functions of intelligence, promotion, prescription, invocation, application, appraisal, and termination. To date, intelligence (planning) has lacked social science data, and promotion (open debate) has been confrontational Koala policy has been unclear about prescription (setting rules) and lacks specificity about needed standards, penalties for violating standards, and making resources available. Invocation and application (implementation) have been differentially successful. Appraisal has been adversarial and incomplete, and termination of weak practices has been difficult. We suggest implementation of procedural standards such as timeliness, comprehensiveness, and rationality for a better koala decision process. The 1998 National Koala Conservation Strategy and various state policies can be upgraded to meet these standards. Opportunities exist to improve koala management policy in all seven functions. We recommend a three-part strategy: (1) identify...

‣ Factors at multiple scales affecting distribution patterns and their implications for animal conservation - Leadbeaters Possum as a case study.

Lindenmayer, David
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Detailed field and modelling studies have been completed at different spatial scales for the endangered arboreal marsupial, Leadbeater's Possum (Gymnobelideus leadbeateri); a species virtually confined to the ash-type eucalypt forests in the Central Highlands of Victoria, south-eastern Australia. These forests are also subject to considerable pressure to produce timber and paper products. The studies of Leadbeater's Possum highlighted the factors influencing the distribution and abundance of the species ranging from broad distribution patterns, the occupancy of habitat patches at the landscape scale, and the use of individual den sites and the quality of trees that provide food within particular stands. These scales correspond to the entire known range of the species, sub-populations within a metapopulation occupying an ensemble of patches at the landscape scale, and colonies occupying den trees in individual stands. Information on the factors influencing the distribution of Leadbeater's Possum at one spatial scale were found to be important for informing processes at another. For example, an understanding of the species' habitat requirements informed the spatial distribution of habitat patches at the landscape level which, in turn...

‣ Molecular phylogeny of the Australian venomous snake genus Hoplocephalus (Serpentes, Elapidae) and conservation genetics of the threatened H. stephensii

Keogh, J Scott; Scott, Ian; Fitzgerald, Mark; Shine, Richard
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Australian elapid snake Hoplocephalus stephensii (Stephens' Banded Snake) is patchily distributed in disjunct forest remnants in eastern Australia and is listed as threatened in both states in which it occurs (Qld and NSW). Here we focus on the phylogeography of H. stephensii to address (1) the genetic distinctiveness of this taxon within its genus and (2) the level of genetic diversity present within and between disjunct populations from throughout the species' range. We sequenced an approximately 900 base pair DNA fragment of the mitochondrial genome that includes half of the ND4 gene and three tRNA genes. We obtained sequence data from 15 H. stephensii individuals drawn from four populations, plus representatives of the other Hoplocephalus species. Phylogenetic analyses of the data produced a single fully resolved tree. The two coastal taxa (H. bungaroides and H. stephensii) are very closely related (2.6-3.1% sequence divergence) whereas the inland taxon H. bitorquatus is more distantly related to the other two (7.6% vs H. bungaroides; 7.8-8.3% vs H. stephensii). Genetic diversity is low within H. stephensii (nine mitochondrial haplotypes with 1-3 haplotypes with only single base pair differences within populations). The largest split (1.7% sequence divergence) occurs between the northern population and the three southern populations and corresponds to the species distribution north and south of the McPherson Range on the Queensland-New South Wales border. The three southern populations display much less molecular divergence (maximum of 0.6% sequence divergence)...

‣ The comparative method in conservation biology

Fisher, Diana; Owens, Ian P F
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The phylogenetic comparative approach is a statistical method for analyzing correlations between traits across species. Whilst it has revolutionized evolutionary biology, can it work for conservation biology? Although it is correlative, advocates of the comparative method hope that it will reveal general mechanisms in conservation, provide shortcuts for prioritizing conservation research, and enable us to predict which species will experience (or create) problems in the future. Here, we ask whether these stated management goals are being achieved. We conclude that comparative methods are stimulating research into the ecological mechanisms underlying conservation, and are providing information for preemptive screening of problem species. But comparative analyses of extinction risk to date have tended to be too broad in scope to provide shortcuts to conserving particular endangered species. Correlates of vulnerability to conservation problems are often taxon, region and threat specific, so models must be narrowly focused to be of maximum practical use.

