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‣ M-Cell Surface β1 Integrin Expression and Invasin-Mediated Targeting of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis to Mouse Peyer’s Patch M Cells

Clark, M. Ann; Hirst, Barry H.; Jepson, Mark A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/1998 Português
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Quantitative analysis of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection of murine gut loops revealed that significantly more wild-type bacteria associated with Peyer’s patch M cells than with dome enterocytes or goblet cells. An invasin-deficient mutant was significantly attenuated for M-cell invasion, while β1 integrin expression was demonstrated in the apical membranes of M cells but not enterocytes. M-cell targeting by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in vivo may, therefore, be mediated primarily by the interaction of invasin with cell surface β1 integrins.

‣ Membrane Targeting Properties of a Herpesvirus Tegument Protein-Retrovirus Gag Chimera

Bowzard, J. Bradford; Visalli, Robert J.; Wilson, Carol B.; Loomis, Joshua S.; Callahan, Eric M.; Courtney, Richard J.; Wills, John W.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2000 Português
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The retroviral Gag protein is capable of directing the production and release of virus-like particles in the absence of all other viral components. Budding normally occurs after Gag is transported to the plasma membrane by its membrane-targeting and -binding (M) domain. In the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) Gag protein, the M domain is contained within the first 86 amino acids. When M is deleted, membrane association and budding fail to occur. Budding is restored when M is replaced with foreign membrane-binding sequences, such as that of the Src oncoprotein. Moreover, the RSV M domain is capable of targeting heterologous proteins to the plasma membrane. Although the solution structure of the RSV M domain has been determined, the mechanism by which M specifically targets Gag to the plasma membrane rather than to one or more of the large number of internal membrane surfaces (e.g., the Golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclear, mitochondrial, or lysosomal membranes) is unknown. To further investigate the requirements for targeting proteins to discrete cellular locations, we have replaced the M domain of RSV with the product of the unique long region 11 (UL11) gene of herpes simplex virus type 1. This 96-amino-acid myristylated protein is thought to be involved in virion transport and envelopment at internal membrane sites. When the first 100 amino acids of RSV Gag (including the M domain) were replaced by the entire UL11 sequence...

‣ Nuclear Targeting of Porphyromonas gingivalis W50 Protease in Epithelial Cells

Scragg, Margaret A.; Alsam, Asil; Rangarajan, Minnie; Slaney, Jennifer M.; Shepherd, Philip; Williams, David M.; Curtis, Michael A.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2002 Português
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Porphyromonas gingivalis is an important pathogen associated with destructive periodontal disease and is able to invade the epithelial cell barrier. Its cysteine proteases are recognized as major virulence factors, and in this study, we examined the interaction of the arginine-specific protease with epithelial cells in culture. Three cell lines (KB, HeLa, and SCC4) were incubated with strain W50 culture supernatant; stained with monoclonal antibody 1A1, which recognizes an epitope on the adhesin (β) component of the cysteine protease-adhesin (α/β) heterodimer; and viewed using immunofluorescence microscopy. Within 1 h, the protease traversed the plasma membrane and was localized around the nucleus before becoming concentrated in the cytoplasm after 24 to 48 h. In contrast, the purified arginine-specific heterodimeric protease (HRgpA) rapidly entered the nucleus within 15 to 30 min. This nuclear targeting (i) was seen with active and Nα-p-tosyl-l-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK)-inactivated HRgpA, indicating it was independent of the proteolytic activity; (ii) occurred at both 4 and 37°C; and (iii) failed to occur with the monomeric protease (RgpAcat), indicating the importance of the adhesin chain of the HRgpA protease to this process. Rapid cell entry was also observed with recombinant catalytic (α) and adhesin (β) chains...

