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‣ "Repensando os commons na comunicação científica"; Rethinking the access to the scientific communication

Pinto, Evelyn Cristina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/05/2006 Português
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Recentemente estudiosos como Benkler, Lessig, Boyle, Hess e Ostrom retomaram o uso do conceito de commons, mas agora relacionado à informação em geral ou à informação científica. Nesse trabalho, nós lançamos mão desse termo para destacar o caráter cooperativo da pesquisa científica, a importância da transparência e neutralidade no acesso ao commons da Ciência e a natureza anti-rival da informação científica. O conceito de commons nos é muito útil para focar todo o conjunto dos artigos científicos já publicados, quer estejam na forma impressa ou na digital. Ainda permite um estudo através de prismas multidisciplinares e, finalmente, enfatiza a dinâmica das comunidades científicos como um todo. Em qualquer commons de informação, quanto maior a distribuição do conhecimento, mais dinâmico e eficiente é o processo de evolução do conhecimento. A tecnologia da imprensa tem desempenhado um papel fundamental na divulgação de informação e o seu surgimento marcou uma revolução no conhecimento e na cultura da nossa civilização. A tecnologia digital tem se mostrado mais eficiente ainda, uma vez que a natureza da sua implementação em bits se aproxima mais da natureza anti-rival das idéias do que qualquer outra tecnologia hoje empregada para preservação e distribuição de informação. Em nosso estudo...

‣ Conhecimento de acesso livre na Internet para apoiar a inovação e o desenvolvimento de produtos: critérios de análise e sua aplicação; Knowledge of free access avaliable in Internet to support the innovation and product development: criteria for analysis and its application

Coletta, Teresinha das Graças
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/12/2007 Português
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Definição de critérios de análise de sites e avaliação da disponibilidade de conhecimento de acesso livre como ferramenta de apoio à inovação e ao desenvolvimento de produto. O conhecimento encontra-se, entre outras formas, disponível em páginas web. Para a criação compartilhada de conhecimento de qualidade e de acesso livre, que atendam aos interesses específicos de pessoas e organizações, assim como sua recuperação, são fundamentais os recursos de Internet. Esse contexto justifica a definição de critérios de análise de sites para identificação da disponibilidade desses recursos. O objetivo desse trabalho é a identificacão e avaliação de sites na Internet, com características de compartilhamento, divulgação e produção de conhecimento de acesso livre, para apoiar a inovação e desenvolvimento de produto. Para atingir o objetivo, inicialmente sistematiza o conhecimento por meio de pesquisa exploratória e procedimentos de pesquisa bibliográfica e documental. Fundamentando-se nas pesquisas, lista portais que possam contemplar o objetivo. Define critérios para análise desses sites com base nas dimensões conteúdo, usabilidade e funcionalidade. Analisa, então, cada uma das dimensões por meio de características e atributos que geram indicadores parciais e um indicador geral por site e permite a análise comparativa entre eles. Dos vinte portais analisados; nenhum contempla todos os atributos; a dimensão conteúdo recebe a melhor pontuação enquanto a dimensão funcionalidade apresenta o desempenho mais negativo; os atributos menos contemplados são acessibilidade...

‣ Gestão do acesso ao conhecimento externo em administradoras de carteira de investimentos imobiliários: estudo de casos; MANAGEMENT OF EXTERNAL KNOWLEDGE ACCESS IN REAL ESTATE PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT UNITS: STUDY CASES

Andrade, Marcelo Machado Teixeira de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/03/2008 Português
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Nesta tese, examina-se como se dá a gestão do acesso ao conhecimento externo em duas administradoras de carteira de investimentos imobiliários: a gerência de investimentos imobiliários de um fundo de pensão (a Fundação CESP) e a divisão de locação e administração de imóveis de um grupo imobiliário (o grupo Lello). A base de conhecimentos externos dessas unidades é dispersa e privada, características típicas do mercado imobiliário que dificultam o acesso ao conhecimento externo e, por conseguinte, a sua gestão. Para apoiar o estudo, foi realizada uma revisão bibliográfica nos campos teóricos da gestão do conhecimento, da gestão de carteira de investimentos imobiliários e das competências organizacionais e individuais. O método de pesquisa utilizado foi o estudo de casos. As unidades estudadas foram escolhidas intencionalmente, levando-se em conta seus formatos de negócio distintos, que permitiram ampliar o conhecimento sobre administradoras de carteira imobiliária. Os dados primários foram coletados através de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, cujos roteiros foram testados previamente em duas outras empresas imobiliárias. Baseado na revisão bibliográfica, foi elaborado um modelo conceitual e gráfico da gestão do conhecimento com foco no acesso ao conhecimento externo. Um dos processos incluídos no modelo foi o armazenamento externo de conhecimentos. Sem menção explícita na literatura pesquisada...

