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‣ Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: association with personal characteristics and self reported health conditions

Iribarren, C; Friedman, G; Klatsky, A; Eisner, M
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.76015%
STUDY OBJECTIVE—To examine the association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and demographic, lifestyle, occupational characteristics and self reported health conditions.
DESIGN—Cross sectional study, using data from multiphasic health checkups between 1979 and 1985.
SETTING—Large health plan in Northern California, USA.
PARTICIPANTS—16 524 men aged 15-89 years and 26 197 women aged 15-105 years who never smoked.
RESULTS—Sixty eight per cent of men and 64 per cent of women reported any current ETS exposure (at home, in small spaces other than home or in large indoor areas). The exposure time from all three sources of ETS exposure correlated negatively with age. Men and women reporting high level ETS exposure were more likely to be black and never married or separated/divorced, to have no college or partial college education, to consume three alcoholic drink/day or more and to report exposure to several occupational hazards. Consistent independent relations across sexes were found between any current exposure to ETS and a positive history of hay fever/asthma (odds ratio (OR)=1.22 in men, 1.14 in women), hearing loss (OR=1.30 in men, 1.27 in women), severe headache (OR=1.22 in men, 1.17 in women)...

‣ Measurement of self reported active exposure to cigarette smoke

Etter, J; Perneger, T
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.56697%
STUDY OBJECTIVE—The number of cigarettes smoked per day is an imprecise indicator of exposure to cigarette smoke, and biochemical assessment of exposure is not always feasible. The aim of this study was to develop more accurate measures of self reported active exposure to cigarette smoke.
DESIGN—Mail survey in 386 smokers, retest at one month in 94 participants (24%), analysis of saliva cotinine in 98 participants (25%), collection of empty cigarette packs in 214 participants (55%), collection of cigarette butts in 107 participants (28%). Ten questions and items intended to assess active exposure to cigarette smoke were tested and compared with saliva cotinine, the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence, and self rated dependence.
SETTING—A population sample in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1999.
PARTICIPANTS—323 daily smokers and 63 occasional smokers.
MAIN RESULTS—Measures that were associated with saliva cotinine included the number of cigarettes smoked per day (r2=0.36), smoking intensity (r2=0.40), the type of cigarettes smoked (regular versus light) (r2=0.04), smoking when ill (r2=0.15) and a single item rating of the total quantity of smoke inhaled (r2=0.27). A multivariate model combining the first four items explained the largest proportion of the variance in cotinine (r2=0.63)...

‣ Environmental tobacco smoke and lung function in employees who never smoked: the Scottish MONICA study

Chen, R; Tunstall-Pedoe, H; Tavendale, R
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.389893%
OBJECTIVES—To investigate the relation between lung function in employees and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at work and elsewhere.
METHODS—Never smokers in employment (301) were identified from the fourth Scottish MONICA survey. They completed a self administered health record, which included details of exposure to ETS, and attended a survey clinic for physical and lung function measurements, and for venepuncture for estimation of serum cotinine. Differences in lung function in groups exposed to ETS were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA), the exposure-response relation by a linear regression model, and a case-control analysis undertaken with a logistic regression model.
RESULTS—Both men and women showed effects on forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) from exposure to ETS—higher exposure going with poorer lung function. This was found at work, and in total exposure estimated from ETS at work, at home, and at other places. Linear regression showed an exposure-response relation, significant for ETS at work, total exposure, and exposure time/day, but not at home or elsewhere. Compared with those not exposed to ETS at work, those who were exposed a lot had a 254 ml (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 84 to 420) reduction in FEV1...

‣ Cigar magazines: using tobacco to sell a lifestyle

Wenger, L.; Malone, R.; George, A.; Bero, L.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
39.111858%
OBJECTIVE—To assess the content of two cigar "lifestyle" magazines, Cigar Aficionado and Smoke.
DESIGN—Content analysis of cigar focused articles.
SUBJECTS—Cigar focused articles (n = 353) from Cigar Aficionado and Smoke magazines.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Primary focus; mention of health effects, environmental tobacco smoke, or scientific research; quotation and description of individuals; characteristics such as sex, age, ethnicity, smoking status, affiliation, and stance towards cigars; and overall image of cigars.
RESULTS—Cigar business-focused articles were the largest category (40%, n = 143), followed by articles about cigar events (12%, n = 42). Notable were articles featuring cigar benefits to raise money for health charities. Celebrities were featured in 34% (n = 121) of articles and 96% (n = 271) favoured cigar use. Only four (1%) articles featured health effects of cigars as a primary focus.
CONCLUSIONS—Cigar Aficionado and Smoke broke new ground in tobacco marketing by combining promotion of product, lifestyle, and industry in the same vehicle and linking the medium directly to product related events that extended its reach. The creation and marketing of new tobacco use sites challenges the increasing "isolation" of smokers...

