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‣ Skull Modularity in Neotropical Marsupials and Monkeys: Size Variation and Evolutionary Constraint and Flexibility

SHIRAI, Leila T.; MARROIG, Gabriel
Fonte: WILEY-LISS Publicador: WILEY-LISS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.37376%
An organism is built through a series of contingent factors, yet it is determined by historical, physical, and developmental constraints. A constraint should not be understood as an absolute obstacle to evolution, as it may also generate new possibilities for evolutionary change. Modularity is, in this context, an important way of organizing biological information and has been recognized as a central concept in evolutionary biology bridging on developmental, genetics, morphological, biochemical, and physiological studies. In this article, we explore how modularity affects the evolution of a complex system in two mammalian lineages by analyzing correlation, variance/covariance, and residual matrices (without size variation). We use the multivariate response to selection equation to simulate the behavior of Eutheria and Metharia skulls in terms of their evolutionary flexibility and constraints. We relate these results to classical approaches based on morphological integration tests based on functional/developmental hypotheses. Eutherians (Neotropical primates) showed smaller magnitudes of integration compared with Metatheria (didelphids) and also skull modules more clearly delimited. Didelphids showed higher magnitudes of integration and their modularity is strongly influenced by within-groups size variation to a degree that evolutionary responses are basically aligned with size variation. Primates still have a good portion of the total variation based on size; however...

‣ The Evolution of Modularity in the Mammalian Skull I: Morphological Integration Patterns and Magnitudes

PORTO, Arthur; OLIVEIRA, Felipe B. de; SHIRAI, Leila T.; CONTO, Valderes De; MARROIG, Gabriel
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.75991%
Morphological integration refers to the modular structuring of inter-trait relationships in an organism, which could bias the direction and rate of morphological change, either constraining or facilitating evolution along certain dimensions of the morphospace. Therefore, the description of patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and the analysis of their evolutionary consequences are central to understand the evolution of complex traits. Here we analyze morphological integration in the skull of several mammalian orders, addressing the following questions: are there common patterns of inter-trait relationships? Are these patterns compatible with hypotheses based on shared development and function? Do morphological integration patterns and magnitudes vary in the same way across groups? We digitized more than 3,500 specimens spanning 15 mammalian orders, estimated the correspondent pooled within-group correlation and variance/covariance matrices for 35 skull traits and compared those matrices among the orders. We also compared observed patterns of integration to theoretical expectations based on common development and function. Our results point to a largely shared pattern of inter-trait correlations, implying that mammalian skull diversity has been produced upon a common covariance structure that remained similar for at least 65 million years. Comparisons with a rodent genetic variance/covariance matrix suggest that this broad similarity extends also to the genetic factors underlying phenotypic variation. In contrast to the relative constancy of inter-trait correlation/covariance patterns...

‣ The Evolution of Modularity in the Mammalian Skull II: Evolutionary Consequences

MARROIG, Gabriel; SHIRAI, Leila T.; PORTO, Arthur; OLIVEIRA, Felipe B. de; CONTO, Valderes De
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.565107%
Changes in patterns and magnitudes of integration may influence the ability of a species to respond to selection. Consequently, modularity has often been linked to the concept of evolvability, but their relationship has rarely been tested empirically. One possible explanation is the lack of analytical tools to compare patterns and magnitudes of integration among diverse groups that explicitly relate these aspects to the quantitative genetics framework. We apply such framework here using the multivariate response to selection equation to simulate the evolutionary behavior of several mammalian orders in terms of their flexibility, evolvability and constraints in the skull. We interpreted these simulation results in light of the integration patterns and magnitudes of the same mammalian groups, described in a companion paper. We found that larger magnitudes of integration were associated with a blur of the modules in the skull and to larger portions of the total variation explained by size variation, which in turn can exert a strong evolutionary constraint, thus decreasing the evolutionary flexibility. Conversely, lower overall magnitudes of integration were associated with distinct modules in the skull, to smaller fraction of the total variation associated with size and...