‣ Plantation forests and biodiversity conservation

Lindenmayer, David; Hobbs, Richard J; Salt, David
Fonte: Institute of Foresters of Australia Publicador: Institute of Foresters of Australia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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There are five key reasons why biodiversity conservation should be considered a part of plantation management. (1) The plantation estate is large, and balancing various land management values with wood and pulp production is important when extensive areas of land are involved. (2) The locations and management of new plantations will affect the biota that currently exist in such landscapes. (3) Maintaining some elements of biodiversity within plantations can have benefits for stand productivity and the maintenance of key ecosystem processes such as pest control. (4) The retention (or loss) of biota in plantations is relevant to the formulation of ecological standards and the certification of plantations in many parts of the world. (5) Plantation forestry has a narrow and intensive management focus on producing a forest crop for a limited array of purposes. It will not meet future societal demands for a range of outputs from plantations (in addition to wood and pulp supply), and will not be congruent with the principles of ecological sustainability. This paper briefly reviews the biodiversity conservation values of Australian plantations. It shows that almost all work in Australian plantations, whether conifer or eucalypt, highlights the importance of landscape heterogeneity and stand structural complexity for enhancing biodiversity. Management of plantations to promote landscape heterogeneity and stand structural complexity and enhance the conservation of biodiversity will...

‣ Conservation status of the White-Bellied Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster in Australia determined using mtDNA control region sequence data

Shephard, Jill; Hughes, Jane Margaret; Catterall, Carla; Olsen, Penelope
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Considered to have a declining world population, concern has been expressed in recent years over the conservation status of the White-bellied Sea-Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster (Gmelin, 1788) within Australia. We used mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region sequence data to investigate the current distribution of genetic variation in this species at the continental level and within and between specified regional units. We were specifically interested in identifying breaks in genetic connectivity between the west and east of the continent and between Tasmania and the Australian mainland. We also investigated the likelihood of a bottleneck at the time of colonisation, and propose hypotheses regarding colonisation history. Sequence data were obtained from 128 individuals describing 15 haplotypes. Overall, diversity was low and AMOVA results failed to provide any significant level of genetic subdivision between regions. We suggest that the population expanded from a bottleneck approximately 160,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene, and spread throughout the continent through a contiguous range expansion. There is insufficient evidence to suggest division of the population into different units for conservation management purposes based on the theoretical definition of the 'evolutionary significant unit'. It is clear from the analysis that there are signatures of both historical and contemporary processes affecting the current distribution. Additional sampling and confirmation of the perceived pattern of population structure using a nuclear marker is recommended to validate conservation monitoring and management at a continental scale.

‣ Fauna conservation in Australian plantation forests - a review

Lindenmayer, David; Hobbs, Richard J
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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A review of the value for fauna of conifer and eucalypt plantations in Australia is presented. Five key reasons highlight a need for wildlife conservation as part of plantation management. These are: (1) The plantation estate in Australia is set to triple in the coming decades, and where new plantations are located and how they are managed will influence the biota that currently exist in such landscapes. This is particularly critical in many semi-cleared former grazing landscapes where the establishment of new plantations is focused. This is because: (1) (a) native vegetation communities in these areas are poorly represented in the existing reserve system, and, (b) uses such as wood and pulp production need to be balanced with other management values such as wildlife conservation. (2) The maintenance of some elements of the biota within plantations could have benefits for key ecosystem processes like pest control. (3) Although some species cannot be conserved in plantation-dominated landscapes, many species can be through the adoption of (sometimes minor) modifications to forest management. (4) The maintenance (or loss) of biota in plantations is relevant for moves toward ecological standards and the certification of plantations in many parts of the world. And...

‣ The Conservation Laws in Mesoscopic Noise, and their Observable Consequences

Green, F; Das, Mukunda P; Thakur, Jagdish S
Fonte: SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering Publicador: SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Tipo: Conference paper
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Quantum kinetic theory is founded upon the action of the conservation laws within systems that may be both strongly driven and subject to strong interparticle couplings. For any open mesoscopic conductor, conservation must act globally as well as microscopically. In maintaining global conservation, the explicit interplay of the mesoscopic device and its bounding leads is paramount. Within standard quantum kinetics, this device-lead interaction imposes very strong constraints on the possible behavior of the noise spectral density. That is so over the whole range of driving currents. We review a fully quantum kinetic theory of mesoscopic conduction and discuss the experimental consequences of its conserving constraints, with special reference to the experiment of Reznikov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, pp. 3340-3343, 1995.

