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‣ Estudo do gene PTPN11 nos pacientes afetados pela síndrome de Noonan ; The PTPN11 gene analysis in Noonan syndrome patients

Bertola, Débora Romeo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/02/2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
37.84499%
INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome de Noonan é uma doença autossômica dominante caracterizada por baixa estatura, dismorfismos faciais (hipertelorismo ocular, inclinação para baixo das fendas palpebrais, ptose palpebral, palato alto e má-oclusão dentária), pescoço curto e/ou alado, defeitos cardíacos, principalmente a estenose pulmonar valvar, deformidade esternal e criptorquia nos pacientes do sexo masculino. O gene PTPN11, localizado no braço longo do cromossomo 12 (12q24.1), é responsável por aproximadamente 50% dos casos de síndrome de Noonan. OBJETIVO: Detectar a freqüência de mutações no gene PTPN11 em uma amostra de pacientes os quais preenchiam os critérios clínicos para a síndrome de Noonan e síndromes Noonan-like e estabelecer uma correlação genótipo-fenótipo. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta probandos com síndrome de Noonan, 3 com síndrome de LEOPARD, 3 com síndrome de Noonan-like/lesões múltiplas de células gigantes e 2 com neurofibromatose-Noonan foram incluídos nesse estudo. O estudo molecular foi realizado através da técnica da cromatografia líquida de alta precisão desnaturante e, naqueles com um perfil anormal, a técnica do seqüenciamento do éxon em questão foi concretizada. RESULTADOS: Mutações missense no gene PTPN11 foram identificadas em 21 probandos com síndrome de Noonan (42%)...

‣ Análise da expressão dos genes PROP1 e CTNNB1 em craniofaringiomas adamantinomatosos com e sem mutação somática no CTNNB1; Analysis of PROP1 and CTNNB1 expression genes in adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas with and without CTNNB1 somatic mutation

Cani, Carolina Maria Gomes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/11/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.467476%
Os craniofaringiomas são os tumores mais frequentes da região hipotálamohipofisária na faixa etária pediátrica. Apesar de serem histologicamente benignos, sua tendência infiltrativa e seu comportamento agressivo resultam em significante morbimortalidade. Histologicamente podem ser divididos em dois subtipos: adamantinomatosos e papilíferos. A patogênese dos craniofaringiomas é pouco compreendida. Mutações no gene CTNNB1, que codifica a proteína beta-catenina, são a única alteração molecular conhecida até o momento implicada na tumorigênese dos craniofaringiomas adamantinomatosos. Tais mutações afetam o sítio de degradação da beta-catenina, que passa a se acumular no citoplasma e no núcleo, ativando excessivamente a via de sinalização WNT, através da ligação aos fatores de transcrição da família LEF/TCF, levando a tumorigênese. Recentemente foi descoberto um novo mecanismo de determinação da linhagem celular hipofisária regulado pela beta-catenina, através do qual ela interage diretamente com o PROP1 para determinar a diferenciação celular hipofisária. De acordo com esse modelo, o complexo protéico PROP1/beta- catenina atua simultaneamente como repressor do HESX1 e ativador do PIT1, dependendo dos co-fatores associados. Pacientes com mutações germinativas inativadoras no PROP1 desenvolvem hipopituitarismo e podem apresentar aumento hipofisário com imagens de ressonância nuclear magnética (RNM) da região selar muitas vezes semelhantes àquelas dos craniofaringiomas...

‣ Neuroferritinopathy : missense mutation in FTL causing early-onset bilateral pallidal involvement

Maciel, P.; Cruz, V. T.; Constante, M.; Iniesta, I.; Costa, Maria do Carmo; Gallati, S.; Sousa, Nuno; Sequeiros, Jorge; Coutinho, P.; Santos, M. M.
Fonte: American Academy of Neurology Publicador: American Academy of Neurology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2005 Português
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The authors identified a missense mutation in the FTL gene (474G>A; A96T) in a 19-year-old man with parkinsonism, ataxia, corticospinal signs, mild nonprogressive cognitive deficit, and episodic psychosis. This mutation was also present in his asymptomatic mother and younger brother, who had abnormally low levels of ferritin in the serum. The patient and his mother displayed bilateral involvement of the pallidum.; Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia/Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional (FCT)/(FEDER) - CBO/33485/99.