‣ ACADA: Access Control-driven Architecture with Dynamic Adaptation

Pereira, Óscar Narciso Mortágua; Aguiar, Rui L.; Santos, Maribel Yasmina
Fonte: Knowledge Systems Institute Graduate School Publicador: Knowledge Systems Institute Graduate School
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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Programmers of relational database applications use software solutions (Hibernate, JDBC, LINQ, ADO.NET) to ease the development process of business tiers. These software solutions were not devised to address access control policies, much less for evolving access control policies, in spite of their unavoidable relevance. Currently, access control policies, whenever implemented, are enforced by independent components leading to a separation between policies and their enforcement. This paper proposes a new approach based on an architectural model referred to here as the Access Controldriven Architecture with Dynamic Adaptation (ACADA). Solutions based on ACADA are automatically built to statically enforce access control policies based on schemas of Create, Read, Update and Delete (CRUD) expressions. Then, CRUD expressions are dynamically deployed at runtime driven by established access control policies. Any update in the policies is followed by an adaptation process to keep access control mechanisms aligned with the policies to be enforced. A proof of concept based on Java and Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) is also presented.

‣ Runtime values driven by access control policies: statically enforced at the level of relational business tiers

Pereira, Óscar Mortágua; Aguiar, Rui L.; Santos, Maribel Yasmina
Fonte: Knowledge Systems Institute Publicador: Knowledge Systems Institute
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Português
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Access control is a key challenge in software engineering, especially in relational database applications. Current access control techniques are based on additional security layers designed by security experts. These additional security layers do not take into account the necessary business logic leading to a separation between business tiers and access control mechanisms. Moreover, business tiers are built from commercial tools (ex: Hibernate, JDBC, ODBC, LINQ), which are not tailored to deal with security aspects. To overcome this situation several proposals have been presented. In spite of their relevance, they do not support the enforcement of access control policies at the level of the runtime values that are used to interact with protected data. Runtime values are critical entities because they play a key role in the process of defining which data is accessed. In this paper, we present a general technique for static checking, at the business tier level, the runtime values that are used to interact with databases and in accordance with the established access control policies. The technique is applicable to CRUD (create, read, update and delete) expressions and also to actions (update and insert) that are executed on data retrieved by Select expressions. A proof of concept is also presented. It uses an access control platform previously developed...

‣ Innovation networks in biotechnology : actors, relations and strategies

Sousa, Cristina; Fontes, Margarida; Videira, Pedro
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 21/06/2009 Português
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The paper addresses innovation networks in a science-based sector, focusing on networks for scientific and technological knowledge access. It investigates the strategic choices made by new biotechnology firms regarding the type of actors and relations that prevail in accessing those networks. The results contribute to on-going debates in the area of innovation networks and knowledge management, both at the methodological and empirical levels. We develop a methodology to investigate the networking behaviour of sciencebased entrepreneurs in their search for scientific and technological knowledge for innovation. We apply it to the case of biotechnology entrepreneurs in a country that is peripheral to the major concentrations of biotechnology knowledge and business, which enables us to gain some insights on the strategies adopted by new entrepreneurial firms to access critical resources in these particular contexts.

‣ Types of proximity in knowledge access by science-based start-ups

Fontes, Margarida; Sousa, Cristina
Fonte: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia Publicador: Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em 14/06/2012 Português
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This paper addresses the strategies adopted by science-based start-ups to gain access to knowledge resources at different spatial levels. The goal of the paper is to investigate the presence and relative importance of ties endowed with different types of proximity in firms’ knowledge networks, as well as the role played by non-geographical proximity in gaining access to knowledge sources, both located nearby and at a distance. For this purpose we develop an analytical framework that permits to distinguish between two dimensions of proximity: geographical, associated with the spatial location of the actor; relational, associated with the origin of the tie – leading to different modes of proximity that are further linked with modes of knowledge access (formal or informal). We also develop a methodology to reconstruct the knowledge networks, permitting to identify origin, location and nature of the ties and to position them along modes of proximity. The results show that the incidence and mix of these modes of proximity vary in firms’ individual networks, being possible to identify different patterns of knowledge access. But they also uncover the overall relevance of “relational proximity”, whether or not coexisting with geographical proximity and often compensating for its absence. The paper contributes to our understanding of knowledge access strategies of science-based start-ups and uncovers the spatial spanning role played by the entrepreneurs’ personal networks.