‣ Evolução da modularidade no crânio de mamíferos; Evolution of modularity in the mammalian skull

Porto, Arthur Guimarães Carvalho
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/04/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.75991%
A integração morfológica refere-se à organização modular das relações e conexões entre os caracteres, a qual influencia a direção e velocidade da mudança evolutiva, seja restringindo ou facilitando esta ao longo das diferentes direções do morfoespaço. Desta forma, a descrição de padrões e magnitudes de integração e a análise de suas conseqüências evolutivas são aspectos centrais do estudo da evolução de morfologias complexas. Aqui analisamos a integração morfológica no crânio de diferentes famílias de mamíferos, abordando as seguintes questões. Existem padrões de integração comuns a todos os grupos? Seriam esses padrões compatíveis com hipóteses a priori baseadas em ontogenia e função compartilhadas? Que tipos de respostas evolutivas á seleção poderiam ser produzidas por estes padrões? Para isso, digitalizamos representantes de 20 ordens e 40 famílias de mamíferos e então estimamos as matrizes de correlação e variância/covariância correspondentes, comparando-as entre si. Também comparamos cada um dos padrões de integração estimados a hipóteses a priori baseadas em ontogenia e função compartilhadas. Por fim, analisamos as repostas de cada uma das matrizes V/CV a vetores de seleção simulados. Nossos resultados apontam para um padrão de integração amplamente compartilhado entre todas as famílias...

‣ Evolução do crânio dos macacos do Velho Mundo: uma abordagem de genética quantitativa; Cranial evolution of Old World monkeys and Apes: a quantitative genetics approach

Oliveira, Felipe Bandoni de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/05/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Este trabalho busca entender a diversificação craniana dos macacos do Velho Mundo (Catarrhini) integrando duas abordagens para o estudo da evolução de caracteres complexos: a genética quantitativa e a integração morfológica. A investigação tem três objetivos principais: 1) comparar a magnitude e o padrão das relações entre os caracteres cranianos entre todos os Catarrhini; 2) testar a hipótese de que deriva genética é o único agente responsável pela diversificação craniana; 3) explorar as conseqüências evolutivas da associação entre caracteres. De posse de um banco de dados bastante representativo da diversidade dos macacos do Velho Mundo (39 medidas cranianas de cerca de 6.000 crânios de mais de 130 espécies), gerei as matrizes de correlação e de variância/covariância, que resumem as relações entre os caracteres, e comparei-as entre vários grupos. Comparei-as também a expectativas derivadas de modelos teóricos de evolução por deriva genética, além de simular a ação de seleção natural sobre essas matrizes para observar o comportamento evolutivo dos diversos padrões de associação entre caracteres. De maneira geral, o padrão das relações é o mesmo entre todos os Catarrhini, mas a magnitude com que os caracteres estão associados varia bastante. Isso tem conseqüências evolutivas importantíssimas...

‣ Evolução morfológica de marsupiais (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) do Novo Mundo; Morphologic evolution of New World marsupials (Mammalia, Didelphimorphia)

Silva, Harley Sebastião da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/11/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.400962%
Dentro da biologia evolutiva, uma das questões centrais é a compreensão de como os processos evolutivos, em particular a seleção e o acaso (deriva genética) moldaram a diversidade obervada nos organismos. Dentro deste contexto, a utilização de abordagens como a integração morfológica e a genética quantitativa nos fornecem poderosas ferramentas. Enquanto a primeira descreve os padrões de relação entre caracteres e testa hipóteses sobre as relações de desenvolvimento e/ou funções subjacentes, a segunda possui ferramentas para investigar as forças que podem ter gerado os fenótipos atuais. Utilizando como modelo de estudo os gêneros de marsupiais da Ordem Didelphimorphia, analisei a evolução morfológica craniana unindo estas duas linhas de pesquisa. Central a genética quantitativa está a matriz de covariância genética (G) que descreve a porção da variância que é efetivamente herdada (no sentido de transmissão de valor entre gerações) e conseqüentemente serve como substrato à seleção. Apesar de ter sido desenvolvida inicialmente para estudos em escala microevolutiva, o arsenal matemático da genética quantitativa pode ser estendida a escalas macroevolutivas caso a matriz G permaneça relativamente estável. Entretanto...

