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‣ Relações evolutivas entre Passiflora actinia Hooker e Passiflora elegans masters (Passifloraceae)

Lorenz, Aline Pedroso
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Em estudos prévios sobre a filogenia de Passiflora, as espécies P. actinia e P. elegans destacaram-se pela sua grande similaridade genética, apesar de sua classificação em séries taxonômicas distintas. As duas espécies apresentam distribuição geográfica muito diferente. Enquanto P. actinia é encontrada em áreas de Mata Atlântica desde o estado do Espírito Santo até o Rio Grande do Sul (RS), P. elegans está restrita ao RS e a poucas regiões limítrofes. Para melhor avaliar as relações evolutivas entre estas duas espécies foram realizadas coletas intensivas em todo o estado e desenvolvidos testes quanto às seqüências dos espaçadores intergênicos cloroplasmáticos trnL-trnF e psbA-trnH, e dos espaçadores transcritos dos genes ribossomais nucleares ITS de plantas de diferentes localidades. As análises revelaram uma baixa variabilidade intraespecífica, e evidenciaram um perfil genético próprio a cada espécie. Nas comparações interespecíficas, foram utilizadas seqüências de espécies do subgênero (Passiflora) estudadas previamente, pertencentes às séries Simplicifoliae e Lobatae, as mesmas de P. actinia e P. elegans, respectivamente. Nos três marcadores as menores distâncias genéticas encontradas foram entre estas duas espécies...

‣ Inhibitory effects of salviae miltiorrhizae radix (danshen) and puerariae lobatae radix (gegen) in carbachol-induced rat detrusor smooth muscle contractility

Liang, Willmann; Teong, Ivy Wen Jia; Koon, Johnny Chi Man; Lau, Clara Bik San; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung
Fonte: e-Century Publishing Corporation Publicador: e-Century Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/02/2012 Português
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Both danshen (D) and gegen (G) have proven relaxant effects on vascular smooth muscle, thus their potential bladder inhibitory effects have impending interests in urology. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the novel effects of D and G on detrusor smooth muscle contractility. Urothelium-intact (+UE) and urothelium-denuded (-UE) detrusor strips were isolated from the rat. Isometric tension was measured using a myograph system. Carbachol (CCh) was used to pre-contract the detrusor strips prior to stepwise relaxation by adding extracts of D, G, and a DG (7:3) formulation. Tonic relaxation level and phasic contractile activity under the herbal treatments were analyzed. There was no difference in the herbal effects between +UE and -UE strips. D alone induced a much smaller relaxation than G alone or DG. G alone also suppressed phasic amplitude but not phasic frequency while DG suppressed both parameters. D and G acted synergistically to yield the observed effects on detrusor smooth muscle. The findings showed that the DG formulation were able to relax the detrusor as well as suppress phasic contractions, both actions important in maintaining normal bladder filling and urine storage processes. Hence DG may have new application in the management of bladder disorders.

‣ A Systems Biology Approach to Uncovering Pharmacological Synergy in Herbal Medicines with Applications to Cardiovascular Disease

Wang, Xia; Xu, Xue; Tao, Weiyang; Li, Yan; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background. Clinical trials reveal that multiherb prescriptions of herbal medicine often exhibit pharmacological and therapeutic superiority in comparison to isolated single constituents. However, the synergistic mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. To address this question, a novel systems biology model integrating oral bioavailability and drug-likeness screening, target identification, and network pharmacology method has been constructed and applied to four clinically widely used herbs Radix Astragali Mongolici, Radix Puerariae Lobatae, Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici, and Radix Salviae Miltiorrhiza which exert synergistic effects of combined treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results. The results show that the structural properties of molecules in four herbs have substantial differences, and each herb can interact with significant target proteins related to CVD. Moreover, the bioactive ingredients from different herbs potentially act on the same molecular target (multiple-drug-one-target) and/or the functionally diverse targets but with potentially clinically relevant associations (multiple-drug-multiple-target-one-disease). From a molecular/systematic level, this explains why the herbs within a concoction could mutually enhance pharmacological synergy on a disease. Conclusions. The present work provides a new strategy not only for the understanding of pharmacological synergy in herbal medicine...

