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‣ The lived experience of sustainable learning: the Lech-e OER project bridging formal and non formal lifelong learners

Teixeira, António; Nicolau, Paula Bacelar; Caeiro, Sandra; Dams, Lieve; Dorp, Kees-Jan van; Wilson, Gordon
Fonte: European Distance and E-learning Network Publicador: European Distance and E-learning Network
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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The Erasmus-funded Lived experience of climate change: e-learning and virtual mobility (LECH-e) project is developing learning resources on the topic of climate change that will be openly accessible on the web for higher education institutions and the wider world public to use and adapt. Institutions are free to integrate the resources into their formal programs and non-formal courses. A description of the project is provided in a short prologue. In this paper we depict the open learning strategy implemented by the LECH-e partnership and how it can contribute to widening participation in environmental, and specifically climate change, education.

‣ Proposal of e-learning strategy to teach Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) to undergraduate and graduate students

Camargo, Lucila B; Raggio, Daniela P; Bonacina, Carlos F; Wen, Chao L; Mendes, Fausto M; Bönecker, Marcelo J S; Haddad, Ana E
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate e-learning strategy in teaching Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) to undergraduate and graduate students. The sample comprised 76 participants—38 dental students and 38 pediatric dentistry students—in a specialization course. To evaluate knowledge improvement, participants were subjected to a test performed before and after the course. Results A single researcher corrected the tests and intraexaminer reproducibility was calculated (CCI = 0.991; 95% IC = 0.975–0.996). All students improved their performances after the e-learning course (Paired t-tests p < 0.001). The means of undergraduate students were 4.7 (initial) and 6.4 (final) and those of graduate students were 6.8 (initial) and 8.2 (final). The comparison of the final evaluation means showed a statistically significant difference (t-tests p < 0.0001). Conclusions The e-learning strategy has the potential of improving students’ knowledge in ART. Mature students perform better in this teaching modality when it is applied exclusively via distance learning.

‣ Proposal of e-learning strategy to teach Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) to undergraduate and graduate students

Camargo, Lucila B; Raggio, Daniela P; Bonacina, Carlos F; Wen, Chao L; Mendes, Fausto M; Bönecker, Marcelo J S; Haddad, Ana E
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.144424%
Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate e-learning strategy in teaching Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) to undergraduate and graduate students. The sample comprised 76 participants—38 dental students and 38 pediatric dentistry students—in a specialization course. To evaluate knowledge improvement, participants were subjected to a test performed before and after the course. Results A single researcher corrected the tests and intraexaminer reproducibility was calculated (CCI = 0.991; 95% IC = 0.975–0.996). All students improved their performances after the e-learning course (Paired t-tests p < 0.001). The means of undergraduate students were 4.7 (initial) and 6.4 (final) and those of graduate students were 6.8 (initial) and 8.2 (final). The comparison of the final evaluation means showed a statistically significant difference (t-tests p < 0.0001). Conclusions The e-learning strategy has the potential of improving students’ knowledge in ART. Mature students perform better in this teaching modality when it is applied exclusively via distance learning.

‣ Ensino-aprendizagem em endodontia: aplicação da hipermídia e o uso da internet como facilitadores do processo; Teaching and learning in Endodontics: application of hypermedia and use of internet as facilitators of the process

Lemos, Érico de Mello
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/07/2010 Português
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No modelo tradicional de ensino, desenvolver os aspectos cognitivos, psicomotores e comportamentais inerentes ao diagnóstico e plano de tratamento em Endodontia, tornam-se um problema, devido ao número relativamente limitado de experiências clínicas vivenciadas pelos alunos na formulação do diagnóstico, bem como a disponibilidade do professor compatível ao número de alunos na clínica endodôntica e o número cada vez mais insuficiente de pacientes para atender a demanda. Neste sentido, o desenvolvimento de estratégias de ensino-aprendizagem eficientes e de avaliação das competências relacionadas ao diagnóstico, seria interessante para a educação em Endodontia. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar e comparar o desempenho de alunos de Endodontia, tendo como fonte de variação para a metodologia educacional, a utilização da tecnologia hipermídia e o uso da internet como facilitadores do processo de ensino-aprendizagem. Para isso, graduandos do terceiro ano de Odontologia de três Universidades foram divididos em três grupos, de acordo com a metodologia de ensino-aprendizagem utilizada: GI método tradicional centrado no professor - grupo controle (n = 23); GII método tradicional acrescendo uma revisão centrada no professor...