‣ Integração morfológica craniana em morcegos da família Phyllostomidae; Morphological integration on phyllostomid bat skulls (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)

Rossoni, Daniela Munhoz
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.78626%
No presente trabalho utilizo as abordagens de genética quantitativa e integração morfológica para compreender a evolução do crânio em morcegos da Família Phyllostomidae. Esses morcegos exibem uma diversidade de especializações alimentares que não encontra precedentes dentre os demais mamíferos, havendo atualmente formas envolvidas na insetivoria, hematofagia, nectarivoria, carnivoria, omnivoria e frugivoria. Neste trabalho comparo as matrizes de correlação e covariância fenotípicas que quantificam a associação entre caracteres que descrevem o crânio entre espécies de filostomídeos, com o objetivo de investigar se há similaridade estrutural entre elas. Além disso, exploro possíveis fatores que podem afetar a sua estabilidade, como a história evolutiva (filogenia), dieta e as associações funcionais e de desenvolvimento entre os caracteres cranianos. Por fim, investigo a presença de módulos nos crânios dos filostomídeos e avalio as consequências evolutivas dos padrões e das magnitudes de integração na evolução desse grupo. A base de dados compreende 35 medidas cranianas de 2665 indivíduos, abrangendo todas a subfamílias, e representando ao todo 48 espécies e 45 gêneros. Os resultados indicam que após um período de diversificação evolutiva de aproximadamente 33.9 milhões de anos...

‣ Evolução e integração morfológica do crânio dos roedores da subfamília Sigmodontinae Wagner, 1843 (Rodentia, Cricetidae); Morphological integration and evolution on Sigmodontinae rodent skulls Wagner, 1843 (Rodentia, Cricetidae)

Costa, Bárbara Maria de Andrade
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/12/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.62007%
A subfamília de roedores Sigmodontinae representa o clado com a maior diversidade e distribuição de mamíferos na região neotropical, sendo que a maior parte das espécies são endêmicas da América do Sul. Com inúmeras diferenças ecomorfológicas, o padrão de diversificação desses roedores, por um ponto de vista biogeográfico e filogenético, tem sido bastante debatido. Nesta tese, busco compreender a evolução dos caracteres cranianos dos sigmodontíneos, a partir do arcabouço teórico da genética quantitativa e integração morfológica. Dessa forma, tive como objetivo geral avaliar os padrões e as magnitudes de integração morfológica para compreender a associação dos caracteres e explorar suas potenciais consequências evolutivas no crânio dos Sigmodontinae. A partir de um banco de dados contendo 2897 indivíduos de 39 espécies da subfamília, testei a similaridade estrutural das matrizes de correlação e covariância ao compará-las entre todos os táxons medidos (representados por 35 medidas cranianas). Avaliei também se a história evolutiva do grupo teve influência sobre os padrões da estrutura de covariância fenotípica. Além disso, testei a presença de módulos no crânio desses roedores, a partir das hipóteses de desenvolvimento e função comum nos crânios dos mamíferos. Por fim...

‣ Craniofacial variability and morphological integration in mice susceptible to cleft lip and palate

Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Dorval, Curtis J; Zelditch, Miriam Leah; German, Rebecca Z
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.283477%
A/WySnJ mice are an inbred strain that develops cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) with a frequency of 25–30% and a predominantly unilateral expression pattern. As in humans, the pattern of incomplete penetrance, and variable and frequent unilateral expression suggests a role for altered regulation of variability (developmental stability, canalization and developmental integration) during growth. We compared both mean and variability parameters for craniofacial shape and size among A/WySnJ mice, a strain that does not develop CL/P (C57BL/6J) and their F1 cross. We show that adult A/WySnJ mice that do not express cleft lip exhibit decreased morphological integration of the cranium and that the co-ordination of overall shape and size variation is disrupted compared with both C57BL/6J mice and the F1 cross. The decrease in integration is most pronounced in the palate and face. The absence of this pattern in the F1 cross suggests that it is determined by recessive genetic factors. By contrast, the shape differences between the strains, which are thought to predispose A/WySnJ mice to CL/P, show a range of dominance which suggests a polygenic basis. We suggest that decreased integration of craniofacial growth may be an aetiological factor for CL/P in A/WySnJ mice.

‣ Patterns of morphological integration in marine modular organisms: supra-module organization in branching octocoral colonies.

Sánchez, Juan Armando; Lasker, Howard R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/10/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.522378%
Despite the relative simplicity of their modular growth, marine invertebrates such as arborescent gorgonian octocorals (Octocorallia: Cnidaria) generate complex colonial forms. Colony form in these taxa is a consequence of modular (polyp) replication, and if there is a tight integration among modular and supramodular traits (e.g. polyp aperture, inter-polyp spacing, branch thickness, internode and branch length), then changes at the module level may lead to changes in colony architecture. Alternatively, different groups of traits may evolve semi-independently (or conditionally independent). To examine the patterns of integration among morphological traits in Caribbean octocorals, we compared five morphological traits across 21 species, correcting for the effects of phylogenetic relationships among the taxa. Graphical modelling and phylogenetic independence contrasts among the five morphological characters indicate two groups of integrated traits based on whether they were polyp- or colony-level traits. Although all characters exhibited bivariate associations, multivariate analyses (partial correlation coefficients) showed the strongest integration among the colony-level characters (internode distance and branch length). It is a quantitative demonstration that branching characters within the octocorals studied are independent of characters of the polyps. Despite the universally recognized modularity of octocorals at the level of polyps...