‣ The Role of Connectivity in Australian Conservation

Soule, Michael E; Mackey, Brendan; Recher, Harry F; Williams, Jann E; Woinariki, John; Driscoll, Don; Dennison, W C; Jones, M K
Fonte: Surrey Beatty & Sons Publicador: Surrey Beatty & Sons
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The existing system of nature reserves in Australia is inadequate for the long-term conservation and restoration of native biological diversity because it fails to accommodate, among other elements, large scale and long-term ecological processes and change, including physical and biotic transport in the landscape. This paper is an overview of the connectivity elements that inform a scientific framework for significantly improving the prospects for the long-term conservation of Australia's biodiversity. The framework forms the basis for the WildCountry programme. This programme has identified connectivity at landscape, regional and continental scales as a critical component of an effective conservation system. Seven categories of ecological phenomena are reviewed that require landscape permeability and that must be considered when planning for the maintenance of biological diversity and ecological resilience in Australia: (1) trophic relations at regional scales; (2) animal migration, dispersal, and other large scale movements of individuals and propagules; (3) fire and other forms of disturbance at regional scales; (4) climate variability in space and time and human forced rapid climate change; (5) hydroecological relations and flows at all scales; (6) coastal zone fluxes of organisms...

‣ Contribution of paddock trees to the conservation of terrestrial invertebrate biodiversity within grazed native pastures

Oliver, Ian; Pearce, Sarina; Greenslade, Penelope; Britton, David R.
Fonte: Blackwell Science Asia Publicador: Blackwell Science Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Paddock trees are a common feature in the agricultural landscapes of Australia. Recent studies have demonstrated the value of scattered paddock trees for soil fertility, native pasture plants and arboreal faunas; however, the degree to which scattered paddock trees contribute to the conservation of terrestrial invertebrate biodiversity within grazed landscapes remains unknown. We ask three questions: (i) Is there a difference between the terrestrial invertebrate assemblages found under paddock trees compared with surrounding grazed native pastures? (ii) Can gradients in soil and litter variables from the base of trees explain patterns in invertebrate assemblages? and (iii) Does the presence of scattered paddock trees have implications for the conservation of terrestrial invertebrate biodiversity within grazed native pastures? We used pitfall trapping and extraction from soil cores to sample the invertebrate assemblages under six New England Peppermint trees (Eucalyptus nova-anglica Deane and Maiden) and compared them with assemblages sampled from the open paddock. Formicidae and Collembola univariate and multivariate data were analysed along with a range of soil and litter variables. We found (i) significant differences in the assemblages of invertebrates under trees compared with surrounding grazed pastures; (ii) that most soil and litter variables revealed gradients away from tree bases and these variables explained significant variation in invertebrate assemblages; and (iii) more native invertebrates and more species of invertebrates were found under trees compared with the surrounding pastures. We discuss the relationships between paddock trees...

‣ Beyond fragmentation: the continuum model for fauna research and conservation in human-modified landscapes

Fischer, Joern; Lindenmayer, David
Fonte: Munksgaard International Publishers Publicador: Munksgaard International Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Animal distribution patterns in human-modified landscapes are often examined from the basis of the "fragmentation model", which recognises habitat patches located within an inhospitable matrix. The fragmentation model can establish correlations between landscape pattern and animal distribution patterns. However, it is limited in its ability to generate a process-based understanding of species distribution patterns. Here we propose a process-based conceptual landscape model. The "continuum model" is derived from continuum theory, and recognises the importance of space-related ecological variables alongside other factors, such as the availability of suitable food, shelter, and climatic conditions. The continuum model allows for gradual changes in these variables through space, and assumes species respond individualistically to their environment. We contrast the continuum model with the fragmentation model, and outline how it can be used to interpret and design empirical studies. While the fragmentation model may provide a satisfactory description of ecological patterns where many species are confined to human-defined "patches", the continuum model can help to establish links between fundamental ecological processes and individualistic species distribution patterns. Conservation guidelines arising from the fragmentation model will emphasise the importance of large and well-connected pre-defined "habitat" patches. Conversely...