‣ Selective Cell Targeting with Light-Absorbing Microparticles and Nanoparticles

Pitsillides, Costas M.; Joe, Edwin K.; Wei, Xunbin; Anderson, R. Rox; Lin, Charles P.
Fonte: Biophysical Society Publicador: Biophysical Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2003 Português
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We describe a new method for selective cell targeting based on the use of light-absorbing microparticles and nanoparticles that are heated by short laser pulses to create highly localized cell damage. The method is closely related to chromophore-assisted laser inactivation and photodynamic therapy, but is driven solely by light absorption, without the need for photochemical intermediates (particularly singlet oxygen). The mechanism of light-particle interaction was investigated by nanosecond time-resolved microscopy and by thermal modeling. The extent of light-induced damage was investigated by cell lethality, by cell membrane permeability, and by protein inactivation. Strong particle size dependence was found for these interactions. A technique based on light to target endogenous particles is already being exploited to treat pigmented cells in dermatology and ophthalmology. With exogenous particles, phamacokinetics and biodistribution studies are needed before the method can be evaluated against photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment. However, particles are unique, unlike photosensitizers, in that they can remain stable and inert in cells for extended periods. Thus they may be particularly useful for prelabeling cells in engineered tissue before implantation. Subsequent irradiation with laser pulses will allow control of the implanted cells (inactivation or modulation) in a noninvasive manner.

‣ Redirecting Coronavirus to a Nonnative Receptor through a Virus-Encoded Targeting Adapter

Verheije, M. H.; Würdinger, T.; van Beusechem, V. W.; de Haan, C. A. M.; Gerritsen, W. R.; Rottier, P. J. M.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2006 Português
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Murine hepatitis coronavirus (MHV)-A59 infection depends on the interaction of its spike (S) protein with the cellular receptor mCEACAM1a present on murine cells. Human cells lack this receptor and are therefore not susceptible to MHV. Specific alleviation of the tropism barrier by redirecting MHV to a tumor-specific receptor could lead to a virus with appealing properties for tumor therapy. To demonstrate that MHV can be retargeted to a nonnative receptor on human cells, we produced bispecific adapter proteins composed of the N-terminal D1 domain of mCEACAM1a linked to a short targeting peptide, the six-amino-acid His tag. Preincubation of MHV with the adapter proteins and subsequent inoculation of human cells expressing an artificial His receptor resulted in infection of these otherwise nonsusceptible cells and led to subsequent production of progeny virus. To generate a self-targeted virus able to establish multiround infection of the target cells, we subsequently incorporated the gene encoding the bispecific adapter protein as an additional expression cassette into the MHV genome through targeted RNA recombination. When inoculated onto murine LR7 cells, the resulting recombinant virus indeed expressed the adapter protein. Furthermore...

‣ The targeting of T-helper cells and tumourcidal macrophages to a B-cell lymphoma using a PPD-monoclonal antibody heteroconjugate.

Montgomery, A M; Wing, M G; Lachmann, P J
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1992 Português
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This paper describes a T-cell targeting strategy based on the use of an antigen-monoclonal antibody heteroconjugate. A rat anti-idiotypic monoclonal antibody specific for a murine B-cell lymphoma was conjugated to the purified protein derivative (PPD) of tuberculin. This construct selectively delivered up to 4.5 x 10(4) molecules of PPD onto each tumour cell. Targeted PPD was internalized for endosomal processing and was presented in association with the I-A class II restriction element to PPD-reactive T-helper (Th) cells. Activated Th cells were demonstrated to proliferate and secrete significant levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Such lymphokine secretion was observed at a PPD concentration as low as 1 ng/ml. Despite the secretion of TNF, the B-cell lymphoma was found to be resistant to autonomous Th-mediated cytotoxicity. Targeted Th cells did, however, activate tumourcidal macrophages that subsequently mediated significant tumour cytostasis. Based on this observation, it is proposed that the targeting system described may be exploited as the basis for a future immunotherapeutic strategy.