‣ X-linked mild non-syndromic mental retardation with neuropsychiatric problems and the missense mutation A365E in PAK3

Gedeon, A.; Nelson, J.; Gecz, J.; Mulley, J.
Fonte: Wiley-Liss Publicador: Wiley-Liss
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
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We describe a family of 19 males in five generations with mild to borderline non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (MRX). There were no clinical manifestations in the affected males other than mental impairment and relatively long ears, with neuropsychiatric problems in some cases. Linkage analysis carried out on part of the pedigree using 34 markers spanning the X chromosome localized the gene between DXS454 and DXS1001 in Xq23. The maximum two-point lod score was 3.21 at DXS1059. PAK3 is a known MRX gene mapping to the same region. The affected males and obligate carrier females were found to have a missense mutation c.1094C > A in exon 10 causing an A365E substitution in a highly conserved region of the protein. The C to A base change abolishes a PvuII restriction enzyme site providing the basis for a simple test, if required, for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis in the extended family.; Gedeon, Agi K.; Nelson, John; Gécz, Jozef; Mulley, John C.

‣ Detection of a novel missense mutation and second recurrent mutation in the CACNA1A gene in individuals with EA-2 and FHM

Friend, K.; Crimmins, D.; Phan, T.; Sue, C.; Colley, A.; Fung, V.; Morris, J.; Sutherland, G.; Richards, R.
Fonte: SPRINGER VERLAG Publicador: SPRINGER VERLAG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1999 Português
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48.02283%
Mutations in the brain specific P/Q type Ca2+ channel alpha1 subunit gene, CACNA1A, have been identified in three clinically distinct disorders, viz. episodic ataxia type 2 (EA-2), familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) and spinocerebellar ataxia 6 (SCA6). For individuals with EA-2, the mutations described thus far are presumed to result in a truncated protein product. Several different missense mutations have been identified in patients with FHM. At least two of these mutations have been identified on two different chromosome 19p13 haplotypes and thus represent recurrent mutations. In the present study, we have screened several individuals for mutations in all 47 exons in the CACNA1A gene by single-strand conformation analysis. We have characterised a novel missense mutation, G5260A, in exon 32 in a family segregating for EA-2. The consequence of this mutation is an amino acid substitution at a highly conserved position within the CACNA1A gene. This represents the first point mutation not resulting in a proposed truncated protein. Furthermore, this mutation has been detected in a family member with mild clinical signs including only migraine. Additionally, a second previously identified recurrent muta tion, C2272T, in exon 16 has been discovered in a patient with FHM.; Friend...

‣ Structural and functional characteristics of the Val44Met insulin-like growth factor I missense mutation: Correlation with effects on growth and development

Denley, A.; Wang, C.; McNeil, K.; Walenkamp, M.; van Duyvenvoorde, H.; Wit, J.; Wallace, J.; Norton, R.; Karperien, M.; Forbes, B.
Fonte: Endocrine Soc Publicador: Endocrine Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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We have previously described the phenotype resulting from a missense mutation in the IGF-I gene, which leads to expression of IGF-I with a methionine instead of a valine at position 44 (Val44Met IGF-I). This mutation caused severe growth and mental retardation as well as deafness evident at birth and growth retardation in childhood, but is relatively well tolerated in adulthood. We have conducted a biochemical and structural analysis of Val44Met IGF-I to provide a molecular basis for the phenotype observed. Val44Met IGF-I exhibits a 90-fold decrease in type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) binding compared with wild-type human IGF-I and only poorly stimulates autophosphorylation of the IGF-1R. The ability of Val44Met IGF-I to signal via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Akt/protein kinase B pathways and to stimulate DNA synthesis is correspondingly poorer. Binding or activation of both insulin receptor isoforms is not detectable even at micromolar concentrations. However, Val44Met IGF-I binds IGF-binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2), IGFBP-3, and IGFBP-6 with equal affinity to IGF-I, suggesting the maintenance of overall structure, particularly in the IGFBP binding domain. Structural analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance confirms retention of near-native structure with only local side-chain disruptions despite the significant loss of function. To our knowledge...

