Página 1 dos resultados de 434 itens digitais encontrados em 0.055 segundos

‣ Synteny of human chromosomes 14 and 15 in the platyrrhines (Primates, Platyrrhini)

GIFALLI-IUGHETTI, Cristiani; KOIFFMANN, Célia P.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.654688%
In order to study the intra- and interspecific variability of the 14/15 association in Platyrrhini, we analyzed 15 species from 13 genera, including species that had not been described yet. The DNA libraries of human chromosomes 14 and 15 were hybridized to metaphases of Alouatta guariba clamitans, A. caraya, A. sara, Ateles paniscus chamek, Lagothrix lagothricha, Brachyteles arachnoides, Saguinus midas midas, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, Callimico goeldii, Callithrix sp., Cebus apella, Aotus nigriceps, Cacajao melanocephalus, Chiropotes satanas and Callicebus caligatus. The 14/15 hybridization pattern was present in 13 species, but not in Alouatta sara that showed a 14/15/14 pattern and Aotus nigriceps that showed a 15/14/15/14 pattern. In the majority of the species, the HSA 14 homologue retained synteny for the entire chromosome, whereas the HSA 15 homologue displayed fragmented segments. Within primates, the New World monkeys represent the taxon with the highest variability in chromosome number (2n = 16 to 62). The presence of the HSA 14/15 association in all species and subspecies studied herein confirms that this association is the ancestral condition for platyrrhines and that this association has been retained in most platyrrhines...

‣ MODULARITY, NOISE, AND NATURAL SELECTION

Zambonato, Gabriel Henrique Marroig; Melo, Diogo A. R.; Garcia, Guilherme
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.654688%
Most biological systems are formed by component parts that are to some degree interrelated. Groups of parts that are more associated among themselves and are relatively autonomous from others are called modules. One of the consequences of modularity is that biological systems usually present an unequal distribution of the genetic variation among traits. Estimating the covariance matrix that describes these systems is a difficult problem due to a number of factors such as poor sample sizes and measurement errors. We show that this problem will be exacerbated whenever matrix inversion is required, as in directional selection reconstruction analysis. We explore the consequences of varying degrees of modularity and signal-to-noise ratio on selection reconstruction. We then present and test the efficiency of available methods for controlling noise in matrix estimates. In our simulations, controlling matrices for noise vastly improves the reconstruction of selection gradients. We also perform an analysis of selection gradients reconstruction over a New World Monkeys skull database to illustrate the impact of noise on such analyses. Noise-controlled estimates render far more plausible interpretations that are in full agreement with previous results.; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq); Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES); Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)

‣ Sero-epidemiological survey for brucellosis, leptospirosis, and toxoplasmosis in free-ranging Alouatta caraya and Callithrix penicillata from São Paulo State, Brazil

Molina, Camila Vieira; Dias, José Luiz Catão; Neto, José Soares Ferreira; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Gennari, Solange Maria; Valle, Rodrigo Del Riodo; Souza, Gisele Oliveira de; Higa, Zenaide Maria de Morais; Vitaliano, Sérgio Netto; Strefezzi, Rica
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons; Hoboken Publicador: John Wiley & Sons; Hoboken
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.654688%
Background and Methods Sera were tested for Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in 68 free-ranging New World monkeys from a forest fragment of the Brazilian Cerrado. Results and Conclusion All animals were negative for Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. However, 75% of Alouatta caraya and 16.6% of Callithrix penicillata were positive for T. gondii. The implications for conservation and health management are discussed.; We would like to thank the Wildlife Management (WLM) team for their support with the sample collection. The authors would also like to thank to Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo — FAPESP for financial support (Process number 2011/ 08149-8 and 09/51466-4; 09/53561-4). We also thank Dr. Chris Gardiner for constructive comments.