‣ Metabolically Biotinylated Adenovirus for Cell Targeting, Ligand Screening, and Vector Purification

Parrott, M. Brandon; Adams, Kristen E.; Mercier, George T.; Mok, Hoyin; Campos, Samuel K.; Barry, Michael A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2000 Português
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Development of cell-targeting vectors is an important focus for gene therapy. While some ligands can be genetically inserted into virus capsid proteins for cell targeting, for many ligands, this approach can disrupt either ligand function or vector function. To address this problem for adenovirus type 5 vectors, the fiber capsid protein was genetically fused to a biotin acceptor peptide (BAP). Adenovirus particles bearing this BAP were metabolically biotinylated during vector production by the endogenous biotin ligase in 293 cells to produce covalently biotinylated virions. The resulting biotinylated vector could be retargeted to new receptors by conjugation to biotinylated antibodies using tetrameric avidin (Kd = 10-15 M). The biotinylated vector could also be purified by biotin-reversible binding on monomeric avidin (Kd = 10-7 M). Finally, this vector was used as a ligand screening platform for dendritic cells in which a variety of structurally diverse protein, carbohydrate, and nucleic acid ligands were easily added to the vector using the biotin-avidin interaction. This work demonstrates the utility of metabolically biotinylated viruses for ligand screening, vector targeting, and virus purification applications.

‣ Dendritic cell targeting of Bacillus anthracis protective antigen expressed by Lactobacillus acidophilus protects mice from lethal challenge

Mohamadzadeh, M.; Duong, T.; Sandwick, S. J.; Hoover, T.; Klaenhammer, T. R.
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Efficient vaccines potentiate antibody avidity and increase T cell longevity, which confer protection against microbial lethal challenge. A vaccine strategy was established by using Lactobacillus acidophilus to deliver Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) via specific dendritic cell-targeting peptides to dendritic cells (DCs), which reside in the periphery and mucosal surfaces, thus directing and regulating acquired immunity. The efficiency of oral delivery of L. acidophilus expressing a PA-DCpep fusion was evaluated in mice challenged with lethal B. anthracis Sterne. Vaccination with L. acidophilus expressing PA-DCpep induced robust protective immunity against B. anthracis Sterne compared with mice vaccinated with L. acidophilus expressing PA-control peptide or an empty vector. Additionally, serum anti-PA titers, neutralizing PA antibodies, and the levels of IgA-expressing cells were all comparable with the historical recombinant PA plus aluminum hydroxide vaccine administered s.c. Collectively, development of this strategy for oral delivery of DC-targeted antigens provides a safe and protective vaccine via a bacterial adjuvant that may potentiate mucosal immune responses against deadly pathogens.

‣ M-Cell Targeting of Whole Killed Bacteria Induces Protective Immunity against Gastrointestinal Pathogens▿

Chionh, Yok-Teng; Wee, Janet L. K.; Every, Alison L.; Ng, Garrett Z.; Sutton, Philip
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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As the majority of human pathogens infect via a mucosal surface, delivery of killed vaccines by mucosal routes could potentially improve protection against many such organisms. Our ability to develop effective killed mucosal vaccines is inhibited by a lack of adjuvants that are safe and effective in humans. The Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-I) lectin specifically binds M cells lining the murine gastrointestinal tract. We explored the potential for M-cell-targeted vaccination of whole, killed Helicobacter pylori, the main causative agent of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, and Campylobacter jejuni, the most common cause of diarrhea. Oral delivery of UEA-I-agglutinated H. pylori or C. jejuni induced a significant increase in both serum and intestinal antibody levels. This elevated response (i) required the use of whole bacteria, as it did not occur with lysate; (ii) was not mediated by formation of particulate clumps, as agglutination with a lectin with a different glycan specificity had no effect; and (iii) was not due to lectin-mediated, nonspecific immunostimulatory activity, as UEA-I codelivery with nonagglutinated bacteria did not enhance the response. Vaccination with UEA-I-agglutinated, killed whole H. pylori induced a protective response against subsequent live challenge that was as effective as that induced by cholera toxin adjuvant. Moreover...