‣ Second hand smoke and risk assessment: what was in it for the tobacco industry?

Hirschhorn, N.; Bialous, S. A.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
39.111858%
OBJECTIVE—To describe how the tobacco industry attempted to trivialise the health risks of second hand smoke (SHS) by both questioning the science of risk assessment of low dose exposure to other environmental toxins, and by comparing SHS to such substances about which debate might still exist.
METHODS—Analysis of tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of litigation in the USA (Minnesota trial and the Master Settlement Agreement) and available on the internet. Search terms included: risk assessment, low dose exposure, and the names of key players and organisations.
RESULTS/CONCLUSION—The tobacco industry developed a well coordinated, multi-pronged strategy to create doubt about research on exposure to SHS by trying to link it to the broader discussion of risk assessment of low doses of a number of toxins whose disease burden may still be a matter of scientific debate, thus trying to make SHS their equivalent; and by attempting, through third party organisations and persons, to impugn the agencies using risk assessment to establish SHS as a hazard.


Keywords: tobacco industry; risk assessment; environmental tobacco smoke; ETS; second hand smoke; SHS

‣ Smoke knows no boundaries: legal strategies for environmental tobacco smoke incursions into the home within multi-unit residential dwellings

Kline, R.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.07044%
OBJECTIVE—To describe legal theories that non-smoking residents of multiple occupancy buildings may employ when affected by environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from neighbouring units.
DESIGN—Legal research was conducted in several US states. Research was performed among statutes and regulations. State health regulations were examined as well as common law claims of nuisance, warranties of habitability, and the right of quiet enjoyment.
RESULTS—Through the use of state regulations, such as a sanitary code, several states provide general language for protecting the health of residents in multi-unit buildings. State law also supports more traditional claims of nuisance, warranties of habitability, and the right of quiet enjoyment.
CONCLUSIONS—The use of state regulations has the potential to provide an effective, existing vehicle for resolution of ETS incursion problems. The general health protection language of the regulations, in conjunction with the latest evidence of the harmful effects of ETS, gives state agencies authority to regulate environmental tobacco smoke incursions among apartments in multi-unit dwellings. Where state regulations are not available, other common law legal remedies may be available.


Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; legal strategies; multiple occupancy dwellings

‣ To what extent do parents strive to protect their children from environmental tobacco smoke in the Nordic countries? A population-based study

Lund, K. E.; Skrondal, A.; Vertio, H.; Helgason, A.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.988003%
OBJECTIVE—To assess to what extent Nordic parents strive to protect their children from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home.
DESIGN—A cross-sectional study using an anonymous questionnaire.
SUBJECTS AND SETTING—A stratified, random sample of 5500 households containing a child born during 1992, including 1500 households in Denmark and 1000 households in each of the countries of Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Smoking status of parents, prevalence and magnitude of weekly ETS exposure, rules regarding smoking in the home.
RESULTS—82% of current smokers reported having tried to change their smoking behaviour for the sake of their children. Of all parents who answered the questionnaire, 75% reported having introduced some rules to limit ETS in their home. In households where at least one parent smoked, 57% reported that children were exposed to ETS at home. Child exposure to ETS was most prevalent in single-parent households and in households in which parents had lower levels of education. However, these parents were not less likely than other smoking parents to report having tried to change their smoking behaviour for the sake of their children.
CONCLUSION—Environmental tobacco smoke at home is still a problem for many children in the Nordic countries. However...

‣ Coronary events and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: a case-control study from Australia and New Zealand

McElduff, P.; Dobson, A.; Jackson, R.; Beaglehole, R.; Heller, R.; Lay-Yee, R.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.76015%
OBJECTIVES—To estimate the relative risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) associated with exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).
DESIGN—Population-based case-control study.
SUBJECTS—Cases were 953 people identified in a population register of coronary events, and controls were 3189 participants in independent community-based risk factor prevalence surveys from the same study populations.
SETTING—Newcastle, Australia and Auckland, New Zealand.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Acute myocardial infarction or coronary death.
RESULTS—After adjusting for the effects of age, education, history of heart disease, and body mass index, women had a statistically significant increased risk of a coronary event associated with exposure to ETS (relative risk (RR) = 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.40-2.81). There was little statistical evidence of increased risk found in men (RR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.81-1.28).
CONCLUSION—Our study found evidence for the adverse effects of exposure to ETS on risk of coronary heart disease among women, especially at home. For men the issue is unclear according to the data from our study. Additional studies with detailed information on possible confounders and adequate statistical power are needed. Most importantly...

