The primary purpose of fitness and body composition standards in the military has always been to select individuals best suited to the physical demands of military service. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally, and may have adverse consequences for the military: a worsening prevalence of obesity in young civilian adults could hinder the recruitment and maintenance of military manpower. This review explores the impact of obesity on suitability for employment in defence force careers and any potential impact on long-term occupational health. Studies containing data on obesity and the military were identified from an electronic database. Thirty-eight papers were identified and 17 were included in this review. There is a limited body of evidence available to ascertain whether or not obese individuals are suitable for employment in the military. There are a number of key issues that need to be addressed before a definitive conclusion can be drawn. These include the future health of obese personnel recruited into the military and subsequent implications for health services, costs to the organization and military readiness, and the ability of an obese person to be an active member of the military workforce. Future research should be targeted towards these areas in order to determine the implications of obesity for recruitment and retention of defence force personnel.; R. McLaughlin and G. Wittert
As we enter the 21st Century, the Department of Defense finds itself facing a significant personnel crisis. Despite a thirty percent reduction in manpower needs, the military is continually failing to meet its retention requirements. There are numerous factors that are causing this problem, to include the booming US economy, the highest military deployment rates in our history, and the widespread use of the Internet. The result is that our service members have more non-military career options than ever before, and too many are choosing them. The problem appears to be getting worse as recent surveys indicate that over 50 percent of the enlisted force, and over 33 percent of the officer force intend to leave the military at their next opportunity. The drastic change in retention behaviors did not occur overnight, yet the military failed to react quickly to the change. The reason for this is that strength projections are calculated using linear models, which are based upon historical data; these programs are incapable of warning about non-linear behaviors. If the military had used supplemental non-linear models, we most likely would have been able to react sooner. This Thesis therefore provides the Military Personnel Retention Simulator (MPRS)...
This project seeks to understand the changes in the decision-making process to stay or leave the military upon adoption of a defined contribution retirement system, and the potential implications of human capital that might follow. Multiple theses have been written regarding potential cost savings of a defined contribution plan and how a change of this nature could affect military personnel retention rates. This project differs from other research in the field in that we assume the Department of Defense will shift the retirement compensation away from a pension system and 20-year vesting of benefits in the near future. This report focuses on the decision-making process that service members use and the potential implications for the services that might follow under a DC plan, and how that decision-making process might change. Specifically, we utilize the unfolding model of voluntary turnover to assess the decision-making process for military personnel and assess the potential impacts from a voluntary turnover, retention, and Human Capital Theory perspective.
This report investigates factors influencing the retention behavior of young enlisted men and women in the U.S. Army Reserve. Data from the 1984 Reserve Components Survey were matched with 1989 military personnel records to gain information on actual turnover/staying behavior of enlisted Reservists. A sample of 4,042 enlisted personnel serving past-time with the Army Selected Reserve was extracted and used in developing turnover models based on threshold behavior theory. Logit regression techniques were used to estimate separate turnover models by gender and prior Active Duty service status. Explanatory variables included demographic, military background, economic incentive, and cognitive/perceptual factors. Factor analysis was used to identify dimensions among attitudinal responses and to construct a set of composite variables. Model results indicate that all prior service/gender cohorts were significantly influenced by retirement benefits. Additional significant influences for these groups include 1: intrinsic job characteristics and family status for nonprior service women; age at entry, paygrade, and income for nonprior service males; intrinsic job characteristics and drill characteristics for prior service women; and age at Reserve entry...
In this report, prepared for the Eighth Quadrennial Review ofMilitary Compensation, intrinsic task motivation is related to selfmanagement,
a set ofproblem solving behaviors corresponding to the requirements specified for twenty-first century military personnel.
Intrinsic task motivation refers to the psychological rewards that individuals derive directly from their work tasks. An integrative theory
presents four types ofintrinsic rewards: senses ofmeaningrulness, choice, competence, and progress. These rewards correspond to four
types of decision-making behaviors that define self-management: committing to a meaningful purpose, choosing activities to accomplish
this purpose, monitoring the quality/competence of one's activities, and monitoring one's progress toward the purpose. Self-management
is contrasted with micro-management: the dominant style ofthe traditional or "old school" ofmanagement. Intrinsic motivation and selfmanagement
are more congruent with the military's strategic human resource requirements in the twenty-first century, as exemplified by
Total Quality Management, Force XXI, and the U.S. Army as a learning organization. The potential benefits ofintrinsic task motivation
and self-management include, at the individual level...