‣ Viral Capsid DNA Aptamer Conjugates as Multivalent Cell Targeting Vehicles

Tong, Gary J.; Hsiao, Sonny C.; Carrico, Zachary M.; Francis, Matthew B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/08/2009 Português
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Nucleic acid aptamers offer significant potential as convenient and evolvable targeting groups for drug delivery. To attach them to the surface of a genome-free viral capsid carrier, an efficient oxidative coupling strategy has been developed. The method involves the periodate-mediated reaction of phenylene diamine substituted oligonucleotides with aniline groups installed on the outer surface of the capsid shells. Up to 60 DNA strands can be attached to each viral capsid with no apparent loss of base-pairing capabilities or protein stability. The ability of the capsids to bind specific cellular targets was demonstrated through the attachment of a 41-nucleotide sequence that targets a tyrosine kinase receptor on Jurkat T cells. After the installation of a fluorescent dye on the capsid interior, capsids bearing the cell-targeting sequence showed significant levels of binding to the cells relative to control samples. Colocalization experiments using confocal microscopy indicated that the capsids were endocytosed and trafficked to lysosomes for degradation. These observations suggest that aptamer-labeled capsids could be used for the targeted drug delivery of acid-labile prodrugs that would be preferentially released upon lysosomal acidification.

‣ The Syntaxin 4 N Terminus Regulates Its Basolateral Targeting by Munc18c-dependent and -independent Mechanisms*

Torres, Jacqueline; Funk, Holly M.; Zegers, Mirjam M. P.; ter Beest, Martin B. A.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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To generate and maintain epithelial cell polarity, specific sorting of proteins into vesicles destined for the apical and basolateral domain is required. Syntaxin 3 and 4 are apical and basolateral SNARE proteins important for the specificity of vesicle fusion at the apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains, respectively, but how these proteins are specifically targeted to these domains themselves is unclear. Munc18/SM proteins are potential regulators of this process. Like syntaxins, they are crucial for exocytosis and vesicle fusion. However, how munc18c and syntaxin 4 regulate the function of each other is unclear. Here, we investigated the requirement of syntaxin 4 in the delivery of basolateral membrane and secretory proteins, the basolateral targeting of syntaxin 4, and the role of munc18c in this targeting. Depletion of syntaxin 4 resulted in significant reduction of basolateral targeting, suggesting no compensation by other syntaxin forms. Mutational analysis identified amino acids Leu-25 and to a lesser extent Val-26 as essential for correct localization of syntaxin 4. Recently, it was shown that the N-terminal peptide of syntaxin 4 is involved in binding to munc18c. A mutation in this region that affects munc18c binding shows that munc18c binding is required for stabilization of syntaxin 4 at the plasma membrane but not for its correct targeting. We conclude that the N terminus serves two functions in membrane targeting. First...

‣ Mimicking the inflammatory cell adhesion cascade by nucleic acid aptamer programmed cell-cell interactions

Zhao, Weian; Loh, Weili; Droujinine, Ilia A.; Teo, Weisuong; Kumar, Namit; Schafer, Sebastian; Cui, Cheryl H.; Zhang, Liang; Sarkar, Debanjan; Karnik, Rohit; Karp, Jeffrey M.
Fonte: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology Publicador: Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /09/2011 Português
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Nature has evolved effective cell adhesion mechanisms to deliver inflammatory cells to inflamed tissue; however, many culture-expanded therapeutic cells are incapable of targeting diseased tissues following systemic infusion, which represents a great challenge in cell therapy. Our aim was to develop simple approaches to program cell-cell interactions that would otherwise not exist toward cell targeting and understanding the complex biology of cell-cell interactions. We employed a chemistry approach to engineer P- or L-selectin binding nucleic acid aptamers onto mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to enable them to engage inflamed endothelial cells and leukocytes, respectively. We show for the first time that engineered cells with a single artificial adhesion ligand can recapitulate 3 critical cell interactions in the inflammatory cell adhesion cascade under dynamic flow conditions. Aptamer-engineered MSCs adhered on respective selectin surfaces under static conditions >10 times more efficiently than controls including scrambled-DNA modified MSCs. Significantly, engineered MSCs can be directly captured from the flow stream by selectin surfaces or selectin-expressing cells under flow conditions (≤2dyn/cm2). The simple chemistry approach and the versatility of aptamers permit the concept of engineered cell-cell interactions to be generically applicable for targeting cells to diseased tissues and elucidating the biology of cell-cell interactions.—Zhao...