‣ A Network Pharmacology Approach to Determine Active Compounds and Action Mechanisms of Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian Decoction for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

Li, Huiying; Zhao, Linhua; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yuyu; Wang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Liu, Hongxing; Li, Shao; Tong, Xiaolin
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulae can be valuable therapeutic strategies and drug discovery resources. However, the active ingredients and action mechanisms of most TCM formulae remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of potent ingredients and their actions is a major challenge in TCM research. In this study, we used a network pharmacology approach we previously developed to help determine the potential antidiabetic ingredients from the traditional Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction (GGQLD) formula. We predicted the target profiles of all available GGQLD ingredients to infer the active ingredients by clustering the target profile of ingredients with FDA-approved antidiabetic drugs. We also applied network target analysis to evaluate the links between herbal ingredients and pharmacological actions to help explain the action mechanisms of GGQLD. According to the predicted results, we confirmed that a novel antidiabetic ingredient from Puerariae Lobatae radix (Ge-Gen), 4-Hydroxymephenytoin, increased the insulin secretion in RIN-5F cells and improved insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The network pharmacology strategy used here provided a powerful means for identifying bioactive ingredients and mechanisms of action for TCM herbal formulae...

‣ Puerarin Attenuates Cerebral Damage by Improving Cerebral Microcirculation in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

Wu, Xu-Dong; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Fu, Yan; Liu, Feng-Ying; Liu, Xiu-Hua
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Puerariae Lobatae Radix (Gegen in Chinese) is the dried root of Pueraria lobata, a semiwoody, perennial, and leguminous vine native to China. Puerarin is one of the effective components of isoflavones isolated from the root of Pueraria lobata. Previous studies showed that extracts derived from the root of Pueraria lobata possessed antihypertensive effect. Our study is to investigate whether puerarin contributes to prevention of stroke by improving cerebral microcirculation in rats. Materials and Methods. Video microscopy and laser Doppler perfusion imaging on the pia mater were used to measure the diameter of microvessel and blood perfusion in 12-week old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) and age-matched normotensive WKY rats. Histological alterations were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and microvessel density in cerebral tissue was measured by immunohistochemical analysis with anti-Factor VIII antibody. Cell proliferation was detected by [3H]-TdR incorporation, and activities of p42/44 mitogen activated protein kinases (p42/44 MAPKs) were detected by western blot analysis in cultured cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (MECs). Results. Intravenous injection of puerarin relaxed arterioles and increased the blood flow perfusion in the pia mater in SHRs. Puerarin treatment for 14 days reduced the blood pressure to a normal level in SHRs (P < 0.05) and increased the arteriole diameter in the pia mater significantly as compared with vehicle treatment. Arteriole remodeling...

‣ Puerarin Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Neuroinflammation in Spinal Cord

Liu, Ming; Liao, Kaijun; Yu, Changxi; Li, Xuejun; Liu, Suhuan; Yang, Shuyu
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Neuropathic pain responds poorly to drug treatments, and partial relief is achieved in only about half of the patients. Puerarin, the main constituent of Puerariae Lobatae Radix, has been used extensively in China to treat hypertension and tumor. The current study examined the effects of puerarin on neuropathic pain using two most commonly used animal models: chronic constriction injury (CCI) and diabetic neuropathy. We found that consecutive intrathecal administration of puerarin (4–100 nM) for 7 days inhibited the mechanical and thermal nociceptive response induced by CCI and diabetes without interfering with the normal pain response. Meanwhile, in both models puerarin inhibited the activation of microglia and astroglia in the spinal dorsal horn. Puerarin also reduced the upregulated levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and other proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α, in the spinal cord. In summary, puerarin alleviated CCI- and diabetes-induced neuropathic pain, and its effectiveness might be due to the inhibition of neuroinflammation in the spinal cord. The anti-inflammation effect of puerarin might be related to the suppression of spinal NF-κB activation and/or cytokines upregulation. We conclude that puerarin has a significant effect on alleviating neuropathic pain and thus may serve as a therapeutic approach for neuropathic pain.

‣ Fagaceae pollen from the early Cenozoic of West Greenland: revisiting Engler’s and Chaney’s Arcto-Tertiary hypotheses

Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Grimm, Guido W.; Pedersen, Gunver Krarup; Pedersen, Asger Ken; Denk, Thomas
Fonte: Springer Vienna Publicador: Springer Vienna
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In this paper we document Fagaceae pollen from the Eocene of western Greenland. The pollen record suggests a remarkable diversity of the family in the early Cenozoic of Greenland. Extinct Fagaceae pollen types include Eotrigonobalanus, which extends at least back to the Paleocene, and two ancestral pollen types with affinities to the Eurasian Quercus Group Ilex and the western North American Quercus Group Protobalanus. In addition, modern lineages of Fagaceae are unambiguously represented by pollen of Fagus, Quercus Group Lobatae/Quercus, and three Castaneoideae pollen types. These findings corroborate earlier findings from Axel Heiberg Island that Fagaceae were a dominant element at high latitudes during the early Cenozoic. Comparison with coeval or older mid-latitude records of modern lineages of Fagaceae shows that modern lineages found in western Greenland and Axel Heiberg likely originated at lower latitudes. Further examples comprise (possibly) Acer, Aesculus, Alnus, Ulmus, and others. Thus, before fossils belonging to modern northern temperate lineages will have been recovered from older (early Eocene, Paleocene) strata from high latitudes, Engler’s hypothesis of an Arctic origin of the modern temperate woody flora of Eurasia...