‣ Sero-epidemiological survey for brucellosis, leptospirosis, and toxoplasmosis in free-ranging Alouatta caraya and Callithrix penicillata from Sao Paulo State, Brazil

Molina, Camila Vieira; Catao-Dias, Jose Luiz; Ferreira Neto, Jose Soares; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda; Gennari, Solange Maria; Valle, Rodrigo Del Rio do; Souza, Gisele Oliveira de; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Vitaliano, Sergio Netto; Strefezzi, Ricardo De F
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 197-201
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.654688%
Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Processo FAPESP: 11/08149-8; Processo FAPESP: 09/51466-4; Processo FAPESP: 09/53561-4; Background and MethodsSera were tested for Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in 68 free-ranging New World monkeys from a forest fragment of the BrazilianCerrado.Results and ConclusionAll animals were negative for Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. However, 75% of Alouatta caraya and 16.6% of Callithrix penicillata were positive for T. gondii. The implications for conservation and health management are discussed.

‣ Serological evidence for Saint Louis encephalitis virus in free-ranging New World monkeys and horses within the upper Paraná River basin region, Southern Brazil

Svoboda,Walfrido Kühl; Martins,Lívia Carício; Malanski,Luciano de Souza; Shiozawa,Marcos Massaaki; Spohr,Kledir Anderson Hofstaetter; Hilst,Carmen Lúcia Scortecci; Aguiar,Lucas M.; Ludwig,Gabriela; Passos,Fernando de Camargo; Silva,Lineu Roberto da; H
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical - SBMT
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
78.045835%
Introduction Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) primarily occurs in the Americas and produces disease predominantly in humans. This study investigated the serological presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. Methods From June 2004 to December 2005, sera from 133 monkeys (Alouatta caraya, n=43; Sapajus nigritus, n=64; Sapajus cay, n=26) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin region and 23 blood samples from farm horses were obtained and used for the serological detection of a panel of 19 arboviruses. All samples were analyzed in a hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay; positive monkey samples were confirmed in a mouse neutralization test (MNT). Additionally, all blood samples were inoculated into C6/36 cell culture for viral isolation. Results Positive seroreactivity was only observed for SLEV. A prevalence of SLEV antibodies in sera was detected in Alouatta caraya (11.6%; 5/43), Sapajus nigritus (12.5%; 8/64), and S. cay (30.8%; 8/26) monkeys with the HI assay. Of the monkeys, 2.3% (1/42) of A. caraya, 6.3% 94/64) of S. nigritus, and 15.4% (4/26) of S. cay were positive for SLEV in the MNT. Additionally, SLEV antibodies were detected by HI in 39.1% (9/23) of the horses evaluated in this study. Arboviruses were not isolated from any blood sample. Conclusions These results confirmed the presence of SLEV in nonhuman primates and horses from southern Brazil. These findings most likely represent the first detection of this virus in nonhuman primates beyond the Amazon region. The detection of SLEV in animals within a geographical region distant from the Amazon basin suggests that there may be widespread and undiagnosed dissemination of this disease in Brazil.

‣ Immunodetection of Helicobacter sp. and the associated expression of ABO blood group antigens in the gastric mucosa of captive and free-living New World primates in the Amazon region

Aguiar,Délia Cristina Figueira; Barros,Vera Lúcia de Souza; Pereira,Washington Luiz Assunção; Loiola,Rosane do Socorro Pompeu de; Matos,Gyselly Cássia Bastos de; Valsecchi,João; Corvelo,Tereza Cristina Oliveira
Fonte: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Publicador: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.518506%
The histo-blood group ABH antigens were first described in humans. These antigens are only present on erythrocytes from great apes and humans, while in more primitive animals they are found in tissues and body fluids. The ABH antigens are mainly distributed in tissues exposed to the external environment and potentially serve as ligands for pathogens or inhibitors of tissue connections. The objective of this paper was two-fold: (i) to determine the presence of Helicobacter sp. in the gastric mucosa of 16 captive and 24 free-living New World monkeys and (ii) to evaluate the presence of histopathological alterations related to bacterial infection and the associated expression of ABH antigens in the tissue. Stomach tissues from 13 species of monkey were assessed using haematoxylin-eosin and modified Gram staining (Hucker) methods. An immunohistochemical analysis of the tissue revealed the presence of infectious bacteria that were characteristic of the genus Helicobacter sp. The results demonstrate that various species of monkey might be naturally infected with the Helicobacter sp. and that there is an increased susceptibility to infection. This study serves as a comparative analysis of infection between human and non-human primates and indicates the presence of a new species of Helicobacter.

‣ Divergent evolution and purifying selection of the H (FUT1) gene in New World monkeys (Primates, Platyrrhini)

Borges,Bárbara do Nascimento; Harada,Maria Lúcia
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
88.03393%
In the present study, the coding region of the H gene was sequenced and analyzed in fourteen genera of New World primates (Alouatta, Aotus, Ateles, Brachyteles, Cacajao, Callicebus, Callithrix, Cebus, Chiropotes, Lagothrix, Leontopithecus, Pithecia, Saguinus, and Saimiri), in order to investigate the evolution of the gene. The analyses revealed that this coding region contains 1,101 nucleotides, with the exception of Brachyteles, the callitrichines (Callithrix, Leontopithecus, and Saguinus) and one species of Callicebus (moloch), in which one codon was deleted. In the primates studied, the high GC content (63%), the nonrandom distribution of codons and the low evolution rate of the gene (0.513 substitutions/site/MA in the order Primates) suggest the action of a purifying type of selective pressure, confirmed by the Z-test. Our analyses did not identify mutations equivalent to those responsible for the H-deficient phenotypes found in humans, nor any other alteration that might explain the lack of expression of the gene in the erythrocytes of Neotropical monkeys. The phylogenetic trees obtained for the H gene and the distance matrix data suggest the occurrence of divergent evolution in the primates.

‣ The prion protein and New World primate phylogeny

Schneider,Igor; Schneider,Horacio; Schneider,Maria Paula; Silva,Artur
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2004 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
77.474014%
The PrP C prion protein contains 250 amino acids with some variation among species and is expressed in several cell types. PrP C is converted to PrP Sc by a post-translational process in which it acquires amino acid sequences of three-dimensional conformation of beta-sheets. Variations in the prion protein gene were observed among 16 genera of New World primates (Platyrrhini), and resulted in amino acid substitutions when compared with the human sequence. Seven substitutions not yet described in the literature were found: W -> R at position 31 in Cebuella, T -> A at position 95 in Cacajao and Chiropotes, N-> S at position 100 in Brachyteles, L -> Q at position 130 in Leontopithecus (in the sequence responsible for generating the beta-sheet 1), D -> E at position 144 in Lagothrix (in the sequence responsible for the alpha-helix 1), D-> G at position 147 in Saguinus (also located in the alpha-helix 1 region), and M -> I at position 232 in Alouatta. The phylogenetic trees generated by parsimony, neighbor-joining and Bayesian analyses strongly support the monophyletic status of the platyrrhines, but did not resolve relationships among families. However, the results do corroborate previous findings, which indicate that the three platyrrhine families radiated rapidly from an ancient split.

‣ Novel Gamma-1 Herpesviruses Identified in Free-Ranging New World Monkeys (Golden-Handed Tamarin [Saguinus midas], Squirrel Monkey [Saimiri sciureus], and White-Faced Saki [Pithecia pithecia]) in French Guiana

de Thoisy, Benoit; Pouliquen, Jean-François; Lacoste, Vincent; Gessain, Antoine; Kazanji, Mirdad
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.315024%
The recent finding of a novel Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphocryptovirus (CalHV-3) in a captive colony of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) in the United States modifies the view that the host range of lymphocryptovirus is restricted to humans and Old World primates. We investigated the presence of Epstein-Barr virus-related viruses in 79 samples of New World monkeys caught in the wild, including six species of the Cebidae family and one of the Callitrichidae, living in the rain forest of French Guiana. Using a degenerate consensus PCR method for the herpesvirus DNA polymerase gene, we identified three novel lymphocryptoviruses from golden-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas) of the Callitrichidae family and squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) and white-faced saki (Pithecia pithecia) of the Cebidae family. With the CalHV-3 strain, these three novel viruses constitute a well-supported phylogenetic clade in the Lymphocryptovirus genus, which is clearly distinct from the lineage of Old World lymphocryptovirus, hosted by catarrhine monkeys and humans. In tamarins, the prevalence of the novel lymphocryptovirus was more than 50%, indicating that it circulates well in the wild population, perhaps due to specific ecoethological patterns such as confrontations and intergroup migration. The detection and partial molecular characterization of the polymerase gene of three novel Gamma-1-Herpesvirinae from New World monkeys caught in the wild clearly indicate that free-ranging populations of platyrrhine are natural hosts of lymphocryptoviruses. Further characterization of these novel viruses will provide new insight not only into the origin and evolution of Gammaherpesvirinae but also into their pathogenicity.

‣ Isolation and characterization of simian T-cell leukemia virus type II from New World monkeys.

Chen, Y M; Jang, Y J; Kanki, P J; Yu, Q C; Wang, J J; Montali, R J; Samuel, K P; Papas, T S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1994 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.505117%
Since the description of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) and its simian counterpart, simian T-cell leukemia virus type I (STLV-I), the possible existence of other related simian retroviruses has been raised. Here, we report a new retrovirus, STLV-II, which we have identified in spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps), a New World primate species. Initially, a recombinant HTLV-II envelope protein (RP-IIB) was used to identify anti-STLV-II antibodies in New World monkeys by Western blot (immunoblot) assays. Subsequently, the virus was characterized by Southern blot hybridization, which showed that STLV-II and HTLV-II have a high degree of nucleotide sequence homology but have different restriction enzyme patterns. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the pX-II region of STLV-II provirus revealed 3% variation with the corresponding region of HTLV-II. Electron micrographic studies revealed HTLV-like, type C retrovirus particles outside the cell membranes of STLV-II-infected cells. This study describes the first link between HTLV-II and a simian reservoir in the New World. Further molecular studies of STLV-II infection in different species of New World monkeys, especially from the wild, may provide valuable information about the origin and intragroup relationships of South American monkeys. Spider monkeys infected with STLV-II may serve as an important animal model for HTLV-II infection in humans.

‣ Photopigments and colour vision in New World monkeys from the family Atelidae.

Jacobs, G. H.; Deegan, J. F.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/04/2001 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.5243%
Most New World monkeys have an X-chromosome opsin gene polymorphism that produces a variety of different colour vision phenotypes. Howler monkeys (Alouatta), one of the four genera in the family Atelidae lack this polymorphism. Instead, they have acquired uniform trichromatic colour vision similar to that of Old World monkeys, apes and people through opsin gene duplication. In order to determine whether closely related monkeys share this arrangement, spectral sensitivity functions that allow inferences about cone pigments were measured for 56 monkeys from two other Atelid genera, spider monkeys (Ateles) and woolly monkeys (Lagothrix). Unlike howler monkeys, both spider and woolly monkeys are polymorphic for their middle- and long-wavelength cone photopigments. However, they also differ from other polymorphic New World monkeys in having two rather than three possible types of middle- and long-wavelength cone pigments. This feature directly influences the relative numbers of dichromatic and trichromatic monkeys.

‣ A novel form of oxytocin in New World monkeys

Lee, Alex G.; Cool, David R.; Grunwald, William C.; Neal, Donald E.; Buckmaster, Christine L.; Cheng, Michelle Y.; Hyde, Shellie A.; Lyons, David M.; Parker, Karen J.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.033926%
Oxytocin is widely believed to be present and structurally identical in all placental mammals. Here, we report that multiple species of New World monkeys possess a novel form of oxytocin, [P8] oxytocin. This mutation arises from a substitution of a leucine to a proline in amino acid position 8. Further analysis of this mutation in Saimiri sciureus (squirrel monkey) indicates that [P8] oxytocin is transcribed and translated properly. This mutation is specific to oxytocin, as the peptide sequence for arginine vasopressin, a structurally related nonapeptide, is unaltered. These findings dispel the notion that all placental mammals possess a ‘universal’ oxytocin sequence, and highlight the need for research on the functional significance of this novel nonapeptide in New World monkeys.

‣ No Evidence for Natural Selection on Endogenous Borna-Like Nucleoprotein Elements after the Divergence of Old World and New World Monkeys

Kobayashi, Yuki; Horie, Masayuki; Tomonaga, Keizo; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 02/09/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.536177%
Endogenous Borna-like nucleoprotein (EBLNs) elements were recently discovered as non-retroviral RNA virus elements derived from bornavirus in the genomes of various animals. Most of EBLNs appeared to be defective, but some of primate EBLN-1 to -4, which appeared to be originated from four independent integrations of bornavirus nucleoprotein (N) gene, have retained an open reading frame (ORF) for more than 40 million years. It was therefore possible that primate EBLNs have encoded functional proteins during evolution. To examine this possibility, natural selection operating on all ORFs of primate EBLN-1 to -4 was examined by comparing the rates of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions. The expected number of premature termination codons in EBLN-1 generated after the divergence of Old World and New World monkeys under the selective neutrality was also examined by the Monte Carlo simulation. As a result, natural selection was not identified for the entire region as well as parts of ORFs in the pairwise analysis of primate EBLN-1 to -4 and for any branch of the phylogenetic trees for EBLN-1 to -4 after the divergence of Old World and New World monkeys. Computer simulation also indicated that the absence of premature termination codon in the present-day EBLN-1 does not necessarily support the maintenance of function after the divergence of Old World and New World monkeys. These results suggest that EBLNs have not generally encoded functional proteins after the divergence of Old World and New World monkeys.

‣ ASPM and the Evolution of Cerebral Cortical Size in a Community of New World Monkeys

Villanea, Fernando A.; Perry, George H.; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo A.; Dominy, Nathaniel J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 27/09/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.303047%
The ASPM (abnormal spindle-like microcephaly associated) gene has been proposed as a major determinant of cerebral cortical size among primates, including humans. Yet the specific functions of ASPM and its connection to human intelligence remain controversial. This debate is limited in part by a taxonomic focus on Old World monkeys and apes. Here we expand the comparative context of ASPM sequence analyses with a study of New World monkeys, a radiation of primates in which enlarged brain size has evolved in parallel in spider monkeys (genus Ateles) and capuchins (genus Cebus). The primate community of Costa Rica is perhaps a model system because it allows for independent pairwise comparisons of smaller- and larger-brained species within two taxonomic families. Accordingly, we analyzed the complete sequence of exon 18 of ASPM in Ateles geoffroyi, Alouatta palliata, Cebus capucinus, and Saimiri oerstedii. As the analysis of multiple species in a genus improves phylogenetic reconstruction, we also analyzed eleven published sequences from other New World monkeys. Our exon-wide, lineage-specific analysis of eleven genera and the ratio of rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) on ASPM revealed no detectable evidence for positive selection in the lineages leading to Ateles or Cebus...

‣ Color Vision Variation as Evidenced by Hybrid L/M Opsin Genes in Wild Populations of Trichromatic Alouatta New World Monkeys

Matsushita, Yuka; Oota, Hiroki; Welker, Barbara J.; Pavelka, Mary S.; Kawamura, Shoji
Fonte: Springer US Publicador: Springer US
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.10437%
Platyrrhine (New World) monkeys possess highly polymorphic color vision owing to allelic variation of the single-locus L/M opsin gene on the X chromosome. Most species consist of female trichromats and female and male dichromats. Howlers (genus Alouatta) are an exception; they are considered to be routinely trichromatic with L and M opsin genes juxtaposed on the X chromosome, as seen in catarrhine primates (Old World monkeys, apes, and humans). Yet it is not known whether trichromacy is invariable in howlers. We examined L/M opsin variation in wild howler populations in Costa Rica and Nicaragua (Alouatta palliata) and Belize (A. pigra), using fecal DNA. We surveyed exon 5 sequences (containing the diagnostic 277th and 285th residues for λmax) for 8 and 18 X chromosomes from Alouatta palliata and A. pigra, respectively. The wavelengths of maximal absorption (λmax) of the reconstituted L and M opsin photopigments were 564 nm and 532 nm, respectively, in both species. We found one M–L hybrid sequence with a recombinant 277/285 haplotype in Alouatta palliata and two L–M hybrid sequences in A. pigra. The λmax values of the reconstituted hybrid photopigments were in the range of 546~554 nm, which should result in trichromat phenotypes comparable to those found in other New World monkey species. Our finding of color vision variation due to high frequencies of L/M hybrid opsin genes in howlers challenges the current view that howlers are routine and uniform trichromats. These results deepen our understanding of the evolutionary significance of color vision polymorphisms and routine trichromacy and emphasize the need for further assessment of opsin gene variation as well as behavioral differences among subtypes of trichromacy.

‣ Evolutionary renovation of L/M opsin polymorphism confers a fruit discrimination advantage to ateline New World monkeys

Matsumoto, Yoshifumi; Hiramatsu, Chihiro; Matsushita, Yuka; Ozawa, Norihiro; Ashino, Ryuichi; Nakata, Makiko; Kasagi, Satoshi; Di Fiore, Anthony; Schaffner, Colleen M; Aureli, Filippo; Melin, Amanda D; Kawamura, Shoji
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.103784%
New World monkeys exhibit prominent colour vision variation due to allelic polymorphism of the long-to-middle wavelength (L/M) opsin gene. The known spectral variation of L/M opsins in primates is broadly determined by amino acid composition at three sites: 180, 277 and 285 (the ‘three-sites’ rule). However, two L/M opsin alleles found in the black-handed spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) are known exceptions, presumably due to novel mutations. The spectral separation of the two L/M photopigments is 1.5 times greater than expected based on the ‘three-sites’ rule. Yet the consequence of this for the visual ecology of the species is unknown, as is the evolutionary mechanism by which spectral shift was achieved. In this study, we first examine L/M opsins of two other Atelinae species, the long-haired spider monkeys (A. belzebuth) and the common woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha). By a series of site-directed mutagenesis, we show that a mutation Y213D (tyrosine to aspartic acid at site 213) in the ancestral opsin of the two alleles enabled N294K, which occurred in one allele of the ateline ancestor and increased the spectral separation between the two alleles. Second, by modelling the chromaticity of dietary fruits and background leaves in a natural habitat of spider monkeys...

‣ Patterns of MHC-G-Like and MHC-B Diversification in New World Monkeys

Lugo, Juan S.; Cadavid, Luis F.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/06/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.84716%
The MHC class I (MHC-I) region in New World monkeys (Platyrrhini) has remained relatively understudied. To evaluate the diversification patterns and transcription behavior of MHC-I in Platyrrhini, we first analyzed public genomic sequences from the MHC-G-like subregion in Saimiri boliviensis, Ateles geoffroyi and Callicebus moloch, and from the MHC-B subregion in Saimiri boliviensis. While S. boliviensis showed multiple copies of both MHC-G-like (10) and –B (15) loci, A. geoffroyi and C. moloch had only three and four MHC-G-like genes, respectively, indicating that not all Platyrrhini species have expanded their MHC-I loci. We then sequenced MHC-G-like and -B cDNAs from nine Platyrrhini species, recovering two to five unique cDNAs per individual for both loci classes. In two Saguinus species, however, no MHC-B cDNAs were found. In phylogenetic trees, MHC-G-like cDNAs formed genus-specific clusters whereas the MHC-B cDNAs grouped by Platyrrhini families, suggesting a more rapid diversification of the former. Furthermore, cDNA sequencing in 12 capuchin monkeys showed that they transcribe at least four MHC-G-like and five MHC-B polymorphic genes, showing haplotypic diversity for gene copy number and signatures of positive natural selection at the peptide binding region. Finally...

‣ Fate of a redundant gamma-globin gene in the atelid clade of New World monkeys: implications concerning fetal globin gene expression.

Meireles, C M; Schneider, M P; Sampaio, M I; Schneider, H; Slightom, J L; Chiu, C H; Neiswanger, K; Gumucio, D L; Czelusniak, J; Goodman, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/03/1995 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.103784%
Conclusive evidence was provided that gamma 1, the upstream of the two linked simian gamma-globin loci (5'-gamma 1-gamma 2-3'), is a pseudogene in a major group of New World monkeys. Sequence analysis of PCR-amplified genomic fragments of predicted sizes revealed that all extant genera of the platyrrhine family Atelidae [Lagothrix (woolly monkeys), Brachyteles (woolly spider monkeys), Ateles (spider monkeys), and Alouatta (howler monkeys)] share a large deletion that removed most of exon 2, all of intron 2 and exon 3, and much of the 3' flanking sequence of gamma 1. The fact that two functional gamma-globin genes were not present in early ancestors of the Atelidae (and that gamma 1 was the dispensible gene) suggests that for much or even all of their evolution, platyrrhines have had gamma 2 as the primary fetally expressed gamma-globin gene, in contrast to catarrhines (e.g., humans and chimpanzees) that have gamma 1 as the primary fetally expressed gamma-globin gene. Results from promoter sequences further suggest that all three platyrrhine families (Atelidae, Cebidae, and Pitheciidae) have gamma 2 rather than gamma 1 as their primary fetally expressed gamma-globin gene. The implications of this suggestion were explored in terms of how gene redundancy...

‣ Reduction of two functional gamma-globin genes to one: an evolutionary trend in New World monkeys (infraorder Platyrrhini).

Chiu, C H; Schneider, H; Schneider, M P; Sampaio, I; Meireles, C; Slightom, J L; Gumucio, D L; Goodman, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/06/1996 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.232607%
Nucleotide sequences were determined for the gamma1- and gamma2-globin loci from representatives of the seven anciently separated clades in the three extant platyrrhine families (Atelidae, Pitheciidae, and Cebidae). These sequences revealed an evolutionary trend in New World monkeys either to inactivate the gamma1 gene or to fuse it with the gamma2 gene, i.e. to have only one functional fetally expressed gamma gene. This trend is clearly evident in six of the seven clades: (i) it occurred in atelids by deletion of most of the gamma1 gene in the basal ancestor of this clade; (ii-iv) in pitheciid titi, saki, and cebid capuchin monkeys by potentially debilitating nucleotide substitutions in the proximal CCAAT box of the gamma1 promoters and (v and vi) in cebid owl and squirrel monkeys by crossovers that fused 5' sequence from gamma1 with 3' sequence from gamma2. In the five clades with gamma1 and gamma2 loci separated by intergenic sequences (the fifth clade being the cebid marmosets), the gamma2 genes retained an unaltered proximal CCAAT motif and their gamma2 promoters accumulated fewer nucleotide substitutions than did the gamma1 promoters. Thus, phylogenetic considerations indicate that the stem platyrrhines, ancestral to all New World monkeys...

‣ Interação mãe-filhote em macacos-aranha (Ateles paniscus); Mother-pup in spider monkeys (Ateles paniscus)

de Carvalho, Luciane Bizari Coin; Otta, Emma
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; avaliado por pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/12/2005 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.350767%
As teorias sobre a relação mãe-filhote em primatas não-humanos atribuem à mãe um papel importante e decisivo no desenvolvimento do filhote. Aos poucos, com seu desenvolvimento motor e o aumento da curiosidade pelo ambiente e pelos outros membros do grupo, o filhote vai se afastando da mãe e aprendendo a sobreviver sozinho, embora continue demandando seus cuidados. Com isso, o investimento parental vai tornando-se progressivamente menos necessário, e a mãe redireciona sua energia para outras atividades. O conflito surge no momento em que mãe e filhote passam a ter interesses diferentes em relação ao cuidado que ela deve dedicar a ele. O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de analisar o processo de independência do filhote de macacos-aranha (AteIes paniscus), uma espécie de macaco-do-Novo Mundo pouco estudada. Foram observados quatro filhotes machos e quatro fêmeas, durante os dois primeiros anos de vida. As observações, totalizando 327 horas, foram feitas no Parque Zoológico de São Paulo. Constatou-se uma diminuição gradativa no contato mãe-filhote. A posição Em Contato passou de 100%-91% no primeiro semestre de vida para 50% ao final do primeiro ano. Este é um ritmo lento de desenvolvimento em comparação com  macacos-do-Velho-Mundo. Macacos rhesus...