‣ Homozygous and heterozygous expression of a novel insulin-like growth factor-I mutation

Walenkamp, M.; Karperien, M.; Pereira, A.; Hilhorst-Hofstee, Y.; van Doorn, J.; Chen, J.; Mohan, S.; Denley, A.; Forbes, B.; van Duyvenvoorde, H.; van Thiel, S.; Sluimers, C.; Bax, J.; de Laat, J.; Breuning, M.; Romijn, J.; Wit, J.
Fonte: Endocrine Society Publicador: Endocrine Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2005 Português
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IGF-I is a key factor in intrauterine development and postnatal growth and metabolism. The secretion of IGF-I in utero is not dependent on GH, whereas in childhood and adult life, IGF-I secretion seems to be mainly controlled by GH, as revealed from studies on patients with GHRH receptor and GH receptor mutations. In a 55-yr-old male, the first child of consanguineous parents, presenting with severe intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, and sensorineural deafness, we found a homozygous G to A nucleotide substitution in the IGF-I gene changing valine 44 into methione. The inactivating nature of the mutation was proven by functional analysis demonstrating a 90-fold reduced affinity of recombinantly produced for the IGF-I receptor. Additional investigations revealed osteoporosis, a partial gonadal dysfunction, and a relatively well-preserved cardiac function. Nine of the 24 relatives studied carried the mutation. They had a significantly lower birth weight, final height, and head circumference than noncarriers. In conclusion, the phenotype of our patient consists of severe intrauterine growth retardation, deafness, and mental retardation, reflecting the GH-independent secretion of IGF-I in utero. The postnatal growth pattern...

‣ X-linked myoclonic epilepsy with spasticity and intellectual disability - Mutation in the homeobox gene ARX

Scheffer, I.; Wallace, R.; Phillips, F.; Hewson, P.; Reardon, K.; Parasivam, G.; Stromme, P.; Berkovic, S.; Gecz, J.; Mulley, J.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To describe a new syndrome of X-linked myoclonic epilepsy with generalized spasticity and intellectual disability (XMESID) and identify the gene defect underlying this disorder. METHODS: The authors studied a family in which six boys over two generations had intractable seizures using a validated seizure questionnaire, clinical examination, and EEG studies. Previous records and investigations were obtained. Information on seizure disorders was obtained on 271 members of the extended family. Molecular genetic analysis included linkage studies and mutational analysis using a positional candidate gene approach. RESULTS: All six affected boys had myoclonic seizures and TCS; two had infantile spasms, but only one had hypsarrhythmia. EEG studies show diffuse background slowing with slow generalized spike wave activity. All affected boys had moderate to profound intellectual disability. Hyperreflexia was observed in obligate carrier women. A late-onset progressive spastic ataxia in the matriarch raises the possibility of late clinical manifestations in obligate carriers. The disorder was mapped to Xp11.2-22.2 with a maximum lod score of 1.8. As recently reported, a missense mutation (1058C>T/P353L) was identified within the homeodomain of the novel human Aristaless related homeobox gene (ARX). CONCLUSIONS: XMESID is a rare X-linked recessive myoclonic epilepsy with spasticity and intellectual disability in boys. Hyperreflexia is found in carrier women. XMESID is associated with a missense mutation in ARX. This disorder is allelic with X-linked infantile spasms (ISSX; MIM 308350) where polyalanine tract expansions are the commonly observed molecular defect. Mutations of ARX are associated with a wide range of phenotypes; functional studies in the future may lend insights to the neurobiology of myoclonic seizures and infantile spasms.; http://www.neurology.org/cgi/content/abstract/59/3/348

‣ Acampomelic campomelic dysplasia with SOX9 mutation

Thong, M.; Scherer, G.; Kozlowski, K.; Haan, E.; Morris, L.
Fonte: Wiley-Liss Publicador: Wiley-Liss
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
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Acampomelic campomelic dysplasia is a rare clinical variant of the more commonly encountered campomelic dysplasia (CMD1), characterized by absence of long bone curvature (acampomelia). We present a patient with acampomelic CMD1 with a de novo SOX9 missense mutation and report his clinical course to age one year, thereby contributing to genotype-phenotype correlation in CMD1. 2000.