‣ From Consciousness to Knowledge – The Explanatory Power of Revelation

Gärtner, Klaus
Fonte: Universidade Nova de Lisboa Publicador: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em /12/2014 Português
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Epistemology in philosophy of mind is a difficult endeavor. Those who believe that our phenomenal life is different from other domains suggest that self-knowledge about phenomenal properties is certain and therefore privileged. Usually, this so called privileged access is explained by the idea that we have direct access to our phenomenal life. This means, in contrast to perceptual knowledge, self-knowledge is non-inferential. It is widely believed that, this kind of directness involves two different senses: an epistemic sense and a metaphysical sense. Proponents of this view often claim that this is due to the fact that we are acquainted with our current experiences. The acquaintance thesis, therefore, is the backbone in justifying privileged access. Unfortunately the whole approach has a profound flaw. For the thesis to work, acquaintance has to be a genuine explanation. Since it is usually assumed that any knowledge relation between judgments and the corresponding objects are merely causal and contingent (e.g. in perception), the proponent of the privileged access view needs to show that acquaintance can do the job. In this thesis, however, I claim that the latter cannot be done. Based on considerations introduced by Levine, I conclude that this approach involves either the introduction of ontologically independent properties or a rather obscure knowledge relation. A proper explanation...

‣ Problem-Based Knowledge Access: Useful Design Principles for Clinical Hypertexts

Estey, Greg; Oliver, Diane E.; Chueh, Henry C.; Levinson, John R.; Zielstorff, Rita D.; Barnett, G. Octo
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/11/1990 Português
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This paper describes experience with the development of two systems for clinical knowledge access. Six design principles for implementing such systems in hypertext or related media are offered under the heading “Problem-based Knowledge Access”. These design principles concern: contextual indexing, categories of knowledge access, constraints on hypertext linking, graphical indexing, maintaining the illusion of “no navigation” and problem-based content hierarchies.

‣ System Architecture for a Clinical Workstation Providing “Point of Use” Knowledge Access

Rathe, Richard; Cope, Lawrence; Greenes, Robert A.; Glaser, John
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 08/11/1989 Português
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A patient information system may not be able to incorporate the large array of knowledge and decision aids needed by the practicing physician. While microcomputer knowledge resources are becoming increasingly available it is unclear how to best use them in the clinical setting. This paper describes ”point of use” knowledge access using a “clinical workstation”. Patient data and medical knowledge are localized and coupled using a microcomputer “front end” to a mainframe clinical information system. Both physical and temporal barriers to knowledge access are overcome. In addition, a well developed ability to monitor users and applications forms the mainstay of our on-going evaluation and development process.

‣ The Rich Get Richer: Enabling Conditions for Knowledge Use in Organizational Work Teams

Valentine, Melissa A; Staats, Bradley R.; Edmondson, Amy C.
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Português
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Individuals on the periphery of organizational knowledge sharing networks, due to inexperience, location, or lack of social capital, may struggle to access useful knowledge at work. An electronic knowledge repository (KR) has the potential to help peripheral individuals gain access to valuable knowledge because a KR is universally and constantly available and can be used without social interaction. However, for it to serve this equalizing function, those on the periphery of the organization must actually use it, possibly overcoming barriers to doing so. In this paper, we develop a multi-level model of knowledge use in teams and show that individuals whose experience and position already provide them access to vital knowledge use a KR more frequently than individuals on the organizational periphery. We argue that this occurs because the KR – despite its appearance of equivalent accessibility to all – is actually more accessible to central than peripheral players due to their greater experience and access to colleagues. Thus, KR use is not driven primarily by the need to overcome limited access to other knowledge sources. Rather KR use is enabled when actors know how to reap value from the KR, which ironically improves with increasing access to other sources of knowledge. Implications for both team effectiveness and knowledge management research are offered. We conclude that KRs are unlikely to serve as a knowledge equalizer without intervention.