‣ Phylogeny, Diet, and Cranial Integration in Australodelphian Marsupials

Goswami, Anjali
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/10/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.77589%
Studies of morphological integration provide valuable information on the correlated evolution of traits and its relationship to long-term patterns of morphological evolution. Thus far, studies of morphological integration in mammals have focused on placentals and have demonstrated that similarity in integration is broadly correlated with phylogenetic distance and dietary similarity. Detailed studies have also demonstrated a significant correlation between developmental relationships among structures and adult morphological integration. However, these studies have not yet been applied to marsupial taxa, which differ greatly from placentals in reproductive strategy and cranial development and could provide the diversity necessary to assess the relationships among phylogeny, ecology, development, and cranial integration. This study presents analyses of morphological integration in 20 species of australodelphian marsupials, and shows that phylogeny is significantly correlated with similarity of morphological integration in most clades. Size-related correlations have a significant affect on results, particularly in Peramelia, which shows a striking decrease in similarity of integration among species when size is removed. Diet is not significantly correlated with similarity of integration in any marsupial clade. These results show that marsupials differ markedly from placental mammals in the relationships of cranial integration...

‣ Morphological integration between the cranial base and the face in children and adults

Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Halazonetis, Demetrios J
Fonte: Blackwell Science Inc Publicador: Blackwell Science Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.431367%
The primary aim of the present study was to assess morphological covariation between the face and the basicranium (midline and lateral), and to evaluate patterns of integration at two specific developmental stages. A group of 71 children (6–10 years) was compared with a group of 71 adults (20–35 years). Lateral cephalometric radiographs were digitized and a total of 28 landmarks were placed on three areas; the midline cranial base, the lateral cranial base and the face. Geometric morphometric methods were applied and partial least squares analysis was used to evaluate correlation between the three shape blocks. Morphological integration was tested both with and without removing the effect of allometry. In children, mainly the midline and, to a lesser extent, the lateral cranial base were moderately correlated to the face. In adults, the correlation between the face and the midline cranial base, which ceases development earlier than the lateral base, was reduced. However, the lateral cranial base retained and even strengthened its correlation to the face. This suggests that the duration of common developmental timing is an important factor that influences integration between craniofacial structures. However, despite the apparent switch of primary roles between the cranial bases during development...

‣ FGF/FGFR Signaling Coordinates Skull Development by Modulating Magnitude of Morphological Integration: Evidence from Apert Syndrome Mouse Models

Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Heuzé, Yann; Wang, Yingli; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Aldridge, Kristina; Richtsmeier, Joan T.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/10/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.22587%
The fibroblast growth factor and receptor system (FGF/FGFR) mediates cell communication and pattern formation in many tissue types (e.g., osseous, nervous, vascular). In those craniosynostosis syndromes caused by FGFR1-3 mutations, alteration of signaling in the FGF/FGFR system leads to dysmorphology of the skull, brain and limbs, among other organs. Since this molecular pathway is widely expressed throughout head development, we explore whether and how two specific mutations on Fgfr2 causing Apert syndrome in humans affect the pattern and level of integration between the facial skeleton and the neurocranium using inbred Apert syndrome mouse models Fgfr2+/S252W and Fgfr2+/P253R and their non-mutant littermates at P0. Skull morphological integration (MI), which can reflect developmental interactions among traits by measuring the intensity of statistical associations among them, was assessed using data from microCT images of the skull of Apert syndrome mouse models and 3D geometric morphometric methods. Our results show that mutant Apert syndrome mice share the general pattern of MI with their non-mutant littermates, but the magnitude of integration between and within the facial skeleton and the neurocranium is increased, especially in Fgfr2+/S252W mice. This indicates that although Fgfr2 mutations do not disrupt skull MI...