‣ Temporal lobe epilepsy and GEFS(+) phenotypes associated with SCN1B mutations

Scheffer, I.; Harkin, L.; Grinton, B.; Dibbens, L.; Turner, S.; Zielinski, M.; Xu, R.; Jackson, G.; Adams, J.; Connellan, M.; Petrou, S.; Wellard, R.; Briellmann, R.; Wallace, R.; Mulley, J.; Berkovic, S.
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Publicador: Oxford Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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SCN1B, the gene encoding the sodium channel ß 1 subunit, was the first gene identified for generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+). Only three families have been published with SCN1B mutations. Here, we present four new families with SCN1B mutations and characterize the associated phenotypes. Analysis of SCN1B was performed on 402 individuals with various epilepsy syndromes. Four probands with missense mutations were identified. Detailed electroclinical phenotyping was performed on all available affected family members including quantitative MR imaging in those with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Two new families with the original C121W SCN1B mutation were identified; novel mutations R85C and R85H were each found in one family. The following phenotypes occurred in the six families with SCN1B missense mutations: 22 febrile seizures, 20 febrile seizures plus, five TLE, three other GEFS+ phenotypes, two unclassified and ten unaffected individuals. All individuals with confirmed TLE had the C121W mutation; two underwent temporal lobectomy (one with hippocampal sclerosis and one without) and both are seizure free. We confirm the role of SCN1B in GEFS+ and show that the GEFS+ spectrum may include TLE alone. TLE with an SCN1B mutation is not a contraindication to epilepsy surgery.; Ingrid E. Scheffer...

‣ The original Lujan syndrome family has a novel missense mutation (p. N1007S) in the MED12 gene

Schwartz, C.; Tarpey, P.; Lubs, H.; Verloes, A.; May, M.; Risheg, H.; Friez, M.; Futreal, P.; Edkins, S.; Teague, J.; Briault, S.; Skinner, C.; Bauer-Carlin, A.; Simensin, R.; Joseph, S.; Jones, J.; Gecz, J.; Stratton, M.; Raymond, F.; Stevenson, R.
Fonte: British Med Journal Publ Group Publicador: British Med Journal Publ Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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A novel missense mutation in the mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 12 (MED12) gene has been found in the original family with Lujan syndrome and in a second family (K9359) that was initially considered to have Opitz–Kaveggia (FG) syndrome. A different missense mutation in the MED12 gene has been reported previously in the original family with FG syndrome and in five other families with compatible clinical findings. Neither sequence alteration has been found in over 1400 control X chromosomes. Lujan (Lujan–Fryns) syndrome is characterised by tall stature with asthenic habitus, macrocephaly, a tall narrow face, maxillary hypoplasia, a high narrow palate with dental crowding, a small or receding chin, long hands with hyperextensible digits, hypernasal speech, hypotonia, mild-to-moderate mental retardation, behavioural aberrations and dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. Although Lujan syndrome has not been previously considered to be in the differential diagnosis of FG syndrome, there are some overlapping clinical manifestations. Specifically, these are dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, macrocephaly/relative macrocephaly, a tall forehead, hypotonia, mental retardation and behavioural disturbances. Thus, it seems that these two X-linked mental retardation syndromes are allelic...

‣ Dravet syndrome or genetic (generalized) epilepsy with febrile seizures plus?

Scheffer, I.; Zhang, Y.H.; Jansen, F.; Dibbens, L.
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Dravet syndrome and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) can both arise due to mutations of SCN1A, the gene encoding the alpha 1 pore-forming subunit of the sodium channel. GEFS+ refers to a familial epilepsy syndrome where at least two family members have phenotypes that fit within the GEFS+ spectrum. The GEFS+ spectrum comprises a range of mild to severe phenotypes varying from classical febrile seizures to Dravet syndrome. Dravet syndrome is a severe infantile onset epilepsy syndrome with multiple seizure types, developmental slowing and poor outcome. More than 70% of patients with Dravet syndrome have mutations of SCN1A; these include both truncation and missense mutations. In contrast, only 10% of GEFS+ families have SCN1A mutations and these comprise missense mutations. GEFS+ has also been associated with mutations of genes encoding the sodium channel beta 1 subunit, SCN1B, and the GABA(A) receptor gamma 2 subunit, GABRG2. The phenotypic heterogeneity that is characteristic of GEFS+ families is likely to be due to modifier genes. Interpretation of the significance of a SCN1A missense mutation requires a thorough understanding of the phenotypes in the GEFS+ spectrum whereas a de novo truncation mutation is likely to be associated with a severe phenotype. Early recognition of Dravet syndrome is important as aggressive control of seizures may improve developmental outcome.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/524172/description#description; Ingrid E. Scheffer...