‣ Association of environmental tobacco smoke exposure with socioeconomic status in a population of 7725 New Zealanders

Whitlock, G.; MacMahon, S.; Vander, H; Davis, P.; Jackson, R.; Norton, R.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.866313%
OBJECTIVE—To test the hypothesis that environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is inversely associated with socioeconomic status.
DESIGN—Survey.
SETTING—General community, New Zealand.
PARTICIPANTS—7725 non-smoking adults (volunteer sample of a multi-industry workforce, n = 5564; and a random sample of urban electoral rolls, n = 2161), including 5408 males; mean age 45 years.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—ETS exposure was assessed as self-reported number of hours per week spent near someone who is smoking, and as prevalence of regular exposure to some ETS. Socioeconomic status was assessed as educational level, occupational status, and median neighbourhood household income.
RESULTS—Both measures of ETS exposure were steeply and inversely associated with all three indicators of socioeconomic status (all p<0.0001). Geometric mean ETS exposure ranged from 16 minutes per week among university-educated participants to 59 minutes per week in the second lowest occupational quintile (95% confidence intervals: 14-18 minutes per week and 54-66 minutes per week). The associations with occupational status and educational level were steeper than those with neighbourhood income. The socioeconomic gradients of ETS exposure were steeper among participants aged less than 35 years than among participants aged over 50 years...

‣ Trends in environmental tobacco smoke restrictions in the home in Victoria, Australia

Borland, R.; Mullins, R.; Trotter, L.; White, V.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.8513%
OBJECTIVE—To assess the extent to which smokers and non-smokers in Victoria, Australia attempt to keep their homes smoke free and to determine whether the proportion of people attempting to do so has changed over time.
METHODS—Face to face surveys conducted in Victoria each year from 1989 to 1997.
PARTICIPANTS—Approximately 2500 randomly selected adults each year.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Proportion of respondents who discourage their visitors from smoking; proportion of smokers who always smoke outside their own homes; behaviour of smokers when they are around children. Changes in each of these measures over time.
RESULTS—Reports of visitors being discouraged from smoking rose from 27% in 1989 to 53% in 1997. Smokers who reported always smoking outside the home rose from 20% in 1995 to 28% in 1997. Not smoking in the presence of children rose from 14% in 1989 to 33% in 1996. Indoor restrictions on smoking were associated with the presence of children in the household and even more strongly with the presence of non-smoking adults. People who worked in places where smoking was totally banned were more likely to ask their visitors not to smoke than those who worked where smoking was allowed.
CONCLUSIONS—The results indicate a strong move towards homes and towards protecting children from smoke. Efforts to support and facilitate this social change should be further encouraged.


Keywords: children; environmental tobacco smoke; home

‣ O Tabagismo em Terceira Mão: Um Conceito a (Re)Lembrar!; Thirdhand Smoke: A Concept to Remember!

Oliveira, Maria João; Serviço de Pneumologia. Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia e Espinho. Vila Nova de Gaia. Portugal.; Franco, Inês; Serviço de Pneumologia. Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia e Espinho. Vila Nova de Gaia. Portugal.; Gonçal
Fonte: Ordem dos Médicos Publicador: Ordem dos Médicos
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; other; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/10/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.587637%
Palavras-chave: Poluição por Fumo de Tabaco; Tabagismo.; Keywords: Tobacco Smoke Pollution; Smoking.

‣ Research on Tobacco in India (including the Betel Quid and Areca Nut) : An Annotated Bibliography of Research on Use, Health Effects, Economics, and Control Efforts

Stewart Ray, Cecily; Gupta, Prakash; de Beyer, Joy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
59.037676%
This report is a compilation of references and abstracts of all research on tobacco in India from 1985 to 2003. Studies are organized by subject matter, and within each sub-topic, are arranged by year of publication with most recent studies listed first, and for studies published in the same year, alphabetically by author's last name. The studies include tobacco use surveys, studies on tobacco-related mortality, tobacco-related diseases both cancerous and non-cancerous, according to body system and site, and other health problems associated with tobacco use and environmental tobacco smoke. Other topics include the toxicity of tobacco products, educational interventions and the psychology of tobacco use, tobacco control measures and policies, reports on tobacco advertising and sponsorship and research into the tobacco health hazards faced by tobacco workers. It also includes studies on tobacco employment, tobacco growing and technology, and the economics of tobacco. The following databases were searched: Pub Med...