‣ Morphological Integration of Soft-Tissue Facial Morphology in Down Syndrome and Siblings

Starbuck, John; Reeves, Roger H.; Richtsmeier, Joan
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.37376%
Down syndrome (DS), resulting from trisomy of chromosome 21, is the most common live-born human aneuploidy. The phenotypic expression of trisomy 21 produces variable, though characteristic, facial morphology. Although certain facial features have been documented quantitatively and qualitatively as characteristic of DS (e.g., epicanthic folds, macroglossia, and hypertelorism), all of these traits occur in other craniofacial conditions with an underlying genetic cause. We hypothesize that the typical DS face is integrated differently than the face of non-DS siblings, and that the pattern of morphological integration unique to individuals with DS will yield information about underlying developmental associations between facial regions. We statistically compared morphological integration patterns of immature DS faces (N = 53) with those of non-DS siblings (N = 54), aged 6–12 years using 31 distances estimated from 3D coordinate data representing 17 anthropometric landmarks recorded on 3D digital photographic images. Facial features are affected differentially in DS, as evidenced by statistically significant differences in integration both within and between facial regions. Our results suggest a differential affect of trisomy on facial prominences during craniofacial development.

‣ The Effect of Dietary Adaption on Cranial Morphological Integration in Capuchins (Order Primates, Genus Cebus)

Makedonska, Jana; Wright, Barth W.; Strait, David S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/10/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.548853%
A fundamental challenge of morphology is to identify the underlying evolutionary and developmental mechanisms leading to correlated phenotypic characters. Patterns and magnitudes of morphological integration and their association with environmental variables are essential for understanding the evolution of complex phenotypes, yet the nature of the relevant selective pressures remains poorly understood. In this study, the adaptive significance of morphological integration was evaluated through the association between feeding mechanics, ingestive behavior and craniofacial variation. Five capuchin species were examined, Cebus apella sensu stricto, Cebus libidinosus, Cebus nigritus, Cebus olivaceus and Cebus albifrons. Twenty three-dimensional landmarks were chosen to sample facial regions experiencing high strains during feeding, characteristics affecting muscular mechanical advantage and basicranial regions. Integration structure and magnitude between and within the oral and zygomatic subunits, between and within blocks maximizing modularity and within the face, the basicranium and the cranium were examined using partial-least squares, eigenvalue variance, integration indices compared inter-specifically at a common level of sampled population variance and cluster analyses. Results are consistent with previous findings reporting a relative constancy of facial and cranial correlation patterns across mammals...

‣ On the Relationship between the Macroevolutionary Trajectories of Morphological Integration and Morphological Disparity

Gerber, Sylvain
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/05/2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.835903%
How does the organization of phenotypes relate to their propensity to vary? How do evolutionary changes in this organization affect large-scale phenotypic evolution? Over the last decade, studies of morphological integration and modularity have renewed our understanding of the organizational and variational properties of complex phenotypes. Much effort has been made to unravel the connections among the genetic, developmental, and functional contexts leading to differential integration among morphological traits and individuation of variational modules. Yet, their macroevolutionary consequences on the dynamics of morphological disparity–the large-scale variety of organismal designs–are still largely unknown. Here, I investigate the relationship between morphological integration and morphological disparity throughout the entire evolutionary history of crinoids (echinoderms). Quantitative analyses of interspecific patterns of variation and covariation among characters describing the stem, cup, arm, and tegmen of the crinoid body do not show any significant concordance between the temporal trajectories of disparity and overall integration. Nevertheless, the results reveal marked differences in the patterns of integration for Palaeozoic and post-Palaeozoic crinoids. Post-Palaeozoic crinoids have a higher degree of integration and occupy a different region of the space of integration patterns...

‣ Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Their Conditioned Medium Improve Integration of Purified Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell–Derived Cardiomyocyte Clusters into Myocardial Tissue

Rubach, Martin; Adelmann, Roland; Haustein, Moritz; Drey, Florian; Pfannkuche, Kurt; Xiao, Bing; Koester, Annette; Udink ten Cate, Floris E.A.; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Neef, Klaus; Fatima, Azra; Hannes, Tobias; Pillekamp, Frank; Hescheler, Juergen; Šarić, Tom
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.548853%
Induced pluripotent stem cell–derived cardiomyocytes (iPS-CMs) might become therapeutically relevant to regenerate myocardial damage. Purified iPS-CMs exhibit poor functional integration into myocardial tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether murine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or their conditioned medium (MScond) improves the integration of murine iPS-CMs into myocardial tissue. Vital or nonvital embryonic murine ventricular tissue slices were cocultured with purified clusters of iPS-CMs in combination with murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), MSCs, or MScond. Morphological integration was assessed by visual scoring and functional integration by isometric force and field potential measurements. We observed a moderate morphological integration of iPS-CM clusters into vital, but a poor integration into nonvital, slices. MEFs and MSCs but not MScond improved morphological integration of CMs into nonvital slices and enabled purified iPS-CMs to confer force. Coculture of vital slices with iPS-CMs and MEFs or MSCs resulted in an improved electrical integration. A comparable improvement of electrical coupling was achieved with the cell-free MScond, indicating that soluble factors secreted by MSCs were involved in electrical coupling. We conclude that cells such as MSCs support the engraftment and adhesion of CMs...