‣ Institutional Constraints in Promoting IK : Community Access to Social Networks and Formal Institutions

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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In recent years, many international development agencies and non-government organizations have renewed their efforts to provide and promote indigenous knowledge orientation in development planning and practice. These efforts emphasize local knowledge systems and practices as valuable resources in global development. The four distinct aspects of indigenous knowledge oriented development interventions frequently debated are: Documentation: indigenous knowledge documentation, communication and adaptation; Ownership: local ownership of specific knowledge practices; Reward System: rewarding local knowledge innovations (through documentation and dissemination, cross-region recognition, global application and value addition); and Access to Knowledge and Institutions: linking modern and indigenous institutions for sustainable development and enhancing local community access to markets, government agencies, financial institutions, university based research centers and international development publications. This study of local innovators in India reflects on the IK aspects outlined above...

‣ Korea and the Knowledge-based Economy : Making the Transition

Dahlman, Carl; Anderson, Thomas
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank and OECD Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank and OECD
Português
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Knowledge is fast becoming a key factor in economic and social development worldwide. Rapid innovations in science, communications and computing technologies are opening up new opportunities for countries to harness knowledge and participate more fully in the global economy. Developing countries that successfully make the transition to the knowledge-based economy will have unprecedented possibilities to become more competitive in world markets and to participate in the global information society. New technologies can also extend the benefits of knowledge to all segments of society and help countries close the gap in living standards among their citizens. This book defines a knowledge-based economy as one where knowledge is created, acquired, transmitted and used effectively by enterprises, organizations, individuals and communities. It does not focus narrowly on high-technology industries or on information and communications technologies, but rather presents a framework for analyzing a range of policy options in education...

‣ Credit Reporting Knowledge Guide

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This second edition of the Credit Reporting Knowledge Guide aims to support the dissemination of knowledge on best practices in credit reporting development, based on IFC s experience. The original Credit Bureau Knowledge Guide (2006) elaborated on the knowledge gained over several years of running the Global Credit Reporting Progra

‣ Enhancing the Livelihoods of the Rural Poor through ICT - A Knowledge Map

Economic and Social Research Foundation
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Brief
Português
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The major objective of the study was to come up with illustrative success stories as well as failures to give lessons on ICT interventions in the area of rural livelihoods and their impact in Tanzania. The key issues addressed in this study were: 1) common ICTs used by the rural poor in Tanzania; 2) which ICTs are regarded as attractive by different groups and why; 3) the use of ICTs by different age cohorts as part of their livelihoods strategies; 4) the role of ICTs in influencing the livelihoods of the poor; 5) what effects, if any, does use of these resources have on vulnerability, livelihoods and value of assets; and 6) whether or not ICT services can be improved in relation to their usage and effects. The study also made a comparative analysis of the use of ICTs by different groups based on age, location, gender and ethnicity. This study was conducted for a period of four months from October 2006 to January 2007, in three different districts (Bagamoyo, Moshi Rural and Njombe). The findings from this study reveal that ICTs commonly used by the rural poor in the selected districts are radio...

‣ Knowledge transfer between actors in the innovation system: a study of higher education institutions (HEIS) and SMES

Corral de Zubielqui, G.B.; Jones, J.; Seet, P.S.; Lindsay, N.
Fonte: Emerald Publicador: Emerald
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to understand how and why small to medium enterprises (SMEs) access knowledge from external actors in general and from higher education institutions (HEIs) in particular and what is the extent to which these knowledge access pathways affect SME innovativeness. Design/methodology/approach – The paper involved both quantitative and qualitative approaches: a survey of 1,226 SMEs and a mini case study to follow-up on issues arising from the survey analysis. Survey data were analysed using both non-parametric and multivariate Poisson regression analysis. The case study was based on a medium-sized manufacturing firm in South Australia. Findings – While there are significant differences between the micro-, small- and medium-sized enterprises, the evidence suggests that SMEs generally use “generic” university–industry knowledge transfer pathways (e.g. published research results) rather than university–industry links with high “relational” involvement. More significantly, the results indicate that SMEs are more likely to rely on organisations other than universities and related R&D enterprises for knowledge acquisition like clients/customers or suppliers. While collaboration is most likely to occur within the same state/territory...