‣ Intrahippocampal muscimol shifts learning strategy in gonadally intact young adult female rats

McElroy, Molly W.; Korol, Donna L.
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2005 Português
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47.46208%
Learning strategy preferences depend upon circulating estrogen levels, with enhanced hippocampus-sensitive place learning coinciding with elevated estrogen levels. The effects of estrogen on strategy may be mediated by fluctuations in GABAergic function, given that inhibitory tone in the hippocampus is low when estrogen is high. We investigated the effects on learning strategy of intrahippocampal injections of a GABAA agonist in gonadally intact female rats. On the day of training, rats received 0.3 μL intrahippocampal infusions of muscimol (0.26 nmol or 2.6 nmol) or saline 20 min prior to training on a T-maze in which place (hippocampus-sensitive) or response (striatum-sensitive) strategies offer effective solutions. Muscimol treatment increased the use of the response strategy in a dose-dependent manner without influencing learning speed, indicating that muscimol modulated strategy and not learning ability. Furthermore, the muscimol-related shift to response strategies varied across the estrous cycle. The results indicate that increasing inhibition in the hippocampus biases rats away from hippocampus-sensitive place learning strategies and toward hippocampus-insensitive response learning strategies without a learning deficit. Furthermore...

‣ Learning strategy selection in the water maze and hippocampal CREB phosphorylation differ in two inbred strains of mice

Sung, Jin-Young; Goo, June-Seo; Lee, Dong-Eun; Jin, Da-Qing; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Gallagher, Michela; Han, Jung-Soo
Fonte: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press Publicador: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2008 Português
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47.208457%
Learning strategy selection was assessed in two different inbred strains of mice, C57BL/6 and DBA/2, which are used for developing genetically modified mouse models. Male mice received a training protocol in a water maze using alternating blocks of visible and hidden platform trials, during which mice escaped to a single location. After training, mice were required to choose between the spatial location where the platform had been during training (a place strategy) and a visible platform presented in a new location (a cued/response strategy). Both strains of mice had similar escape performance on the visible and hidden platform trials during training. However, in the strategy preference test, C57BL/6 mice selected a place strategy significantly more often than DBA/2 mice. Because much evidence implicates the hippocampus and striatum as important neural substrates for spatial/place and cued/response learning, respectively, the engagement of the hippocampus was then assessed after either place or cue training by determining levels of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) in these two mouse strains. Results revealed that hippocampal CREB levels in both strains of mice were significantly increased after place in comparison to cued training. However...

‣ Remodeling the cortex in memory: Increased use of a learning strategy increases the representational area of relevant acoustic cues

Bieszczad, Kasia M.; Weinberger, Norman M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Associative learning induces plasticity in the representation of sensory information in sensory cortices. Such high-order associative representational plasticity (HARP) in the primary auditory cortex (A1) is a likely substrate of auditory memory: it is specific, rapidly acquired, long-lasting and consolidates. Because HARP is likely to support the detailed content of memory, it is important to identify the necessary behavioral factors that dictate its induction. Learning strategy is a critical factor for the induction of plasticity (Bieszczad & Weinberger, 2010b). Specifically, use of a strategy that relies on tone onsets induces HARP in A1 in the form of signal-specific decreased threshold and bandwidth. The present study tested the hypothesis that the form and degree of HARP in A1 reflects the amount of use of an “onset strategy”. Adult male rats (n = 7) were trained in a protocol that increased the use of this strategy from ~20% in prior studies to ~80%. They developed signal-specific gains in representational area, transcending plasticity in the form of local changes in threshold and bandwidth. Furthermore, the degree of area gain was proportional to the amount of use of the onset strategy. A second complementary experiment demonstrated that use of a learning strategy that specifically did not rely on tone onsets did not produce gains in representational area; but rather produced area loss. Together...