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; The authors examine the history of immigrant military service in the United States, explore the motivations of noncitizen enlistees, and analyze the military performance of noncitizens relative to that of citizen enlistees. Information sources include a comprehensive review of literature, focused interviews with a small sample of noncitizen enlistees, and cohort data files of enlisted personnel who entered the military from 1990 through 1998. The history of noncitizen service corresponds roughly to the nation's history of immigration and naturalization policy, with military service having offered immigrants economic benefits, as well as a path toward assimilation. Service by noncitizens has also provided the country a way to meet its military manpower needs. The results of statistical analyses suggest noncitizens have lower predicted rates of first-term attrition, and higher estimated rates of retention beyond the first term and promotion to E-4. The authors conclude that noncitizens provide a valuable source of manpower, and fulfill important roles as influencers for the next generation. Thus, it may be worthwhile to provide noncitizens more information about enlistment opportunities...
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; This study examines the factors that influence active duty Marines in their retention decisions. Data from the 1999 US Marine Corps retention survey are matched with actual retention data from personnel files and limited to Marines eligible to make a stay/leave decision within 24 months of the survey. Four subgroups are defined: enlisted first-term males, enlisted first-term females, enlisted career males and officer junior grade males. Bivariate analysis of explanatory control variables (personal characteristics and military background) and focus variables (responses to questionnaire items about civilian employment opportunities and satisfaction with aspects of military life) indicates significant associations with retention. Factor analysis is used to create seven satisfaction dimensions from the satisfaction variables. Multivariate logistic regression model results show that all the satisfaction dimensions are significant for the enlisted first term male model. Satisfaction dimensions for pay and benefits, health benefits, work equity, current job characteristics, and future career opportunities are significant in one or more of the remaining models. Searching for a civilian job is significant in all models and perceptions of civilian job opportunities are significant in most. Among control variables...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Physicians are the most difficult health care professional group to retain on active duty beyond their first obligated tour. A major problem is the disparity between military and civilian physician income. In fiscal year 1997, the Department of the Navy spent approximately $135 million in specialty pay on the Navy's 4,000 active duty physicians. Health care reform has altered the demand for specialty and primary care physicians, accelerating the movement toward managed care. In this thesis, the authors quantify the role of the pay differential using a multivariate logistic model and conclude that the civilian- military pay differential has a significant influence on the probability that a physician remains in the Navy. Physician personnel and earnings data were gathered from the Defense Manpower Data Center, the American Association of Medical Colleges, and the Hay Group. Results indicate that recent shifts in demand have resulted in a greater sensitivity of retention to pay for primary care physicians. Specialty specific elasticities can be applied to analyze the expected impact of pay on retention of representative pay plans. Increases in pay to the civilian median level would substantially increase retention...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; Legislators, recognizing the need to increase the national savings rate, have introduced profit-sharing and thrift savings plans to civilians, but have not included the military. This thesis examines the need for and the costs and benefits of an employer-sponsored savings plan for active duty military personnel. It concludes that it is both feasible and cost-effective to tailor tax-sheltered annuities (TSA's) currently available to nonprofit organizations to the military compensation system. It proposes an account for saving active pay (ASAP) that would permit contributions of one percent (%) of base pay (up to the 20 percent which TSAs allow) per year of military service with the account maturing upon termination of active duty. This program, as envisioned for active duty military personnel, would provide an incentive to improve personal financial management practices. This, in turn, would encourage military personnel to contribute to improvement of the national savings rate.; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; This thesis investigates the factors that influence the retention intentions of 680 junior male Army officers who are serving within their initial obligated service. To estimate the models, data for this thesis were drawn from responses to the 1999 DoD Survey of Active Duty Personnel. The survey includes data on retention intentions of service members. Past research has shown that a member's intention is a good predictor of retention behavior. Logistic regression analysis is used to identify demographic, tenure, economic, and cognitive characteristics that significantly affect the intention to stay or to quit the military and to assess their relative importance.; First Lieutenant, Turkish Army
Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited; This thesis investigates the factors that influence the retention intentions of 373 junior male Navy officers who are serving within their initial obligated service. To estimate the models, data for this thesis were drawn from responses to the 1999 DoD Survey of Active Duty Personnel. The survey includes data on retention intentions of service members. Past research has shown that a member's intention is a good predictor of retention behavior. Logistic regression analysis is used to identify demographic, tenure, economic, and other characteristics that significantly affect the intention to stay or to quit the military and to assess their relative importance. The SAS software package is used to analyze the data. The model developed for this thesis is successful in identifying several factors influencing the retention intentions of junior male Navy officers. Nine of the seventeen variables included in the model have a significant impact upon retention. Officers' decision to remain on active duty were significantly influenced by the demographic characteristics of family status; the tenure characteristics of military rank (O3) and military life expectation; the economic characteristics of the transferability of skills gained in the navy over to a good civilian job...