‣ How cigarette additives are used to mask environmental tobacco smoke

Connolly, G.; Wayne, G.; Lymperis, D.; Doherty, M.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
49.38417%
OBJECTIVE—To understand the tobacco industry's research on and use of cigarette additives that alter the perception of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).
DATA SOURCES—Internal documents from four websites maintained by the major US tobacco manufacturers and company patents pertaining to the use of ETS altering additives obtained from the US Patent and Trademark Office online database.
STUDY SELECTION—Electronic searches of the four industry websites and the US patent database were conducted using keywords to identify relevant data.
DATA EXTRACTION—Industry documents and patents obtained using an exploratory snowball sampling method were reviewed and grouped into four general categories according to whether the additive(s) described affected ETS visibility, odour, irritation, or emissions. Accuracy of isolated findings was validated through cross comparison of the data sources.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Results of this preliminary study provide evidence that tobacco manufacturers have conducted extensive research on the use of chemical additives to reduce, mask, or otherwise alter the visibility, odour, irritation, or emission of ETS.
CONCLUSIONS—Findings suggest that the tobacco industry uses additives to reduce the perception of ETS. To protect the public...

‣ Reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: the empirical evidence and directions for future research

Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Wahlgren, D.; Matt, G.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.76015%
OBJECTIVE—To summarise the issues and empirical evidence for reduction of children's residential environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure.
DATA SOURCES—Literature was obtained by computer search, with emphasis on studies that included quantitative measures of ETS exposure in children's residences and interventions based on social learning theory.
STUDY SELECTION—Review and empirical articles concerning ETS exposure were included and inferences were drawn based on a synthesis of these studies as contrasted with a quantitative meta-analysis.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Interventions designed for residential/child ETS exposure control have included policy/legal regulations, minimal clinical services, and counselling services. Divorce court and adoption services have limited custody to protect children from ETS exposure. Controlled trials of clinicians' one time counselling services have shown null results. One controlled trial found that repeated physician ETS counselling increased parent cessation. Three trials found that repeated counselling/shaping procedures reduced quantitative estimates of ETS exposure in asthmatic children.
CONCLUSIONS—Insufficient controlled studies of repeated session counselling procedures have been completed to determine efficacy for ETS exposure reduction...

‣ Reducing children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in homes: issues and strategies

Ashley, M. J.; Ferrence, R.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1998 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.76015%
It is now well established that children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) results in substantial public health and economic impacts. Children are more likely than adults to suffer health effects from ETS exposure, and the home is the most important site of such exposure.
  Although the responsibility and authority of the community and health professionals to protect children from harm are entrenched in North American society, social, economic, legal, and political factors contribute to a lower level of support for ETS control measures in homes compared with workplaces and public places. It is now clear that ETS control in home environments must be a priority on the public health agenda. Programme and policy options and strategies for ETS control in home environments are outlined. We conclude that the current research base is inadequate to fully support programme and policy development in this area and priorities for research are identified.


Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; homes; children

‣ Measuring environmental tobacco smoke exposure in infants and young children through urine cotinine and memory-based parental reports: empirical findings and discussion

Matt, G.; Wahlgren, D.; Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Bernert, J.; Meltzer, S.; Pirkle, J.; Caudill, S.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/1999 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.76015%
OBJECTIVE—This study examined the reliability and potential biases of two urine collection methods from which cotinine measures were obtained and the validity of memory-based parental reports of their children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).
DESIGN—Structured interviews were conducted with mothers of infants and young children to obtain memory-based estimates of recent ETS exposure. Urine samples were collected through standard and cotton roll collection methods for cotinine analysis.
SETTING—All interviews took place at an off-campus research facility. Urine samples were collected at the study office or the subjects' homes.
PARTICIPANTS—Mothers were recruited from San Diego county sites of the Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) Supplemental Food and Nutrition Program. Sample 1 (infants) consisted of eight boys and eight girls aged 1-44 months (mean = 12.6 months). Sample 2 (children) included 10 boys and 10 girls aged 3-8 years (mean = 61.2 months).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Urine cotinine and memory-based parent reports of ETS exposure from structured interviews.
RESULTS—There was overall high reliability for urine cotinine measures and no effect of collection method on urine cotinine levels. Memory-based reports obtained from smoking mothers showed moderately strong and consistent linear relationships with urine cotinine measures of their infants and children (r = 0.50 to r = 0.63)...