‣ Learning Strategy Trumps Motivational Level In Determining Learning-Induced Auditory Cortical Plasticity

Bieszczad, Kasia M.; Weinberger, Norman M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Associative memory for auditory-cued events involves specific plasticity in the primary auditory cortex (A1) that facilitates responses to tones which gain behavioral significance, by modifying representational parameters of sensory coding. Learning strategy, rather than the amount or content of learning, can determine this learning-induced cortical (high order) associative representational plasticity (HARP). Thus, tone-contingent learning with signaled errors can be accomplished either by (1) responding only during tone duration (“tone-duration” strategy, T-Dur), or (2) responding from tone onset until receiving an error signal for responses made immediately after tone offset (“tone-onset-to-error”, TOTE). While rats using both strategies achieve the same high level of performance, only those using the TOTE strategy develop HARP, viz., frequency-specific decreased threshold (increased sensitivity) and decreased bandwidth (increased selectivity) (Berlau and Weinberger, 2008). The present study challenged the generality of learning strategy by determining if high motivation dominates in the formation of HARP. Two groups of adult male rats were trained to bar-press during a 5.0 kHz (10s, 70 dB) tone for a water reward under either high (HiMot) or moderate (ModMot) levels of motivation. The HiMot group achieved a higher level of correct performance. However...

‣ The Influences of Pre-testing Reviews and Delays on Differentialassociative Processing versus A Condition in which Students chose their Learning Strategy

Hannon, Brenda
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Recent studies show that a new strategy called differential-associative processing is effective for learning related concepts. However our knowledge about differential-associative processing is still limited. Therefore the goals of the present study are to assess the duration of knowledge that is acquired from using differential-associative processing, to determine whether the efficacy of differential-associative processing changes with the addition of a 10-minute pre-testing review, and to compare differential-associate processing to two conditions in which students select their own learning strategy. The results revealed that differential-associative processing was a better strategy for learning related concepts than were either of the two comparison conditions. They also revealed that a 10-minute pre-testing review had a positive additive influence on differential-associative processing. Finally, although the knowledge acquired from using differential-associative processing declined with an increase in delay between learning and testing, this decline was equivalent to the decline observed in both comparison conditions.

‣ A Particle Swarm Optimization Variant with an Inner Variable Learning Strategy

Wu, Guohua; Pedrycz, Witold; Ma, Manhao; Qiu, Dishan; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Jin
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 23/01/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.14243%
Although Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has demonstrated competitive performance in solving global optimization problems, it exhibits some limitations when dealing with optimization problems with high dimensionality and complex landscape. In this paper, we integrate some problem-oriented knowledge into the design of a certain PSO variant. The resulting novel PSO algorithm with an inner variable learning strategy (PSO-IVL) is particularly efficient for optimizing functions with symmetric variables. Symmetric variables of the optimized function have to satisfy a certain quantitative relation. Based on this knowledge, the inner variable learning (IVL) strategy helps the particle to inspect the relation among its inner variables, determine the exemplar variable for all other variables, and then make each variable learn from the exemplar variable in terms of their quantitative relations. In addition, we design a new trap detection and jumping out strategy to help particles escape from local optima. The trap detection operation is employed at the level of individual particles whereas the trap jumping out strategy is adaptive in its nature. Experimental simulations completed for some representative optimization functions demonstrate the excellent performance of PSO-IVL. The effectiveness of the PSO-IVL stresses a usefulness of augmenting evolutionary algorithms by problem-oriented domain knowledge.

‣ Striatal and Hippocampal Involvement in Motor Sequence Chunking Depends on the Learning Strategy

Lungu, Ovidiu; Monchi, Oury; Albouy, Geneviève; Jubault, Thomas; Ballarin, Emanuelle; Burnod, Yves; Doyon, Julien
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 22/08/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Motor sequences can be learned using an incremental approach by starting with a few elements and then adding more as training evolves (e.g., learning a piano piece); conversely, one can use a global approach and practice the whole sequence in every training session (e.g., shifting gears in an automobile). Yet, the neural correlates associated with such learning strategies in motor sequence learning remain largely unexplored to date. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure the cerebral activity of individuals executing the same 8-element sequence after they completed a 4-days training regimen (2 sessions each day) following either a global or incremental strategy. A network comprised of striatal and fronto-parietal regions was engaged significantly regardless of the learning strategy, whereas the global training regimen led to additional cerebellar and temporal lobe recruitment. Analysis of chunking/grouping of sequence elements revealed a common prefrontal network in both conditions during the chunk initiation phase, whereas execution of chunk cores led to higher mediotemporal activity (involving the hippocampus) after global than incremental training. The novelty of our results relate to the recruitment of mediotemporal regions conditional of the learning strategy. Thus...