‣ Analysis of a set of missense, frameshift, and in-frame deletion variants of BRCA1

Carvalho, M.; Pino, M.; Karchin, R.; Beddor, J.; Godinho-Netto, M.; Mesquita, R.; Rodarte, R.; Vaz, D.; Monteiro, V.; Manoukian, S.; Colombo, M.; Ripamonti, C.; Rosenquist, R.; Suthers, G.; Borg, A.; Radice, P.; Grist, S.; Monteiro, A.; Billack, B.
Fonte: Elsevier Science BV Publicador: Elsevier Science BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Germline mutations that inactivate BRCA1 are responsible for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility. One possible outcome of genetic testing for BRCA1 is the finding of a genetic variant of uncertain significance for which there is no information regarding its cancer association. This outcome leads to problems in risk assessment, counseling and preventive care. The purpose of the present study was to functionally evaluate seven unclassified variants of BRCA1 including a genomic deletion that leads to the in-frame loss of exons 16/17 (Delta exons 16/17) in the mRNA, an insertion that leads to a frameshift and an extended carboxy-terminus (5673insC), and five missense variants (K1487R, S1613C, M1652I, Q1826H and V1833M). We analyzed the variants using a functional assay based on the transcription activation property of BRCA1 combined with supervised learning computational models. Functional analysis indicated that variants S1613C, Q1826H, and M1652I are likely to be neutral, whereas variants V1833M, Delta exons 16/17, and 5673insC are likely to represent deleterious variants. In agreement with the functional analysis, the results of the computational analysis also indicated that the latter three variants are likely to be deleterious. Taken together...

‣ Discrepancy in factor VIII 1-stage/2-stage activity in a child with Arg(531) -> His mutation

Nath, S.; Williams, V.; Griffiths, A.; Revesz, T.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Routine screening of infants born to known hemophilia carriers includes a factor VIII (FVIII) level. In routine practice, mild FVIII deficiency variants may be missed by laboratories that exclusively use a one-stage activated partial thromboplastin time-based activity assay. This case illustrates such a possibility with a discrepancy between the one-stage and two-stage assays performed on a child who carries the Arg531!His mutation.; Shriram V. Nath, Vaughan K. Williams, Adrian B. Griffiths and Tamas Revesz

‣ CBG Santiago: a novel CBG mutation

Torpy, D.; Lundgren, B.; Ho, J.; Lewis, J.; Scott, H.; Mericq, V.
Fonte: Endocrine Society Publicador: Endocrine Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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CONTEXT: Corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG; SERPIN A6) gene mutations are rare; only four mutations have been described, often in association with fatigue and chronic pain, albeit with incomplete penetrance. PATIENT: We report a kindred with a novel SERPINA6 mutation. The proband, a 9-yr-old male, had excessive postexertional fatigue, weakness, and migraine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES AND RESULTS: Investigations revealed low morning and ACTH-stimulated peak cortisol levels. SERPIN A6 sequencing detected a novel exon 2 single base deletion (c.13delC) leading to a frameshift generating a stop codon within the signal peptide coding region(p.Leu5CysfsX26) and 50% reduced CBG levels in heterozygotes. The patient’s father and two sisters share the mutation. Symptom expression within the family may have been modified by a polymorphic CBG allele (c.735G>T). Exogenous hydrocortisone had no effect on the fatigue. CONCLUSION: This report documents the fifth CBG gene mutation in humans and the second causing major effects on CBG levels. Individuals with low CBG levels may be misdiagnosed as having secondary hypocortisolism. The association with fatigue and idiopathic pain is again noted and may relate to altered stress system function. Variability of the phenotype may relate to other genetic variations ofthe CBG gene or environmental factors.; D.J. Torpy...