‣ Dendrimer-based Multivalent Methotrexates as Dual Acting Nanoconjugates for Cancer Cell Targeting

Li, Ming-Hsin; Choi, Seok Ki; Thomas, Thommey P.; Desai, Ankur; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Kotlyar, Alina; Banaszak Holl, Mark M.; Baker, James R.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cancer-targeting drug delivery can be based on the rational design of a therapeutic platform. This approach is typically achieved by the functionalization of a nanoparticle with two distinct types of molecules, a targeting ligand specific for a cancer cell, and a cytotoxic molecule to kill the cell. The present study aims to evaluate the validity of an alternative simplified approach in the design of cancer-targeting nanotherapeutics: conjugating a single type of molecule with dual activities to nanoparticles, instead of coupling a pair of orthogonal molecules. Herein we investigate whether this strategy can be validated by its application to methotrexate, a dual-acting small molecule that shows cytotoxicity because of its potent inhibitory activity against dihydrofolate reductase and that binds folic acid receptor, a tumor biomarker frequently upregulated on the cancer cell surface. This article describes a series of dendrimer conjugates derived from a generation 5 polyamidoamine (G5 PAMAM) presenting a multivalent array of methotrexate and also demonstrates their dual biological activities by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, a cell-free enzyme assay, and cell-based experiments with KB cancer cells.

‣ Loss of Sialic Acid Binding Domain Redirects Protein σ1 to Enhance M Cell-Directed Vaccination

Zlotkowska, Dagmara; Maddaloni, Massimo; Riccardi, Carol; Walters, Nancy; Holderness, Kathryn; Callis, Gayle; Rynda-Apple, Agnieszka; Pascual, David W.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/04/2012 Português
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Ovalbumin (OVA) genetically fused to protein sigma 1 (pσ1) results in tolerance to both OVA and pσ1. Pσ1 binds in a multi-step fashion, involving both protein- and carbohydrate-based receptors. To assess the relative pσ1 components responsible for inducing tolerance and the importance of its sialic binding domain (SABD) for immunization, modified OVA-pσ1, termed OVA-pσ1(short), was deleted of its SABD, but with its M cell targeting moiety intact, and was found to be immunostimulatory and enhanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation. When used to nasally immunize mice given with and without cholera toxin (CT) adjuvant, elevated SIgA and serum IgG responses were induced, and OVA-pσ1(s) was more efficient for immunization than native OVA+CT. The immune antibodies (Abs) were derived from elevated Ab-forming cells in the upper respiratory tissues and submaxillary glands and were supported by mixed Th cell responses. Thus, these studies show that pσ1(s) can be fused to vaccines to effectively elicit improved SIgA responses.