‣ Graphical models for heterogeneous transfer learning and co-reference resolution

Wei, Bin (1981 - ); Pal, Christopher J.
Fonte: University of Rochester Publicador: University of Rochester
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Illustrations:ill.; Number of Pages:ix, 100 leaves
Português
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Computer Science, 2011.; Traditional supervised machine learning requires labeled data for a specific problem of interest. There have been many attempts to reduce this requirement such as approaches based on semi-supervised learning. In recent years, people have started to consider a new strategy known as transfer learning, where labeled data from an old problem (called the source task) is used to assist the learning of a new but related problem (the target task). In this thesis, we mainly consider an extreme case of transfer learning that we denote as heterogeneous transfer learning - where the feature spaces of the source task and the target tasks are disjoint. We first consider the cross-lingual text classification task, where we need to train a classifier for Chinese but we only have labeled data in English. We adapt the structural correspondence learning (SCL) algorithm for the problem. Furthermore, we generalize the SCL algorithm as a multi-task transfer learning strategy and propose the use of a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), a special type of probabilistic graphical models, as an implementation. We also give some preliminary theoretical analysis for the strategy by combining previous work on general transfer learning and multi-task learning. Finally...

‣ Preadjunct questions as a learning strategy for older adults

Smith, Barbara A.
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
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This study investigated the effectiveness of comprehension level preadjunct questions as a learning strategy for older adults in a classroom setting. Fifty-five adults from 55 to 70 years of age were randomly assigned to two groups, the preadjunct question group and a no-question control group. They viewed a video on high blood pressure and completed a recall posttest immediately after viewing the video and again seven days tater. Results demonstrated that there was no significant difference between groups. However, the no-question control group obtained a higher mean score on both the immediate and delayed recall tests than did the preadjunct question group. Nevertheless, significant differences in posttest scores were found related to educational levels and prior knowledge about high blood pressure. Results obtained were explained in terms of resource theory of cognitive aging.

‣ Global Scaling Up Handwashing Project : Global Learning Strategy

Frischmuth, Christiane
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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The purpose of this learning strategy is to develop a structured process for generating, sharing, capturing, and disseminating knowledge about what works in scaling up and sustaining handwashing programs. The authors are undertaking this learning process to enable policy-makers to make evidence-based decisions and to enable the implementation of large-scale programs. Key outcomes of the learning will be knowledge products that can be used both for advocacy and for putting into action cost-effective approaches and tools to ease replication. The learning in this project will benefit not only current stakeholders but also future stakeholders interested in and committed to promoting effective handwashing behavior-change programs. The remainder of this strategy paper is divided into five sections: project background; learning goals and principles; learning culture, tools, and platforms; learning processes; and organizational aspects of learning.

‣ Estrategias en el aprendizaje de la lengua extranjera y niveles de competencia en estudiantes universitarios de magisterio; Language learning strategies in foreign language learning and proficiency levels by teacher training university students

García Herrero, Mª de las Mercedes; Jímenez Vivas, Amparo
Fonte: Universidade de Múrcia Publicador: Universidade de Múrcia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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El propósito del estudio es identificar la utilización de estrategias en el aprendizaje de la lengua extranjera, por estudiantes universitarios, con diferentes niveles de competencia. Los objetivos son: 1) Conocer el uso de las categorías de estrategias en los diferentes niveles, 2) Comparar la utilización de las categorías, 3) Analizar la selección de categorías y 4) Averiguar el uso de las estrategias individuales más y menos frecuentemente utilizadas. Los participantes del estudio fueron 135 estudiantes de Magisterio del Grado de Primaria. El instrumento utilizado para evaluar estrategias ha sido una adaptación del SILL-Strategy nventory for Language Learning (Oxford, 1990) y para medir la competencia se emplearon las calificaciones finales de la asignatura de inglés.Los resultados de la investigación indican que la categoría más frecuentemente utilizada ha sido la Metacognitiva y la menos empleada la de Memorización. Los estudiantes más competentes emplean globalmente más estrategias. Además, se hallaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en la utilización de la categoría cognitiva entre los grupos.; The purpose of this study is to analyze the language learning strategy use in foreign language learning by university students at different proficiency levels. The objectives of the study are: 1) to learn about the language learning strategy use in language learning proficiency...