‣ Ten Years' Research on a Cardiovascular Tonic: A Comprehensive Approach—From Quality Control and Mechanisms of Action to Clinical Trial

Leung, Ping-Chung; Koon, Chi-Man; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Chook, Ping; Cheng, William King-Fai; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Kwok, Timothy Chi-Yui; Woo, Kam-Sang
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Objective. Mortality arising from cardiovascular pathologies remains one of the highest. Maintenance of cardiovascular health therefore remains a universal concern. Interventional therapies and medications have made impressive advances, but preventive measures would be of the same importance. Method. Ten years' search for a simple herbal formula has resulted in a two-herb combination, consisting of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and Puerariae Lobatae Radix. The formula has been studied extensively on cardiovascular biological platforms and then put on three clinical trials. Results. In the laboratory, the formula was found to have the biological effects of anti-inflammation, anti-oxidation, anti-foam cell formation on vascular endothelium, and vasodilation. Clinical trials using ultrasonic carotid intima thickness as a surrogate marker showed very significant benefits. No significant adverse effects were encountered. Conclusion. It is therefore recommended that the herbal formula could be used as an adjuvant therapy in cardiac patients under treatment or as a preventive agent among the susceptible.

‣ Densities of Agrilus auroguttatus and Other Borers in California and Arizona Oaks

Haavik, Laurel J.; Coleman, Tom W.; Flint, Mary Louise; Venette, Robert C.; Seybold, Steven J.
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 21/03/2014 Português
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We investigated within-tree population density of a new invasive species in southern California, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), with respect to host species and the community of other borers present. We measured emergence hole densities of A. auroguttatus and other borers on the lower stem (bole) of naïve oaks at 18 sites in southern California and on co-evolved oaks at seven sites in southeastern Arizona. We sampled recently dead oaks in an effort to quantify the community of primary and secondary borers associated with mortality—species that were likely to interact with A. auroguttatus. Red oaks (Section Lobatae) produced greater densities of A. auroguttatus than white oaks (Section Quercus). On red oaks, A. auroguttatus significantly outnumbered native borers in California (mean ± SE of 9.6 ± 0.7 versus 4.5 ± 0.6 emergence holes per 0.09 m2 of bark surface), yet this was not the case in Arizona (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 1.1 ± 0.2 emergence holes per 0.09 m2). In California, a species that is taxonomically intermediate between red and white oaks, Quercus chrysolepis (Section Protobalanus), exhibited similar A. auroguttatus emergence densities compared with a co-occurring red oak...

‣ Algunas características anatómicas y tecnológicas de la madera de 24 especies de Quercus (encinos) de México

de la Paz Pérez-Olvera,Carmen; Dávalos-Sotelo,Raymundo
Fonte: Instituto de Ecología A.C. Publicador: Instituto de Ecología A.C.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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Se presentan las características anatómicas, físicas y mecánicas de la madera de 24 especies de Quercus de la sección Lobatae (encinos rojos) y de la sección Quercus (encinos blancos) recolectadas en varios estados de la República Mexicana. Se muestreó de uno a cinco ejemplares por especie en bosques de pino-encino. Para el estudio anatómico macroscópico se elaboraron tablillas de 12 x 7 x 1 cm y para el microscópico se hicieron laminillas fijas de cortes y de material disociado. Para los estudios físicos y mecánicos se prepararon probetas de diferentes dimensiones de acuerdo con los métodos de prueba de la ASTM. Todo el material se obtuvo en los planos: transversal, tangencial y radial. A los elementos mensurables se les hizo un análisis estadístico univariado y se clasificaron conforme a la media. Los ensayos se hicieron en probetas saturadas (condición verde). Con base en bibliografía se incluyen otras características tecnológicas de la madera. De acuerdo con los resultados obtenidos se sugieren usos.