‣ Cell Targeting with Hybrid Qβ Virus-Like Particles Displaying Epidermal Growth Factor

Pokorski, Jonathan K.; Hovlid, Marisa L.; Finn, M.G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Structurally uniform protein nanoparticles derived from the self-assembly of viral capsid proteins are attractive platforms for the multivalent display of cell-targeting motifs for use in nanomedicine. Virus-based nanoparticles are of particular interest because the scaffold can be manipulated both genetically and chemically to simultaneously display targeting groups and carry a functional payload. Here, we displayed the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) on the exterior surface of bacteriophage Qβ as a C-terminal genetic fusion to the Qβ capsid protein. The co-assembly of wild-type Qβ and EGF-modified subunits resulted in structurally homogeneous nanoparticles displaying between 5 and 12 copies of EGF on their exterior surface. The particles were found to be amenable to bioconjugation via standard methods as well as the high-fidelity copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction (CuAAC). Such chemical derivatization did not impair the ability of the particles to specifically interact with the EGF receptor. Additionally, the particle-displayed EGF remained biologically active promoting auto-phosphorylation of the EGF receptor and apoptosis of A431 cells. These results suggest that hybrid Qβ-EGF nanoparticles could be useful vehicles for targeted delivery of imaging and/or therapeutic agents.

‣ Selective Tumor Cell Targeting by the Disaccharide Moiety of Bleomycin

Yu, Zhiqiang; Schmaltz, Ryan M.; Bozeman, Trevor C.; Paul, Rakesh; Rishel, Michael J.; Tsosie, Krystal S.; Hecht, Sidney M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In a recent study, the well documented tumor targeting properties of the antitumor agent bleomycin (BLM) were studied in cell culture using microbubbles that had been derivatized with multiple copies of BLM. It was shown that BLM selectively targeted MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells, but not the “normal” breast cell line MCF-10A. Further, the BLM analogue deglycobleomycin, which lacks the disaccharide moiety of BLM, was found not to target either cell line, indicating that the BLM disaccharide moiety is necessary for tumor selectivity. Not resolved in the earlier study was the issue of whether the BLM disaccharide moiety alone is sufficient for tumor cell targeting, as well as the possible cellular uptake of the disaccharide. In the present study, we have conjugated BLM, deglycoBLM and BLM disaccharide to the cyanine dye Cy5**. It was found that the BLM and BLM disaccharide conjugates, but not the deglycoBLM conjugate, bound selectively to MCF-7 cells, and were internalized. The same was also true for the prostate cancer cell line DU-145 (but not for normal PZ-HPV-7 prostate cells) and for the pancreas cancer cell line BxPC-3 (but not for normal SVR A221a pancreas cells). The targeting efficiency of the disaccharide was only slightly less than that of BLM in MCF-7 and DU-145 cells...

‣ miR-630 targets IGF1R to regulate response to HER-targeting drugs and overall cancer cell progression in HER2 over-expressing breast cancer

Corcoran, Claire; Rani, Sweta; Breslin, Susan; Gogarty, Martina; Ghobrial, Irene M; Crown, John; O’Driscoll, Lorraine
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: While the treatment of HER2 over-expressing breast cancer with recent HER-targeted drugs has been highly effective for some patients, primary (also known as innate) or acquired resistance limits the success of these drugs. microRNAs have potential as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers, as well as replacement therapies. Here we investigated the role of microRNA-630 (miR-630) in breast cancer progression and as a predictive biomarker for response to HER-targeting drugs, ultimately yielding potential as a therapeutic approach to add value to these drugs. Methods: We investigated the levels of intra- and extracellular miR-630 in cells and conditioned media from breast cancer cell lines with either innate- or acquired- resistance to HER-targeting lapatinib and neratinib, compared to their corresponding drug sensitive cell lines, using qPCR. To support the role of miR-630 in breast cancer, we examined the clinical relevance of this miRNA in breast cancer tumours versus matched peritumours. Transfection of miR-630 mimics and inhibitors was used to manipulate the expression of miR-630 to assess effects on response to HER-targeting drugs (lapatinib, neratinib and afatinib). Other phenotypic changes associated with cellular aggressiveness were evaluated by motility...