‣ Improving Habitat Models and their Utility in Koala Conservation

Cork, Steven J; Hume, I; Foley, William
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Models of what makes good koala habitat are a key to developing effective conservation policy and practices. Koala habitat models are based on (1) ecological studies of high-density koala populations in limited areas, (2) physiological studies of koala nutrition and characteristics of food plants, and (3) surveys of koala geographic distribution and biophysical features of forests and woodlands. The role of models in koala conservation varies because legislators, decisionmakers, land managers, and citizens have different expectations and uses for models. Although current habitat models address many of these needs, overall they lack sufficient certainty and authority to resolve disputes and develop policy. Unpublished and inadequately peer-reviewed data and models add to misinterpretation and argument. Improvements are needed in the decision-making process to increase the constructive involvement of all interest groups and to focus on the koala conservation problem, thereby reducing use of the popular media and courts of law to achieve objectives.

‣ A comparison of constructed and natural habitat for frog conservation in an Australian agricultural landscape

Hazell, Donna; Hero, Jean-Marc; Lindenmayer, David; Cunningham, Ross
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Constructed ponds are an important consideration in the conservation of wetland biota in agricultural landscapes. Twenty-two natural ponds and 22 adjacent constructed ponds (farm dams) were surveyed on the Southern Tablelands of New South Wales to compare patterns of use by frogs and develop frog conservation recommendations. Farm dams supported similar numbers of frog species to natural ponds, although differences in frog assemblage were observed between the pond types. Limnodynastes tasmaniensis and Uperolia laevigata were significantly more likely to occur at farm dams while L. peronii was more likely to occur at natural ponds. Results suggest waterbodies with high levels of emergent vegetation cover that lack fish are likely to support a high number of frog species, regardless of origin (i.e. natural or constructed). However, it is important for landholders to conserve natural waterbodies as these environments appear likely to support frog species that do not use farm dams.

‣ Can methods applied in medicine be used to summarize and disseminate conservation research?

Fazey, Ioan; Salisbury, Janet G; Lindenmayer, David; Maindonald, John; Douglas, Robert M
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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To ensure that the best scientific evidence is available to guide conservation action, effective mechanisms for communicating the results of research are necessary. In medicine, an evidence-based approach assists doctors in applying scientific evidence when treating patients. The approach has required the development of new methods for systematically reviewing research, and has led to the establishment of independent organizations to disseminate the conclusions of reviews. (1) Such methods could help bridge gaps between researchers and practitioners of environmental conservation. In medicine, systematic reviews place strong emphasis on reviewing experimental clinical trials that meet strict standards. Although experimental studies are much less common in conservation, many of the components of systematic reviews that reduce the biases when identifying, selecting and appraising relevant studies could still be applied effectively. Other methods already applied in medicine for the review of non-experimental studies will therefore be required in conservation. (2) Using systematic reviews and an evidence-based approach will only be one tool of many to reduce uncertainty when making conservation-related decisions. Nevertheless an evidence-based approach does complement other approaches (for example adaptive management)...

‣ Who does all the research in conservation biology?

Fazey, Ioan; Fischer, Joern; Lindenmayer, David
Fonte: Kluwer Academic Publishers Publicador: Kluwer Academic Publishers
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Much of the world's biodiversity is located within countries with developing economies. We therefore examine how well developing nations and their scientists are represented in three international conservation biology journals (Conservation Biology, Biological Conservation, Biodiversity and Conservation). We found: (1) that 28% of studies were from lower income countries and only 15% of all papers had primary authors from these nations. Of papers from lower income countries, although 80% had at least one local author, only 47% had primary authors from the country where the study was conducted. (2) Lower income countries had more research with a strong applied focus compared to research from high-income countries. (3) In lower income countries research was often funded by international sources but the primary authors of these studies were from affluent nations. (4) The three journals differed in how well they represented lower income nations and their scientists, reflecting their editorial policies for including research from lower income nations. The main reason for the large discrepancy in a country's output of conservation research is due to the difference in a nation's ability to invest in science. However, a brief survey of authors suggests that there is a large amount of information available in lower income and non-English speaking countries that is not easily accessible to the international conservation community. Journals may therefore need to consider altering their policies if we are to improve the representation of research by scientists in lower income nations.