‣ An androgen receptor mutation in the MDA-MB-453 cell line model of molecular apocrine breast cancer compromises receptor activity

Moore, N.; Buchanan, G.; Harris, J.; Selth, L.; Bianco-Miotto, T.; Hanson, A.; Birrell, S.; Butler, L.; Hickey, T.; Tilley, W.
Fonte: Soc Endocrinology Publicador: Soc Endocrinology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Recent evidence indicates that the estrogen receptor-α-negative, androgen receptor (AR)-positive molecular apocrine subtype of breast cancer is driven by AR signaling. The MDA-MB-453 cell line is the prototypical model of this breast cancer subtype; its proliferation is stimulated by androgens such as 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) but inhibited by the progestin medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) via AR-mediated mechanisms. We report here that the AR gene in MDA-MB-453 cells contains a G-T transversion in exon 7, resulting in a receptor variant with a glutamine to histidine substitution at amino acid 865 (Q865H) in the ligand binding domain. Compared with wild-type AR, the Q865H variant exhibited reduced sensitivity to DHT and MPA in transactivation assays in MDA-MB-453 and PC-3 cells but did not respond to non-androgenic ligands or receptor antagonists. Ligand binding, molecular modeling, mammalian two-hybrid and immunoblot assays revealed effects of the Q865H mutation on ligand dissociation, AR intramolecular interactions, and receptor stability. Microarray expression profiling demonstrated that DHT and MPA regulate distinct transcriptional programs in MDA-MB-453 cells. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis revealed that DHT- but not MPA-regulated genes were associated with estrogen-responsive transcriptomes from MCF-7 cells and the Wnt signaling pathway. These findings suggest that the divergent proliferative responses of MDA-MB-453 cells to DHT and MPA result from the different genetic programs elicited by these two ligands through the AR-Q865H variant. This work highlights the necessity to characterize additional models of molecular apocrine breast cancer to determine the precise role of AR signaling in this breast cancer subtype.; Nicole L Moore...

‣ A recurrent de novo mutation in KCNC1 causes progressive myoclonus epilepsy

Muona, M.; Berkovic, S.F.; Dibbens, L.M.; Oliver, K.L.; Maljevic, S.; Bayly, M.A.; Joensuu, T.; Canafoglia, L.; Franceschetti, S.; Michelucci, R.; Markkinen, S.; Heron, S.E.; Hildebrand, M.S.; Andermann, E.; Andermann, F.; Gambardella, A.; Tinuper, P.; Li
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) are a group of rare, inherited disorders manifesting with action myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures and ataxia. We sequenced the exomes of 84 unrelated individuals with PME of unknown cause and molecularly solved 26 cases (31%). Remarkably, a recurrent de novo mutation, c.959G>A (p.Arg320His), in KCNC1 was identified as a new major cause for PME. Eleven unrelated exome-sequenced (13%) and two affected individuals in a secondary cohort (7%) had this mutation. KCNC1 encodes KV3.1, a subunit of the KV3 voltage-gated potassium ion channels, which are major determinants of high-frequency neuronal firing. Functional analysis of the Arg320His mutant channel showed a dominant-negative loss-of-function effect. Ten cases had pathogenic mutations in known PME-associated genes (NEU1, NHLRC1, AFG3L2, EPM2A, CLN6 and SERPINI1). Identification of mutations in PRNP, SACS and TBC1D24 expand their phenotypic spectra to PME. These findings provide insights into the molecular genetic basis of PME and show the role of de novo mutations in this disease entity.; Mikko Muona ... Sarah E Heron ... et al.