‣ Targeted Delivery of VP1 Antigen of Foot-and-mouth Disease Virus to M Cells Enhances the Antigen-specific Systemic and Mucosal Immune Response

Kim, Sae-Hae; Lee, Ha-Yan; Jang, Yong-Suk
Fonte: The Korean Association of Immunologists Publicador: The Korean Association of Immunologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Application of vaccine materials through oral mucosal route confers great economical advantage in animal farming industry due to much less vaccination cost compared with that of injection-based vaccination. In particular, oral administration of recombinant protein antigen against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an ideal strategy because it is safe from FMDV transmission during vaccine production and can induce antigen-specific immune response in mucosal compartments, where FMDV infection has been initiated, which is hardly achievable through parenteral immunization. Given that effective delivery of vaccine materials into immune inductive sites is prerequisite for effective oral mucosal vaccination, M cell-targeting strategy is crucial in successful vaccination since M cells are main gateway for luminal antigen influx into mucosal lymphoid tissue. Here, we applied previously identified M cell-targeting ligand Co1 to VP1 of FMDV in order to test the possible oral mucosal vaccination against FMDV infection. M cell-targeting ligand Co1-conjugated VP1 interacted efficiently with M cells of Peyer's patch. In addition, oral administration of ligand-conjugated VP1 enhanced the induction of VP1-specific IgG and IgA responses in systemic and mucosal compartments...

‣ Intranasal M Cell Uptake of Nanoparticles Is Independently Influenced by Targeting Ligands and Buffer Ionic Strength*

Rajapaksa, Thejani E.; Bennett, Kaila M.; Hamer, Mary; Lytle, Christian; Rodgers, Victor G. J.; Lo, David D.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In mucosal tissues, epithelial M cells capture and transport microbes across the barrier to underlying immune cells. Previous studies suggested that high affinity ligands targeting M cells may be used to deliver mucosal vaccines; here, we show that particle composition and dispersion buffer ionic strength can independently influence their uptake in vivo. First, addition of a poloxamer 188 to nanoparticle formulations increased uptake of intranasally administered nanoparticles in vivo, but the effect was dependent on the presence of the M cell-targeting ligand. Second, solvent ionic strength is known to effect electrostatic interactions; accordingly, reduced ionic strength increased the electrostatic potential between the epithelium and the particles. Interestingly, below a critical ionic strength, intranasal particle uptake in vivo significantly was increased even when controlled for osmolarity. Similar results were obtained for uptake of bacterial particles. Surprisingly, at low ionic strength, the specific enhancement effect by the targeting peptide was negligible. Modeling of the electrostatic forces predicted that the enhancing effects of the M cell-targeting ligand only are enabled at high ionic strength, as particle electrostatic forces are reduced through Debye screening. Thus...

‣ Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Fibronectin Attachment Protein Facilitates M-Cell Targeting and Invasion through a Fibronectin Bridge with Host Integrins

Secott, T. E.; Lin, T. L.; Wu, C. C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2004 Português
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Efficient attachment and ingestion of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis by cultured epithelial cells requires the expression of a fibronectin (FN) attachment protein homologue (FAP-P) which mediates FN binding by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Invasion of Peyer's patches by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis occurs through M cells, which, unlike other intestinal epithelial cells, express integrins on their luminal faces. We sought to determine if the interaction between FAP-P of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and soluble FN enabled targeting and invasion of M cells by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in vivo via these surface integrins. Wild-type and antisense FAP-P mutant M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains were injected alone or coinjected with blocking peptides or antibodies into murine gut loops, and immunofluorescence microscopy was performed to assess targeting and invasion of M cells by M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Nonopsonized M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis preferentially invaded M cells in murine gut loops. M-cell invasion was enhanced 2.6-fold when M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was pretreated with FN. Invasion of M cells by the antisense FAP-P mutant of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was reduced by 77 to 90% relative to that observed for the control strains. Peptides corresponding to the RGD and synergy site integrin recognition regions of FN blocked M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis invasion of M cells by 75 and 45%...