‣ Los encinos del Parque Nacional Los Mármoles, Hidalgo, México

Álvarez-Zúñiga,Erika; Sánchez-González,Arturo; Valencia-Ávalos,Susana
Fonte: Instituto de Ecología A.C. Publicador: Instituto de Ecología A.C.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 Português
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El conocimiento sobre la riqueza de especies de Quercus en México, aún es incompleto debido principalmente a su amplia distribución, alta variabilidad morfológica intraespecífica y a la capacidad de formar híbridos, lo cual dificulta su taxonomía. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conocer la composición florística de las especies del género Quercus en el Parque Nacional Los Mármoles (PNM), así como su distribución en el área de estudio. Este parque es la segunda Área Natural Protegida con mayor extensión territorial del estado de Hidalgo. Se recolectaron ejemplares de encinos en 36 localidades a lo largo de gradientes altitudinales. La identificación de este material permitió el reconocimiento de 18 especies de encinos que crecen en el parque, destacando Quercus furfuracea Liebm., como nuevo registro para el estado de Hidalgo. Las especies con mayor distribución dentro del parque fueron Quercus affinis Scheidw., Q. crassifolia Humb. and Bonpl., Q. laeta Liebm. y Q. mexicana Bonpl. El conocimiento de la riqueza y distribución de las especies de encinos puede servir de referencia para establecer programas de manejo y conservación de los bosques del PNM.

‣ La familia Fagaceae en el bosque mesófilo de montaña de México

Valencia-A.,Susana; Gual-Díaz,Martha
Fonte: Sociedad Botánica de México A.C. Publicador: Sociedad Botánica de México A.C.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
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El bosque mesófilo de montaña es uno de los tipos de vegetación más amenazados, donde la familia Fagaceae juega un papel ecológico clave, por lo que su conocimiento en esta comunidad es importante para su conservación. Con base en datos de herbario y de campo, de literatura y del Sistema de Información de los Bosques Mesófilos de Montaña en México, elaborado por la Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, se presenta un análisis de la familia Fagaceae en el bosque mesófilo de montaña, con énfasis en las 13 regiones prioritarias propuestas por la Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad para la conservación del bosque mesófilo de montaña. Asimismo, se compiló la categoría de riesgo de las Fagaceae en este bosque. Los resultados muestran que en este ecosistema están presentes 47 especies de Fagaceae, 46 de Quercus (32 de la sección Lobatae y 14 de la sección Quercus) y una de Fagus; de ellas, 13 se consideran exclusivas o casi exclusivas de esta comunidad y endémicas de México. De las 13 regiones prioritarias, la región III (Huasteca Alta Hidalguense) resultó la de mayor diversidad con 26 especies, mientras que la región VII (Los Tuxtlas) es la menos diversa con sólo dos especies. El análisis de diversidad ß muestra un recambio de medio a alto que va de 0.41 a 1 entre las 13 regiones. Las regiones más similares en cuanto a especies de Fagaceae fueron la III (Huasteca Alta Hidalguense) y la V (Centro de Veracruz). Las especies de Fagaceae señaladas con alguna categoría de riesgo o amenaza son 41. Destacan ocho especies de Lobatae que se consideran críticamente amenazadas y cinco de Quercus en la misma categoría.

‣ Foliar micromorphology of Mexican oaks (Quercus: Fagaceae)

Scareli-Santos,Claudia; Sánchez-Mondragón,María L.; González-Rodríguez,Antonio; Oyama,Ken
Fonte: Instituto de Ecología A.C., Centro Regional del Bajío Publicador: Instituto de Ecología A.C., Centro Regional del Bajío
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2013 Português
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Mexico is the main center of diversity of the genus Quercus in the Western Hemisphere. Despite recent advances in the knowledge of Mexican oaks, a degree of taxonomic confusion still remains, mainly within particular species complexes. In this study, scanning electron microscopy was used to describe micromorphological foliar structures (trichomes, epicuticular waxes and stomata) from the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces of Mexican oak species, with the main goal of assessing the taxonomical utility of these characters. In total, 27 species belonging to sections Quercus (white oaks) and Lobatae (red/black oaks) were examined, particularly focusing on several groups of closely related species with problematic taxonomic delimitation and on species that are known to hybridize. Several trichome types were observed, including both glandular (simple and bulbous) and eglandular (solitary, multiradiate, stellate, fused stellate and fasciculate stipitate). Epicuticular waxes were structured as films, grooved films, crusts, granules, platelets and platelets arranged in rosettes. Stomata were elliptical and raised above or leveled with the foliar surface. Among the three types of structures examined, trichomes appeared to be the most useful for taxonomical purposes...