‣ Assessing Trait Covariation and Morphological Integration on Phylogenies Using Evolutionary Covariance Matrices

Adams, Dean C.; Felice, Ryan N.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/04/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.701626%
Morphological integration describes the degree to which sets of organismal traits covary with one another. Morphological covariation may be evaluated at various levels of biological organization, but when characterizing such patterns across species at the macroevolutionary level, phylogeny must be taken into account. We outline an analytical procedure based on the evolutionary covariance matrix that allows species-level patterns of morphological integration among structures defined by sets of traits to be evaluated while accounting for the phylogenetic relationships among taxa, providing a flexible and robust complement to related phylogenetic independent contrasts based approaches. Using computer simulations under a Brownian motion model we show that statistical tests based on the approach display appropriate Type I error rates and high statistical power for detecting known levels of integration, and these trends remain consistent for simulations using different numbers of species, and for simulations that differ in the number of trait dimensions. Thus, our procedure provides a useful means of testing hypotheses of morphological integration in a phylogenetic context. We illustrate the utility of this approach by evaluating evolutionary patterns of morphological integration in head shape for a lineage of Plethodon salamanders...

‣ Morphological evolution through integration: quantitative analysis of cranio-mandibular covariance structures in extant hominids; Morphologische Evolution durch Integration : eine quantitative Analyse von cranio-mandibularen Kovarianz-Strukturen in erhaltenen Hominiden

Singh, Nandini
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.820146%
The goal of this thesis is to investigate covariance in the cranio-mandibular form of Pongo, Gorilla, Pan and Homo using quantitative methods such as landmar-based 3D geometric morphometrics. The thesis comprises three individual studies that address questions related to covariance-generating processes: morphological integration, allometry, canalisation and developmental stability. The studies collectively provide insight into the underlying mechanisms that influence phenotypic variability and variation in closely related hominid taxa. Phenotypic variability is of particular interest to biological anthropologists for several reasons, one being that majority of the questions addressed in primate evolution centre around morphological variation. The primate cranium is an important source of information for biological anthropologists because it preserves better in the fossil record than most other skeletal components. Due to the lack of large fossil samples, closely related extant hominids have long been used as analogues to better understand phenotypic changes in fossil hominids. Manuscript one is a study of the patterns of morphological integration between the face, basicranium and cranial vault in adult humans, chimpanzees, bonobos...

‣ Quantitative Genetics, Pleiotropy, and Morphological Integration in the Dentition of Papio hamadryas

Hlusko, Leslea J.; Mahaney, Michael C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Variation in the mammalian dentition is highly informative of adaptations and evolutionary relationships, and consequently has been the focus of considerable research. Much of the current research exploring the genetic underpinnings of dental variation can trace its roots to Olson and Miller's 1958 book Morphological Integration. These authors explored patterns of correlation in the post-canine dentitions of the owl monkey and Hyopsodus, an extinct condylarth from the Eocene. Their results were difficult to interpret, as was even noted by the authors, due to a lack of genetic information through which to view the patterns of correlation. Following in the spirit of Olson and Miller's research, we present a quantitative genetic analysis of dental variation in a pedigreed population of baboons. We identify patterns of genetic correlations that provide insight to the genetic architecture of the baboon dentition. This genetic architecture indicates the presence of at least three modules: an incisor module that is genetically independent of the post-canine dentition, and a premolar module that demonstrates incomplete pleiotropy with the molar module. We then compare this matrix of genetic correlations to matrices of phenotypic correlations between the same measurements made on museum specimens of another baboon subspecies and the Southeast Asian colobine Presbytis. We observe moderate significant correlations between the matrices from these three primate taxa. From these observations we infer similarity in modularity and hypothesize a common pattern of genetic integration across the dental arcade in the Cercopithecoidea.