‣ Learning and Results in World Bank Operations; Toward a New Learning Strategy, Evaluation 2

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
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This report is the second in a program of evaluations that the independent evaluation group (IEG) is conducting on the learning that takes place through World Bank projects. Learning and knowledge are treated as parts of a whole and are presumed to be mutually reinforcing. The evaluation program addresses the following overarching questions: how well has the World Bank learned in its lending operations?; and what is the scope for improving how it generates, accesses, and uses learning and knowledge in these operations? Evaluation two includes findings from seven country case studies and interviews with Bank staff about their early experience of working within the Bank’s new global practices structure, which became operational on July 1, 2014. The aim is to assess the pre-FY2015 evidence in light of the new structure and roles, and to ask how long-term trends are likely to be modified as reforms evolve. Surveys and interviews reveal that, when it comes to managing projects, Bank staff rely first and foremost on a process of informal learning...

‣ A B-learning strategy for Therapeutics at the Bachelor Level

Jesus, Ângelo; Gomes, Maria João; Cruz, Agostinho
Fonte: International Pharmaceutical Federation Publicador: International Pharmaceutical Federation
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.142266%
Background Information:The incorporation of distance learning activities by institutions of higher education is considered an important contribution to create new opportunities for teaching at both, initial and continuing training. In Medicine and Nursing, several papers illustrate the adaptation of technological components and teaching methods are prolific, however, when we look at the Pharmaceutical Education area, the examples are scarce. In that sense this project demonstrates the implementation and assessment of a B-Learning Strategy for Therapeutics using a “case based learning” approach. Setting: Academic Pharmacy Methods:This is an exploratory study involving 2nd year students of the Pharmacy Degree at the School of Allied Health Sciences of Oporto. The study population consists of 61 students, divided in groups of 3-4 elements. The b-learning model was implemented during a time period of 8 weeks. Results:A B-learning environment and digital learning objects were successfully created and implemented. Collaboration and assessment techniques were carefully developed to ensure the active participation and fair assessment of all students. Moodle records show a consistent activity of students during the assignments. E-portfolios were also developed using Wikispaces...

‣ Learning strategies

Paine, Nigel (Ed.)
Fonte: New York : The MASIE Center, 2011. Publicador: New York : The MASIE Center, 2011.
Tipo: Livro Formato: application/pdf
Português
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105 p.; Libro Electrónico; Changing technology, changing business models, changing workforce demographics and the rise of online, on-demand knowledge are challenging corporations’ approaches to workplace learning and training. Learning Strategies is a non-commercial, vendor-neutral collection of case studies from senior learning executives in global corporations and government agencies.; Table of Contents Learning Strategies Elliott Masie 4 What Makes a Successful Learning Strategy? Nigel Paine, MASIE Learning Fellow 5 CIA’s Learning Strategy: Focusing Out on the Organization We Serve Bob Baker, Central Intelligence Agency 20 The Strategy of Managing Change Lisa Pedrogo, CNN 29 Building the Case for a Learning Strategy Ruben Bonales, Waste Management, Inc 42 Learning Strategy at Shell: 2 Parts, 3 Pathways & 3 Horizons Willem Manders, Shell 48 Putting the Strategy Back into a Learning Strategy Keith Dunbar...

‣ Efficient Learning Strategy of Chinese Characters Based on Network Approach

Yan, Xiaoyong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/08/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.329077%
We develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on the network of the hierarchical structural relations between Chinese characters. A more efficient strategy is that of learning the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW) strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that considers both the weight of the nodes and its location in the network hierarchical structure. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as a second language. We find that the DNW method significantly outperforms the others, implying that the efficiency of current learning methods of major textbooks can be greatly improved.

‣ Efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters based on network approach

Yan, Xiao-Yong; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru; Havlin, Shlomo; Wu, Jinshan
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/03/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.252227%
Based on network analysis of hierarchical structural relations among Chinese characters, we develop an efficient learning strategy of Chinese characters. We regard a more efficient learning method if one learns the same number of useful Chinese characters in less effort or time. We construct a node-weighted network of Chinese characters, where character usage frequencies are used as node weights. Using this hierarchical node-weighted network, we propose a new learning method, the distributed node weight (DNW) strategy, which is based on a new measure of nodes' importance that takes into account both the weight of the nodes and the hierarchical structure of the network. Chinese character learning strategies, particularly their learning order, are analyzed as dynamical processes over the network. We compare the efficiency of three theoretical learning methods and two commonly used methods from mainstream Chinese textbooks, one for Chinese elementary school students and the other for students learning Chinese as a second language. We find that the DNW method significantly outperforms the others, implying that the efficiency of current learning methods of major textbooks can be greatly improved.; Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures