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‣ A new mutation in the hepcidin promoter impairs its BMP response and contributes to a severe phenotype in HFE related hemochromatosis

Island, Marie-Laure; Jouanolle, Anne-Marie; Mosser, Annick; Deugnier, Yves; David, Véronique; Brissot, Pierre; Loréal, Olivier
Fonte: Ferrata Storti Foundation Publicador: Ferrata Storti Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling activates transcription of the master iron regulator hepcidin in the liver. This study shows that a heterozygous mutation in the BMP-responsive element of the hepcidin gene promoter is associated with massive iron overload in a patient homozygous for the common HFE mutation, suggesting a new molecular mechanism of iron overload.

‣ An activating mutation in the CSF3R gene induces a hereditary chronic neutrophilia

Plo, Isabelle; Zhang, Yanyan; Le Couédic, Jean-Pierre; Nakatake, Mayuka; Boulet, Jean-Michel; Itaya, Miki; Smith, Steven O.; Debili, Najet; Constantinescu, Stefan N.; Vainchenker, William; Louache, Fawzia; de Botton, Stéphane
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/08/2009 Português
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We identify an autosomal mutation in the CSF3R gene in a family with a chronic neutrophilia. This T617N mutation energetically favors dimerization of the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) receptor transmembrane domain, and thus, strongly promotes constitutive activation of the receptor and hypersensitivity to G-CSF for proliferation and differentiation, which ultimately leads to chronic neutrophilia. Mutant hematopoietic stem cells yield a myeloproliferative-like disorder in xenotransplantation and syngenic mouse bone marrow engraftment assays. The survey of 12 affected individuals during three generations indicates that only one patient had a myelodysplastic syndrome. Our data thus indicate that mutations in the CSF3R gene can be responsible for hereditary neutrophilia mimicking a myeloproliferative disorder.

‣ A Rare Novel Deletion of the Tyrosine Hydroxylase Gene in Parkinson Disease

Bademci, Güney; Edwards, Todd L; Torres, Andre L; Scott, William K; Züchner, Stephan; Martin, Eden R; Vance, Jeffery M; Wang, Liyong
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2010 Português
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661.215%
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme is a rate limiting enzyme in dopamine biosynthesis. Missense mutation in both alleles of the TH gene is known to cause dopamine-related phenotypes, including dystonia and infantile Parkinsonism. However, it is not clear if single allele mutation in TH modifies the susceptibility to the adult form of Parkinson disease (PD). We reported a novel deletion of entire TH gene in an adult with PD. The deletion was first identified by copy number variation (CNV) analysis in a genome-wide association study using Illumina Infinium BeadChips. After screening 635 cases and 642 controls, the deletion was found in one PD case but not in any control. The deletion was confirmed by multiple quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. There is no additional exonic single nucleotide variant in the one copy of TH gene of the patient. The patient has an age-at-onset of 54 years, no evidence for dystonia, and was responsive to L-DOPA. This case supports the importance of the TH gene in PD pathogenesis and raises more attention to rare variants in candidate genes being a risk factor for Parkinson disease. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

‣ Mutations and Deletions in PCDH19 Account for Various Familial or Isolated Epilepsies in Females

Depienne, Christel; Trouillard, Oriane; Bouteiller, Delphine; Gourfinkel-An, Isabelle; Poirier, Karine; Rivier, François; Berquin, Patrick; Nabbout, Rima; Chaigne, Denys; Steschenko, Dominique; Gautier, Agnès; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Lannuzel, Annie;
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2011 Português
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Mutations in PCDH19, encoding protocadherin 19 on chromosome X, cause familial epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females or Dravet-like syndrome. Heterozygous females are affected while hemizygous males are spared, this unusual mode of inheritance being probably due to a mechanism called cellular interference. To extend the mutational and clinical spectra associated with PCDH19, we screened 150 unrelated patients (113 females) with febrile and afebrile seizures for mutations or rearrangements in the gene. Fifteen novel point mutations were identified in 15 female patients (6 sporadic and 9 familial cases). In addition, qPCR revealed two whole gene deletions and one partial deletion in 3 sporadic female patients. Clinical features were highly variable but included almost constantly a high sensitivity to fever and clusters of brief seizures. Interestingly, cognitive functions were normal in several family members of 2 families: the familial condition in family 1 was suggestive of Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus (GEFS+) whereas all three affected females had partial cryptogenic epilepsy. These results show that mutations in PCDH19 are a relatively frequent cause of epilepsy in females and should be considered even in absence of family history and/or mental retardation. © 2010 Wiley-Liss...

‣ Evaluation of Germline BMP4 Mutation as a Cause of Colorectal Cancer

Lubbe, Steven J; Pittman, Alan M; Matijssen, Cornelis; Twiss, Philip; Olver, Bianca; Lloyd, Amy; Qureshi, Mobshra; Brown, Nathan; Nye, Emma; Stamp, Gordon; Blagg, Julian; Houlston, Richard S
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2011 Português
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Transforming growth factor-â (TGF-â) signalling plays a key role in colorectal cancer (CRC). Bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) is a member of the TGF-â family of signal transduction molecules. To examine if germline mutation in BMP4 causes CRC we analysed 504 genetically enriched CRC cases (by virtue of early-onset disease, family history of CRC) for mutations in the coding sequence of BMP4. We identified three pathogenic mutations, p.R286X (g.8330C>T), p.W325C (g.8449G>T) and p.C373S (g.8592G>C), amongst the CRC cases which were not observed in 524 healthy controls. p.R286X localizes to the N-terminal of the TGF-â1 prodomain truncating the protein prior to the active domain. p.W325C and p.C373S mutations are predicted from protein homology modelling with BMP2 to impact deleteriously on BMP4 function. Segregation of p.C373S with adenoma and hyperplastic polyp in first-degree relatives of the case suggests germline mutations may confer a juvenile polyposis-type phenotype. These findings suggest mutation of BMP4is a cause of CRC and the value of protein-based modelling in the elucidation of rare disease-causing variants. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

‣ A Novel CRYGD Mutation (p.Trp43Arg) Causing Autosomal Dominant Congenital Cataract in a Chinese Family

Wang, Binbin; Yu, Changhong; Xi, Yi-Bo; Cai, Hong-Chen; Wang, Jing; Zhou, Sirui; Zhou, Shiyi; Wu, Yi; Yan, Yong-Bin; Ma, Xu; Xie, Lixin
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2011 Português
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To identify the genetic defect associated with autosomal dominant congenital nuclear cataract in a Chinese family, molecular genetic investigation via haplotype analysis and direct sequencing were performed Sequencing of the CRYGD gene revealed a c.127T>C transition, which resulted in a substitution of a highly conserved tryptophan with arginine at codon 43 (p.Trp43Arg). This mutation co-segregated with all affected individuals and was not observed in either unaffected family members or in 200 normal unrelated individuals. Biophysical studies indicated that the p.Trp43Arg mutation resulted in significant tertiary structural changes. The mutant protein was much less stable than the wild-type protein, and was more prone to aggregate when subjected to environmental stresses such as heat and UV irradiation. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

‣ Legius Syndrome in Fourteen Families

Denayer, Ellen; Chmara, Magdalena; Brems, Hilde; Kievit, Anneke Maat; van Bever, Yolande; Van den Ouweland, Ans MW; Van Minkelen, Rick; de Goede-Bolder, Arja; Oostenbrink, Rianne; Lakeman, Phillis; Beert, Eline; Ishizaki, Takuma; Mori, Tomoaki; Keymolen,
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /01/2011 Português
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Legius syndrome presents as an autosomal dominant condition characterized by café-au-lait macules with or without freckling and sometimes a Noonan-like appearance and/or learning difficulties. It is caused by germline loss-of-function SPRED1 mutations and is a member of the RAS-MAPK pathway syndromes. Most mutations result in a truncated protein and only a few inactivating missense mutations have been reported. Since only a limited number of patients has been reported up until now, the full clinical and mutational spectrum is still unknown. We report mutation data and clinical details in fourteen new families with Legius syndrome. Six novel germline mutations are described. The Trp31Cys mutation is a new pathogenic SPRED1 missense mutation. Clinical details in the 14 families confirmed the absence of neurofibromas, and Lisch nodules, and the absence of a high prevalence of central nervous system tumors. We report white matter T2 hyperintensities on brain MRI scans in 2 patients and a potential association between postaxial polydactyly and Legius syndrome. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

‣ Mutation Spectrum of EYS in Spanish Patients with Autosomal Recessive Retinitis Pigmentosa

Barragán, Isabel; Borrego, Salud; Pieras, Juan Ignacio; Pozo, María González-del; Santoyo, Javier; Ayuso, Carmen; Baiget, Montserrat; Millan, José M; Mena, Marcela; El-Aziz, Mai M Abd; Audo, Isabelle; Zeitz, Christina; Littink, Karin W; Dopazo, Joaqu
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2010 Português
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Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a heterogeneous group of inherited retinal dystrophies characterised ultimately by the loss of photoreceptor cells. We have recently identified a new gene (EYS) encoding an ortholog of Drosophila spacemaker (spam) as a commonly mutated gene in autosomal recessive RP. In the present study, we report the identification of 73 sequence variations in EYS, of which 28 are novel. Of these, 42.9% (12/28) are very likely pathogenic, 17.9% (5/28) are possibly pathogenic, whereas 39.3% (11/28) are SNPs. In addition, we have detected 3 pathogenic changes previously reported in other populations. We are also presenting the characterisation of EYS homologues in different species, and a detailed analysis of the EYS domains, with the identification of an interesting novel feature: a putative coiled-coil domain. Majority of the mutations in the arRP patients have been found within the domain structures of EYS. The minimum observed prevalence of distinct EYS mutations in our group of patients is of 15.9% (15/94), confirming a major involvement of EYS in the pathogenesis of arRP in the Spanish population. Along with the detection of three recurrent mutations in Caucasian population, our hypothesis of EYS being the first prevalent gene in arRP has been reinforced in the present study. © 2010 Wiley-Liss...

‣ Cerebral Arterial Stenoses and Stroke: Novel Features of Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome Caused by the Arg164X Mutation in SAMHD1 Are Associated with Altered Cytokine Expression

Thiele, Holger; du Moulin, Marcel; Barczyk, Katarzyna; George, Christel; Schwindt, Wolfram; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Frosch, Michael; Kurlemann, Gerhard; Roth, Johannes; Nürnberg, Peter; Rutsch, Frank
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2010 Português
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Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a rare inborn multisystemic disease, resembling intrauterine viral infection and resulting in psychomotor retardation, spasticity and chilblain-like skin lesions. Diagnostic criteria include intracerebral calcifications and elevated interferon-alpha and pterin levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We report on four adult siblings with unknown neurodegenerative disease presenting with cerebrovascular stenoses, stroke and glaucoma in childhood, two of whom died at the age of 40 and 29 years. Genome-wide homozygosity mapping identified 170 candidate genes embedded in a common haplotype of 8Mb on chromosome 20q11-13. Next generation sequencing of the entire region identified the c.490C>T (p.Arg164X) mutation in SAMHD1, a gene most recently described in AGS, on both alleles in all affected siblings. Clinical diagnosis of AGS was then confirmed by demonstrating intracerebral calcifications on cranial computed tomography in all siblings and elevated pterin levels in CSF in three of them. In patient fibroblasts, lack of SAMHD1 protein expression was associated with increased basal expression of IL8, while stimulated expression of IFNB1 was reduced. We conclude that cerebrovascular stenoses and stroke associated with the Arg164X mutation in SAMHD1 extend the phenotypic spectrum of AGS. The observed vascular changes most likely reflect a vasculitis caused by dysregulated inflammatory stress response. © 2010 Wiley-Liss...

‣ The Clinical Spectrum of Missense Mutations of the First Aspartic Acid of cbEGF-like Domains in Fibrillin-1 Including a Recessive Family

Hilhorst-Hofstee, Yvonne; Rijlaarsdam, Marry EB; Scholte, Arthur JHA; Swart-van den Berg, Marietta; Versteegh, Michel IM; van der Schoot-van Velzen, Iris; Schäbitz, Hans-Joachim; Bijlsma, Emilia K; Baars, Marieke J; Kerstjens-Frederikse, Wilhelmina S; Gi
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2010 Português
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Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a dominant disorder with a recognizable phenotype. In most patients with the classical phenotype mutations are found in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1) on chromosome 15q21. It is thought that most mutations act in a dominant negative way or through haploinsufficiency. In 9 index cases referred for MFS we detected heterozygous missense mutations in FBN1 predicted to substitute the first aspartic acid of different calcium-binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like (cbEGF) fibrillin-1 domains. A similar mutation was found in homozygous state in 3 cases in a large consanguineous family. Heterozygous carriers of this mutation had no major skeletal, cardiovascular or ophthalmological features of MFS. In the literature 14 other heterozygous missense mutations are described leading to the substitution of the first aspartic acid of a cbEGF domain and resulting in a Marfan phenotype. Our data show that the phenotypic effect of aspartic acid substitutions in the first position of a cbEGF domain can range from asymptomatic to a severe neonatal phenotype. The recessive nature with reduced expression of FBN1 in one of the families suggests a threshold model combined with a mild functional defect of this specific mutation. © 2010 Wiley-Liss...

‣ A Novel Mutation in CRYBB1 Associated with Congenital Cataract-Microcornea Syndrome: The p.Ser129Arg Mutation Destabilizes the βB1/βA3-crystallin Heteromer But Not the βB1-crystallin Homomer

Wang, Kai Jie; Wang, Sha; Cao, Ni-Qian; Yan, Yong-Bin; Zhu, Si Quan
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2011 Português
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Congenital cataract-microcornea syndrome (CCMC) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by lens opacities and microcornea. It appears as a distinct phenotype of heritable congenital cataract. Here we report a large Chinese family with autosomal dominant congenital cataract and microcornea. Evidence for linkage was detected at marker D22S1167 (LOD score [Z]=4.49, recombination fraction [θ]=0.0), which closely flanks the â-crystallin gene cluster locus. Direct sequencing of the candidate âB1-crystallin gene (CRYBB1) revealed a c.387C>A transversion in exon 4, which cosegregated with the disease in the family and resulted in the substitution of serine by arginine at codon 129 (p.Ser129Arg). A comparison of the biophysical properties of the recombinant β-crystallins revealed that the mutation impaired the structures of both βB1-crystallin homomer and βB1/βA3-crystallin heteromer. More importantly, the mutation significantly decreased the thermal stability of βB1/βA3-crystallin but not βB1-crystallin. These findings highlight the importance of protein-protein interactions among β-crystallins in maintaining lens transparency, and provide a novel insight into the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of human CCMC. © 2011 Wiley-Liss...

‣ Molecular Spectrum of Autosomal Dominant Hypercholesterolemia in France

Marduel, Marie; Carrié, Alain; Sassolas, Agnes; Devillers, Martine; Carreau, Valérie; Di Filippo, Mathilde; Erlich, Danièle; Abifadel, Marianne; Marques-Pinheiro, Alice; Munnich, Arnold; Junien, Claudine; Boileau, Catherine; Varret, Mathilde; Rabès, J
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2010 Português
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561.30625%
Autosomal Dominant Hypercholesterolemia (ADH), characterized by isolated elevation of plasmatic LDL cholesterol and premature cardiovascular complications, is associated with mutations in 3 major genes: LDLR (LDL receptor), APOB (apolipoprotein B) and PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9). Through the French ADH Research Network, we collected molecular data from 1358 French probands from eleven different regions in France. Mutations in the LDLR gene were identified in 1003 subjects representing 391 unique events with 46.0% missense, 14.6% frameshift, 13.6% splice, and 11.3% nonsense mutations, 9.7% major rearrangements, 3.8% small in frame deletions/insertions, and 1.0% UTR mutations. Interestingly, 175 are novel mutational events and represent 45% of the unique events we identified, highlighting a specificity of the LDLR mutation spectrum in France. Furthermore, mutations in the APOB gene were identified in 89 probands and in the PCSK9 gene in 10 probands. Comparison of available clinical and biochemical data showed a gradient of severity for ADH-causing mutations: FH=PCSK9>FDB>‘Others’ genes. The respective contribution of each known gene to ADH in this French cohort is: LDLR 73.9%, APOB 6.6%, PCSK9 0.7%. Finally...

‣ A leaky mutation in CD3D differentially affects αβ and γδ T cells and leads to a Tαβ–Tγδ+B+NK+ human SCID

Gil, Juana; Busto, Elena M.; Garcillán, Beatriz; Chean, Carmen; García-Rodríguez, Maria Cruz; Díaz-Alderete, Andrea; Navarro, Joaquín; Reiné, Jesús; Mencía, Angeles; Gurbindo, Dolores; Beléndez, Cristina; Gordillo, Isabel; Duchniewicz, Marlena; H
Fonte: American Society for Clinical Investigation Publicador: American Society for Clinical Investigation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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T cells recognize antigens via their cell surface TCR and are classified as either αβ or γδ depending on the variable chains in their TCR, α and β or γ and δ, respectively. Both αβ and γδ TCRs also contain several invariant chains, including CD3δ, which support surface TCR expression and transduce the TCR signal. Mutations in variable chains would be expected to affect a single T cell lineage, while mutations in the invariant chains would affect all T cells. Consistent with this, all CD3δ-deficient patients described to date showed a complete block in T cell development. However, CD3δ-KO mice have an αβ T cell–specific defect. Here, we report 2 unrelated cases of SCID with a selective block in αβ but not in γδ T cell development, associated with a new splicing mutation in the CD3D gene. The patients’ T cells showed reduced CD3D transcripts, CD3δ proteins, surface TCR, and early TCR signaling. Their lymph nodes showed severe T cell depletion, recent thymus emigrants in peripheral blood were strongly decreased, and the scant αβ T cells were oligoclonal. T cell–dependent B cell functions were also impaired, despite the presence of normal B cell numbers. Strikingly, despite the specific loss of αβ T cells...

‣ A reversion of an IL2RG mutation in combined immunodeficiency providing competitive advantage to the majority of CD8+ T cells

Kuijpers, Taco W.; van Leeuwen, Ester M.M.; Barendregt, Barbara H.; Klarenbeek, Paul; aan de Kerk, Daan J.; Baars, Paul A.; Jansen, Machiel H.; de Vries, Niek; van Lier, René A.W.; van der Burg, Mirjam
Fonte: Ferrata Storti Foundation Publicador: Ferrata Storti Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/2013 Português
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Mutations in the common gamma chain (γc, CD132, encoded by the IL2RG gene) can lead to B+T−NK− X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, as a consequence of unresponsiveness to γc-cytokines such as interleukins-2, -7 and -15. Hypomorphic mutations in CD132 may cause combined immunodeficiencies with a variety of clinical presentations. We analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a 6-year-old boy with normal lymphocyte counts, who suffered from recurrent pneumonia and disseminated mollusca contagiosa. Since proliferative responses of T cells and NK cells to γc -cytokines were severely impaired, we performed IL2RG gene analysis, showing a heterozygous mutation in the presence of a single X-chromosome. Interestingly, an IL2RG reversion to normal predominated in both naïve and antigen-primed CD8+ T cells and increased over time. Only the revertant CD8+ T cells showed normal expression of CD132 and the various CD8+ T cell populations had a different T-cell receptor repertoire. Finally, a fraction of γδ+ T cells and differentiated CD4+CD27− effector-memory T cells carried the reversion, whereas NK or B cells were repeatedly negative. In conclusion, in a patient with a novel IL2RG mutation, gene-reverted CD8+ T cells accumulated over time. Our data indicate that selective outgrowth of particular T-cell subsets may occur following reversion at the level of committed T progenitor cells.

‣ Prognostic impact of JAK2V617F mutation in myelodysplatic syndromes: A matched case control study☆

de Renzis, Benoit; Mansat-De Mas, Veronique; Wattel, Eric; Beyne-Rauzy, Odile; Knoops, Laurent; Cabrespine, Aurélie; Azgui, Zahia; Ades, Lionel; Kiladjian, Jean-Jacques; Fenaux, Pierre;
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/08/2013 Português
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While in RARS-T, JAK2V617F mutation is common and associated with good prognosis, the clinical and prognostic impact of this mutation in other MDS is unknown. We collected data from 132 non-RARS-T MDS with known JAK2V617F mutation status. JAK2V617F mutation was significantly correlated with lower progression to AML (p<.0011) and better overall survival (OS, p=.011). OS difference persisted after matching on age, sex, IPSS and % marrow blast (p=.031). Thus, in MDS other than RARS-T, JAK2V617F mutation may be associated with favorable outcome.

‣ Novel Germline Mutation in the Transmembrane Domain of HER2 in Familial Lung Adenocarcinomas

Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Higasa, Koichiro; Sakaguchi, Masakiyo; Shien, Kazuhiko; Soh, Junichi; Ichimura, Koichi; Furukawa, Masashi; Hashida, Shinsuke; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Takigawa, Nagio; Matsuo, Keitaro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Fumihiko
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/12/2013 Português
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We encountered a family of Japanese descent in which multiple members developed lung cancer. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a novel germline mutation in the transmembrane domain of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene (G660D). A novel somatic mutation (V659E) was also detected in the transmembrane domain of HER2 in one of 253 sporadic lung adenocarcinomas. Because the transmembrane domain of HER2 is considered to be responsible for the dimerization and subsequent activation of the HER family and downstream signaling pathways, we performed functional analyses of these HER2 mutants. Mutant HER2 G660D and V659E proteins were more stable than wild-type protein. Both the G660D and V659E mutants activated Akt. In addition, they activated p38, which is thought to promote cell proliferation in lung adenocarcinoma. Our findings strongly suggest that mutations in the transmembrane domain of HER2 may be oncogenic, causing hereditary and sporadic lung adenocarcinomas.

‣ Functional implications of the p.Cys680Arg mutation in the MLH1 mismatch repair protein

Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Drost, Mark; Therkildsen, Christina; Rambech, Eva; Ehrencrona, Hans; Angleys, Maria; Lau Hansen, Thomas; de Wind, Niels; Nilbert, Mef; Juel Rasmussen, Lene
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In clinical genetic diagnostics, it is difficult to predict whether genetic mutations that do not greatly alter the primary sequence of the encoded protein causing unknown functional effects on cognate proteins lead to development of disease. Here, we report the clinical identification of c.2038 T>C missense mutation in exon 18 of the human MLH1 gene and biochemically characterization of the p.Cys680Arg mutant MLH1 protein to implicate it in the pathogenicity of the Lynch syndrome (LS). We show that the mutation is deficient in DNA mismatch repair and, therefore, contributing to LS in the carriers.

‣ Identification of a germline mutation in the HRPT2 gene in a Chinese family with parathyroid carcinomas

Zhang, Mei; Li, Qin; Zhang, Lili; Fu, Rongzhan; Wang, Yulong; Chen, Shouhua; Yuan, Kai; Gu, He; Cui, Yazhou
Fonte: International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement Publicador: International Research and Cooperation Association for Bio & Socio-Sciences Advancement
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2012 Português
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This study reported a family with primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid carcinoma and investigated the pathological and genetic features of family members. Three members of the family had clinical manifestation of primary hyperparathyroidism and tumors in the neck. All three patients underwent parathyroidectomy, thyroidectomy and level-VI neck dissection and were definitively diagnosed based on pathology. The index case was a patient that was found to have parathyroid carcinoma on the right side and parathyroid adenoma on the left side. The other two patients had local tumor recurrence and metastasis to distant organs. A germline mutation in the HRPT2 gene (Arg91Pro) was identified in all of the patients in this family. Study of the literature indicated that this is the first report of familial parathyroid carcinomas with an HRPT2 gene missense mutation. Results also indicated that HRPT2 may play an important role in the development of parathyroid carcinoma.

‣ Nonsense Mutation in Coiled-Coil Domain Containing 151 Gene (CCDC151) Causes Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

Alsaadi, Muslim M; Erzurumluoglu, A Mesut; Rodriguez, Santiago; Guthrie, Philip A I; Gaunt, Tom R; Omar, Hager Z; Mubarak, Mohammad; Alharbi, Khalid K; Al-Rikabi, Ammar C; Day, Ian N M
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Publicador: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by impaired ciliary function that leads to subsequent clinical phenotypes such as chronic sinopulmonary disease. PCD is also a genetically heterogeneous disorder with many single gene mutations leading to similar clinical phenotypes. Here, we present a novel PCD causal gene, coiled-coil domain containing 151 (CCDC151), which has been shown to be essential in motile cilia of many animals and other vertebrates but its effects in humans was not observed until currently. We observed a novel nonsense mutation in a homozygous state in the CCDC151 gene (NM_145045.4:c.925G>T:p.[E309*]) in a clinically diagnosed PCD patient from a consanguineous family of Arabic ancestry. The variant was absent in 238 randomly selected individuals indicating that the variant is rare and likely not to be a founder mutation. Our finding also shows that given prior knowledge from model organisms, even a single whole-exome sequence can be sufficient to discover a novel causal gene.

‣ A Novel Germline CDKN1B Mutation Causing Multiple Endocrine Tumors: Clinical, Genetic and Functional Characterization

Molatore, Sara; Marinoni, Ilaria; Lee, Misu; Pulz, Elke; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Uberti, Ettore C degli; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Pellegata, Natalia S
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2010 Português
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Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are characterized by tumors involving two or more endocrine glands. Two MEN syndromes have long been known: MEN1 and MEN2, caused by germline mutations in MEN1 or RET, respectively. Recently, mutations in CDKN1B, encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27, were identified in patients having a MEN1-like phenotype but no MEN1 gene mutations. Currently, the molecular mechanisms mediating the role of p27 in tumor predisposition are ill defined. We here report a novel germline missense variant in CDKN1B (c.678C>T, p.P69L) found in a patient with multiple endocrine tumors. We previously reported a nonsense p27 mutation (c.692G>A, p.W76X) in two patients with MEN1-like phenotype. Functional assays were used to characterize p27P69L and p27W76X in vitro. We show that p27P69L is expressed at reduced level and is impaired in both binding to Cdk2 and inhibiting cell growth. p27W76X, which is mislocalized to the cytoplasm, can no longer efficiently bind Cyclins-Cdks, nor inhibit cell growth or induce apoptosis. In the patient's tumor tissues, p27P69L associates with reduced/absent p27 expression and in one tumor with loss-of-heterozygosity. Our results extend previous findings of CDKN1B mutations in patients with MEN1-related states and support the hypothesis of a tumor suppressor role for p27 in neuroendocrine cells. © 2010 Wiley-Liss...