The question of how sufficient numbers of military health care providers can be maintained to meet an increasing demand on their services in the face of the all-volunteer service provides the focus for study. This thesis addresses the personnel retention issue through a model of organization commitment developed for a synthesis of research findings in related areas of organization psychology. The model is tested upon an existing pool of survey data drawn from the three military medical services. Discriminant analysis is employed to segregate the sample into degrees of commitment to determine the most successful predictors of retention and motivation. It was found that an individual's length of service and the perception of the command's concern for human resources were consistently more powerful predictors than the concern for salary, status, and educational opportunities. Profiles of the four categories of commitment are developed which provide insight into which individuals can more likely be retained in service. The profiles suggest areas in which organizations can move to improve upon retention and motivation. It is concluded that the concept of organization commitment discloses a broader range of effective policy choices than models presently available. (Author); http://archive.org/details/organizationcomm00feri; NA; NA
Approved for public release, distribution unlimited; This thesis examines marriage and divorce rates for Navy personnel and compares those rates with all military personnel and with the general U.S. population. In addition, it: provides a qualitative evaluation of counseling support services available to Navy people involved in divorce. Specifically, the thesis provides two important pieces of information: the relative frequency of marriage and divorce among Navy people, and a look at the effectiveness of the Navy's primary weapon to fight family dysfunction, the Family Service Center. Results indicate that Navy and military marriage rates are generally lower than overall civilian marriage rates, but two to three times higher among seventeen-to-twenty-year-olds; the divorce rates are lower for military men, but much higher for military women; and that the Family Service Center, while it is an effective method of addressing marital stress and family dysfunction in the Navy, can be improved.; Lieutenant, United States Navy; Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy
Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; The Pentagon is planning to gradually increase the Navy's SEAL force over the next several years to meet increasing global demands. The move was authorized by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) in a program decision memorandum (PDM) in December 2002. The PDM, which directed the growth of Special Operations Forces across the board, called on the Navy to bring the equivalent of two new SEAL Teams to the force between FY-06 and FY-08. Even though funding has been allotted to this task, there may not be enough manpower to fill these slots. Training issues coupled with retention issues have brought the growth process to a standstill. The purpose of this thesis is to identify which major variables and/or combinations of small variables need to be changed in order to increase NSW enlisted SEAL manning. The three major areas that will be looked at are recruitment, training, and retention. The focus will be to determine where NSW can do better at managing personnel in these areas. The end product will be a detailed analysis that will offer suggestions for program changes that can be implemented to increase NSW forces while raising the quality of operators at the same time.; Lieutenant Commander...
Approved for public release; distribution unlimited; Unit "retention profiles" were developed using
Navy Human Resource Management Survey responses for
both high and lew retention units. Although the
"profiles" were found to be identical for both high
and lew retention units, comparative analysis of
Survey responses was found of value in assisting unit
Commanding Officers in developing retention management
The data utilized consisted of 28,913 respondents
of the Navy Human Resource Management Survey during
the second guarter of fiscal year 1978. The
individual's stated career intent was regressed on the
survey dimensions, indices, and guestions to further
understand the dynamics of the retention decision.