‣ A prospective investigation of the impact of smoking bans on tobacco cessation and relapse

Longo, D.; Johnson, J.; Kruse, R.; Brownson, R.; Hewett, J.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
39.05992%
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES—To examine the long term impact of workplace smoking bans on employee smoking cessation and relapse. Over three years we studied a total of 1033 current or former smokers (intervention group) employed in smoke-free hospitals and 816 current or former smokers (comparison group) employed in non-smoke-free workplaces. The design of this natural experiment is a prospective cohort study. We randomly selected both hospitals and employees from 12 strata based on hospital size and state tobacco regulations, and sampled employees in the same communities. Main outcome measures were post-ban quit ratio and relapse rate.
RESEARCH DESIGN—Between groups comparisons were conducted using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistic for general association, stratified Cox proportional hazards models, and the CMH analysis of variance statistic based on ranks. McNemar's test and the sign test were used to test for changes over time within each group.
RESULTS—Differences in the post-ban quit ratio were observed between intervention and comparison groups (p ⩽ 0.02). For employees whose bans were implemented at least seven years before survey, the post-ban quit ratio was estimated at 0.256, compared with 0.142 for employees in non-smoke-free workplaces (p = 0.02). After controlling for a variety of factors...

‣ Reported measures of environmental tobacco smoke exposure: trials and tribulations

Hovell, M.; Zakarian, J.; Wahlgren, D.; Matt, G.; Emmons, K.
Fonte: BMJ Group Publicador: BMJ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
48.76015%
OBJECTIVE—This report extends previous summaries of reported environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure measures, reviews the empirical evidence of their validity for children's exposure, and discusses future research.
DATA SOURCES—Studies were identified by computer search and from the authors' research.
STUDY SELECTION—Studies were selected for inclusion of nicotine and/or cotinine and quantitative reported measures of ETS exposure.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Five studies found significant associations between reported quantitative exposure of children to ETS and either environmental nicotine or urine cotinine assays. Correlation coefficients between parent reports and nicotine ranged from 0.22 to 0.75. Coefficients for cotinine ranged from 0.28 to 0.71. Correlations increased over time and were stronger for parents' reports of their own smoking as a source of children's exposure than for reports of exposure from others.
CONCLUSIONS—Empirical studies show general concordance of reported and either environmental or biological measures of ETS exposure. Relationships were moderate, and suggest sufficient validity to be employed in research and service programs. Future studies need to identify the differences in types of reported or objective measures...

‣ Respiratory health in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in the Australian Capital Territory

Glasgow, Nicholas; Goodchild, E; Yates, Rachel; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.562407%
Objectives: To measure the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and atopic disease in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (indigenous) and non-indigenous children in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). Methods: A two-stage questionnaire survey of children in the ACT with stage two completed for children identified by parents as having respiratory symptoms or asthma in the first stage cross-sectional survey. Participants in the study were: (i) all new entrant primary schoolchildren aged 4-6 years in 1999, 2000 and 2001, 217 being indigenous children and 10 604 being non-indigenous children (80% of eligible); and (ii) Year 1-6 primary schoolchildren in 2000, with 216 being indigenous children and 14 202 being non-indigenous children (52% of eligible). Respiratory symptoms (including recent wheeze and parent-reported asthma) and other factors were measured by parental questionnaire. Results: Indigenous kindergarten children had more recent wheeze (21%, odds ratio (OR) 1.4 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-2.0)) and parent-reported asthma (24%, OR 1.8 95% CI 1.3-2.5) than non-indigenous children (both 15%). However, indigenous children had less eczema (25%, OR 0.7 95% CI 0.5-0.9) and hayfever (14%, OR 0.7 95% CI 0.5-1.0) than non-indigenous children (32% and 19%...

‣ Multistage carcinogenesis and lung cancer mortality in three cohorts

Hazelton, William D; Clements, Mark; Moolgavkar, Suresh
Fonte: American Association for Cancer Research Publicador: American Association for Cancer Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
58.389893%
Experimental evidence indicates that tobacco smoke acts both as an initiator and a promoter in lung carcinogenesis. We used the two-stage clonal expansion model incorporating the ideas of initiation, promotion, and malignant conversion to analyze lung cancer mortality in three large cohorts, the British Doctors' cohort and the two American Cancer Society cohorts, to determine how smoking habits influence age-specific lung cancer rates via these mechanisms. Likelihood ratio tests indicate that smoking-related promotion is the dominant model mechanism associated with lung cancer mortality in all cohorts. Smoking-related initiation is less important than promotion but interacts synergistically with it. Although no information on ex-smokers is available in these data, the model with estimated variables can be used to project risks among ex-smokers. These projected risks are in good agreement with the risk among ex-smokers derived from other studies. We present 10-year projected risks for current and former smokers adjusted for competing causes of mortality. The importance of smoking duration on lung cancer risk in these cohorts is a direct consequence of promotion. Intervention and treatment strategies should focus on promotion as the primary etiologic mechanism in lung carcinogenesis.