‣ Dual Credit Markets and Household Access to Finance; Evidence from a Representative Chinese Household Survey

Cull, Robert; Gan, Li; Gao, Nan; Xu, Lixin Colin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Policy Research Working Paper; Publications Research
Português
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Using a new and representative data set of Chinese household finance, this paper documents household access to and costs of finance, along with their correlates. As in most developing countries, informal finance is a crucial element of household finance, and wealth tends to be associated with better access to formal and informal finance. Better financial knowledge shifts loan portfolios toward formal sources relative to informal ones. Connections to the Communist Party are associated with significantly better access to finance in rural areas but not in urban areas. A larger social network is positively associated with access to informal finance. Controlling for household characteristics, rural residents pay interest rates on loans similar to urban residents. Younger residents pay higher rates, while households on firmer economic footing face lower rates. Taking financial classes and college education is associated with higher interest rates for urban residents, suggesting perhaps that financial knowledge coincides with greater demand for credit in areas with more economic opportunity. Overall...

‣ Knowledge access and location decisions in biotechnology: the spatial dimension of social networks

Fontes, M.; Sousa, C.; Videira, P.
Fonte: DINÂMIA'CET Publicador: DINÂMIA'CET
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Publicado em /12/2009 Português
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DINÂMIA'CET, Dezembro de 2009.; This paper addresses the spatial dimension of knowledge sourcing strategies, investigating the role played by social networks on the access to scientific and technological knowledge by new biotechnology firms. Our approach takes into consideration the impact of various forms of proximity - geographical, social, cognitive and organisational - on the development of key relationships, as well as on their use for knowledge acquisition. It enables us to assess the relative importance of local and distant knowledge sources and to explain the entrepreneurs’ decisions in terms of network mobilisation.

‣ Unequal access to scientific knowledge; O acesso desigual ao conhecimento científico

Tilly, Charles
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/11/2006 Português
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Aqui são tratadas algumas questões relativas ao acesso desigual ao conhecimento científico que afeta o bem-estar humano: controle sobre sua produção e distribuição e acesso a esse conhecimento por pessoas cujo bem-estar será ou poderá ser afetado por ele. Certamente não fornecerei respostas convincentes e abrangentes às questões, mas pretendo mostrar por que e como elas são importantes. O acesso ao conhecimento científico envolve os temas da ação, da identidade e da liberdade em três aspectos distintos. Em primeiro lugar, a produção e a distribuição de conhecimento científico dependem de agentes informados que, de forma quase inevitável, reservam o conhecimento para vantagem própria e de seus financiadores. Em segundo lugar, o controle sobre o conhecimento científico se organiza em torno de fronteiras definidoras de identidade, que dividem, de um lado, os que têm direitos a esse conhecimento e, de outro, os que carecem de tais direitos. Em terceiro lugar, a superação das barreiras entre os beneficiários e as vítimas do acesso desigual exige, normalmente, a ação heróica de advogados e autoridades políticas.; The author raises questions about unequal access to scientific knowledge whose consequences affect human well being: control over production of that knowledge...

‣ Open access and scholarly publishing in Latin America: ten flavours and a few reflections | Acesso livre e publicação acadêmica na América Latina: dez sabores e algumas reflexões

Alperin, Juan Pablo; Public Knowledge Project; Fischman, Gustavo; Willinsky, John
Fonte: Ibict Publicador: Ibict
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/09/2008 Português
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Abstract Throughout this article we argue that many scholars and scientific systems in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) share the ethical and epistemological motivations about the importance of increasing the "public presence" of academic research and lay out that many scholars and that many scholars and scientific systems in LAC are well positioned to take advantage of the increasing information and communication technology (ICT) infrastructure and of the growing open access (OA) movement so that the research produced within the region is circulated and shared broadly. The existence of Latin American examples to Willinsky's (2006) ten flavours of OA to journal articles are seen as an indication that OA has taken hold in theregion.Keywords Open Access (OA); Latin America and the Caribbean; Information and Communication Technologies (ICT); knowledge dissemination; Scholarly CommunicationResumo Argumenta-se neste artigo que muitos acadêmicos e sistemas científicos na América Latina e no Caribe compartilham motivações éticas e epistemológicas a respeito da importância de se aumentar a "presença pública" da pesquisa acadêmica e que muitos deles estão bem posicionados para se valer da crescente infra-estrutura de tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TIC)e dos movimentos de Acesso Livre (AL) para que a ciência produzida na região circule e se compartilhe amplamente. A existência de exemplos latino-americanos para a classificação dos dez modelos de Willinsky para artigos de periódicos é vista como indicação de que o AL já se instalou na região.Palavras-chave Acesso Livre (AL); América Latina e Caribe; Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TIC); difusão do conhecimento; comunicação acadêmica