‣ The deleterious effect of missense mutations on pre-mRNA splicing

Gonçalves, Vânia; Jordan, Peter
Fonte: Nova Science Publishers Inc Publicador: Nova Science Publishers Inc
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2011 Português
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The presence of missense mutations detected during genetic testing makes it difficult to classify their pathogenic effect. It is possible that the predicted amino acid change affects protein function; however, it is also possible that a missense mutation does not act at the protein level but rather at the nucleotide level by interfering with the correct assembly of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. In this chapter we describe that short 6 to 9 nucleotides-containing sequence motifs act as exonic splicing regulatory elements. They are specifically recognized by corresponding splicing factors, which then assist in the recognition of the conserved splice site motifs by the spliceosome. Many examples show that a point mutation in these exonic splicing regulatory elements is sufficient to change splicing factor binding, which impairs inclusion of an exon during the splicing reaction. Thus, the molecular consequence of a missense mutation can be exon skipping and thus cause a frameshift in the messenger RNA that results in a premature stop codon and loss of function of the affected allele. Although several bioinformatic tools exist to predict splicing factor binding to mRNA, this effect of a missense mutation on splicing cannot yet be accurately predicted by sequence analysis alone. In order to determine whether a missense mutation has a deleterious effect on splicing of the corresponding mRNA...

‣ Correlation of tumour BRAF mutations and MLH1 methylation with germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation status: a literature review assessing utility of tumour features for MMR variant classification

Parsons, M.T.; Buchanan, D.D.; Thompson, B.; Young, J.P.; Spurdle, A.B.
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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47.40949%
Colorectal cancer (CRC) that demonstrates microsatellite instability (MSI) is caused by either germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations, or 'sporadic' somatic tumour MLH1 promoter methylation. MLH1 promoter methylation is reportedly correlated with tumour BRAF V600E mutation status. No systematic review has been undertaken to assess the value of BRAF V600E mutation and MLH1 promoter methylation tumour markers as negative predictors of germline MMR mutation status. A literature review of CRC cohorts tested for MMR mutations, and tumour BRAF V600E mutation and/or MLH1 promoter methylation was conducted using PubMed. Studies were assessed for tumour features, stratified by tumour MMR status based on immunohistochemistry or MSI where possible. Pooled frequencies and 95% CIs were calculated using a random effects model. BRAF V600E results for 4562 tumours from 35 studies, and MLH1 promoter methylation results for 2975 tumours from 43 studies, were assessed. In 550 MMR mutation carriers, the BRAF V600E mutation frequency was 1.40% (95% CI 0.06% to 3%). In MMR mutation-negative cases, the BRAF V600E mutation frequency was 5.00% (95% CI 4% to 7%) in 1623 microsatellite stable (MSS) cases and 63.50% (95% CI 47% to 79%) in 332 cases demonstrating MLH1 methylation or MLH1 expression loss. MLH1 promoter methylation of the 'A region' was reported more frequently than the 'C region' in MSS CRCs (17% vs 0.06%...

‣ A Missense Mutation in the Transcription Factor ETV5 Leads to Sterility, Increased Embryonic and Perinatal Death, Postnatal Growth Restriction, Renal Asymmetry and Polydactyly in the Mouse

Jamsai, Duangporn; Clark, Brett J.; Smith, Stephanie J.; Whittle, Belinda; Goodnow, Christopher C.; Ormandy, Christopher J.; O’Bryan, Moira K.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.642607%
ETV5 (Ets variant gene 5) is a transcription factor that is required for fertility. In this study, we demonstrate that ETV5 plays additional roles in embryonic and postnatal developmental processes in the mouse. Through a genome-wide mouse mutagenesis approach, we generated a sterile mouse line that carried a nonsense mutation in exon 12 of the Etv5 gene. The mutation led to the conversion of lysine at position 412 into a premature termination codon (PTC) within the ETS DNA binding domain of the protein. We showed that the PTC-containing allele produced a highly unstable mRNA, which in turn resulted in an undetectable level of ETV5 protein. The Etv5 mutation resulted in male and female sterility as determined by breeding experiments. Mutant males were sterile due to a progressive loss of spermatogonia, which ultimately resulted in a Sertoli cell only phenotype by 8 week-of-age. Further, the ETV5 target genes Cxcr4 and Ccl9 were significantly down-regulated in mutant neonate testes. CXCR4 and CCL9 have been implicated in the maintenance and migration of spermatogonia, respectively. Moreover, the Etv5 mutation resulted in several developmental abnormalities including an increased incidence of embryonic and perinatal lethality, postnatal growth restriction...