Unit "retention profiles" were developed as a result
of stepwise discriminant analysis on the survey
guestions for both high and low retention units.
A detailed bibliography of employee job turnover
is included as an aid to future researchers.; http://archive.org/details/evaluationofeffe00almo; Lieutenant, United States Navy; Lieutenant, United States Navy
Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited.; Our primary research interest is whether participation in the Junior Reserve Offices Training Corps (JROTC) program influences youths' propensity to enlist; and for those who subsequently enlist, the influence on retention rates and propensity to reenlist. The novelty of this thesis lies in conducting multivariate analysis of the impact of JROTC participation on enlistment, retention and reenlistment. Our data sources are (1) the 1980 High School and Beyond (HS & B) survey and (2) Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC) enlisted personnel cohort files from Fiscal Year (FY) 1980 to 2000. We employ a number of econometric models with the HS & B data, including single equation PROBIT and LOGIT models, two-stage least squares (2SLS) with instrumental variables (IVs) and bivariate PROBIT equation. Our results show that JROTC positively influence enlistment when we treat JROTC participation as exogenous for both high school seniors and sophomores. The impact of JROTC participation on military enlistment decisions becomes negligible however, when we account for self-selection into the JROTC program of high school students. Using PROBIT and LOGIT models on the DMDC data, we find that enlisted personnel who graduated from JROTC are more likely to reenlist than non-JROTC graduates. Using the Cox proportional hazard survival analysis method...
Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.; This thesis examines factors which influence the retention of male, company-grade Marine Corps officers (grades O-1 to O-3) who are within their initial period of obligated service. Data used combined responses from the 1985 DoD Survey of Officer and Enlisted Personnel and the respondents' 1989 status from the officer master fine maintained by the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC). Logit regression was used to measure the relative importance of a broad range of factors for retention. These included: biographic and demographic characteristics, tenure data, perception of external job opportunities, and satisfaction with various aspects of military life. Results indicated that the individual's maritaldependent status, commissioning source, military occupational specialty, race, and satisfaction with specific intrinsic and extrinsic aspects of the military job are most important in predicting the retention behavior of junior Marine Corp officers with no less than 12 months of service and no more than seven and one-half years of active service. These findings can provide manpower planners with information to project and manage future retention levels of company-grade officers and to identify possible shortfalls in critical occupational specialties.; Captain...
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The purpose of this thesis was to investigate the factors affecting the retention behavior of first term and second term Marine Corps enlisted members. Data were extracted from the 1992 DoD Survey of Officer and Enlisted Personnel and their Spouses and were matched with the respondents' 1996 status from the Active Duty Military Master and Loss File by the Defense Manpower Data Center. The sample was restricted to Marines with between two and ten years-of- service who had less than two years remailing on their enlistment contract and was further stratified by term of enlistment and gender. A complete conceptual model was developed which incorporated individual and organizational factors affecting retention. Four categories of determinants of turnover were used: Demographic, Military Experience, Cognitive and External. Logistic regression was used to measure the relative importance of a broad range of these factors for the retention decision. Results indicated that the factors affecting retention differ across term of service and by gender. No single factor was significant for all gender/term of service samples. Some factors were significant only for a particular term of service. Others were significant only by gender and many were significant only for a single sample. The specific findings can provide manpower planners with targeted information to manage retention levels for first term and second term Marines more effectively; http://archive.org/details/retentionoffirst00kerr; Captain...
Contemporary militaries depend on volunteer soldiers capable of dealing with advanced technology and complex missions. An important factor in the successful recruiting, retention, and employment of quality personnel is the set of personnel policies which a military has in place. It might be assumed that military policies on personnel derive solely from the functional necessities of the organization's mission, given that the stakes of military effectiveness are generally very high. Unless the survival of the state is in jeopardy, however, it will seek to limit defense costs, which may entail cutting into effectiveness. How a state chooses to make the tradeoffs between effectiveness and economy will be subject to influences other than military necessity. In this study, I argue that military personnel management policies ought to be a function of the interaction between the internal pressures of military mission and the external pressures of the national economic infrastructure surrounding the military. The pressures of military mission should not vary significantly across advanced democratic states, but the national market economic type will. Using written policy and expert interview data from five countries, this study analyzes how military selection...