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‣ Caracterização do proteoma nuclear de folhas de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum spp) de 1 e 4 meses de idade; Nuclear proteome characterization of one and four-month-old sugarcane (Saccharum spp) leaves

Silva, Danielle Izilda Rodrigues da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/10/2012 Português
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A cana-de-açúcar é uma cultura economicamente importante, cultivada especialmente pelo seu colmo, que constitui a matéria-prima para produtos como o açúcar e o bioetanol. Ademais, a compreensão do proteoma nuclear é essencial para decifrar os mecanismos que governam a regulação gênica. No presente estudo, é demonstrado o isolamento e a identificação através de 1D SDS-PAGE de proteínas nucleares originadas de folhas jovens de plantas de cana-de-açúcar. Os núcleos foram isolados de folhas F+1 frescas de cana-de-açúcar de 1 e 4 meses, usando o protocolo modificado de Folta e Kaufman (2000). O experimento consistiu em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições de 18 plantas cada. Após a purificação usando o gradiente de percoll, a integridade do núcleo foi avaliada por meio da coloração com orceína acetolática 1% e com DAPI. Os resultados obtidos revelam os núcleos como esferas uniformes com o diâmetro médio de 5 ?m. As proteínas nucleares foram isoladas usando o reagente TRI Reagent (Sigma) e quantificadas por meio do método de Bradford. As análises de Western blot foram usadas para demonstrar o enriquecimento de proteínas nucleares. As membranas foram incubadas com a RUBISCO, PEPCase...

‣ Selective displacement of nuclear proteins by antitumor drugs having affinity for nucleic acids.

Bartkowiak, J; Kapuscinski, J; Melamed, M R; Darzynkiewicz, Z
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1989 Português
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The nuclear chromatin binding sites of the antitumor drugs mitoxantrone, ametantrone, doxorubicin, mithramycin, and actinomycin D and the intercalating ligand ethidium were studied by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the proteins released from rat liver nuclei in the presence and absence of these drugs in buffer of low ionic strength (10 mM NaCl). At 25-50 microM free ligand concentration, each drug produced a specific and reproducible pattern of extractable proteins of different molecular weight by (i) releasing new proteins, (ii) altering the quantity of particular extracted proteins, and/or (iii) selectively entrapping other proteins in the nuclei. Ethidium, up to 100 microM, did not affect release of proteins from the nuclei. These results indicate that each ligand either has different binding site(s) in chromatin or modulates chromatin structure in a specific way by changing the affinity of different sets of proteins for their respective binding sites, resulting in their selective extraction or entrapment. The lack of effect of ethidium indicates that intercalation of the ligand to DNA, per se, does not alter the release of nuclear proteins. If patterns of nuclear proteins selectively released or retained by antitumor drugs are found to correlate with biological activity...

‣ Nuclear proteins from lactating mammary glands bind to the promoter of a milk protein gene.

Lubon, H; Hennighausen, L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/03/1987 Português
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The gene for the whey acidic protein (WAP) is expressed specifically in the lactating mammary glands of rodents. We present evidence that nuclear proteins from mammary epithelial cells form a multiple nucleoprotein complex with the WAP gene promoter/upstream region. As monitored by mobility shifts, nuclear proteins from lactating mammary glands and from the mammary cell line MCF-7 form four high affinity complexes with a fragment spanning the region between nucleotides -175 and -88. Nuclear proteins from liver and HeLa cells generate only three high affinity complexes. DNAaseI and ExonucleaseIII protection confirmed the binding of mammary nuclear proteins to specific sequences in the WAP gene upstream region. This is the first report to describe the interaction of nuclear proteins from lactating mammary glands with cognate binding sites in the promoter/upstream region of a milk protein gene. The possibility of the binding sites being candidates for cis-acting regulatory elements governing the regulated expression of the WAP gene is discussed.

‣ Functional Isolation of Novel Nuclear Proteins Showing a Variety of Subnuclear LocalizationsW⃞

Moriguchi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Tadzunu; Ito, Yukihiro; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Niwa, Yasuo; Kurata, Nori
Fonte: American Society of Plant Biologists Publicador: American Society of Plant Biologists
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2005 Português
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Nuclear proteins play key roles in the fundamental regulation of genome instability, the phases of organ development, and physiological responsiveness through gene expression. Although nuclear proteins have been shown to account for approximately one-fourth of total proteins in yeast, no efficient method to identify novel nuclear proteins has been applied to plants. In this study, a trial to isolate nuclear proteins in rice was attempted, and several novel nuclear proteins showing a variety of subnuclear localizations were identified. The nuclear transportation trap (NTT) system, which is a modified two-hybrid system, isolated many nuclear proteins from rice (Oryza sativa) NTT cDNA libraries. Nuclear localization of the isolated proteins was confirmed by transient introduction of green fluorescent protein fusion constructs for a subset of protein genes into onion (Allium cepa) cells. The majority of these proteins, including novel proteins and proteins initially categorized as cytoplasmic proteins, were revealed to be localized in the nucleus. Detailed characterization of unknown proteins revealed various subnuclear localizations, indicating their possible association with chromatin and the nuclear matrix with a foci or speckle-like distribution. Some also showed dual distribution in the nucleus and cytoplasm. In the novel protein fraction...

‣ 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid-enhanced Phosphorylation of Soybean Nuclear Proteins 1

Murray, Michael G.; Key, Joe L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/1978 Português
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In vitro nuclear protein phosphorylation is enhanced in nuclei isolated from 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-d)-treated mature soybean (Glycine max) hypocotyl relative to nuclei from untreated tissue. Increased nuclear protein phosphorylation correlates with increased levels of nuclear protein kinase activity. These changes generally parallel previously reported 2,4-d-enhanced RNA polymerase activity of these nuclei and the in vivo levels of RNA synthesis. Phosphate incorporation represents bona fide protein phosphorylation, with 87% of the label being identified as phosphoserine and 7% as phosphothreonine. Label from [γ-32P]adenosine 5′-triphosphate is incorporated primarily into various nonhistone fractions with the greatest accumulation in loosely associated fractions (either released during incubation with ATP or removed by 0.15 m Nacl). Although electrophoretic analysis on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels shows no differences in the protein profiles of the loosely associated or sodium dodecyl sulfate-soluble nonhistone proteins, there are changes in the pattern of phosphorylation of other proteins, after 2,4-d treatment. Acid-soluble basic nuclear proteins are phosphorylated to a much lower extent than are the other nuclear protein fractions. While histone F1 is subject to slight phosphorylation when nuclei are labeled in vitro...

‣ Nuclear-envelope vesicles as a model system to study nucleocytoplasmic transport. Specific uptake of nuclear proteins.

Riedel, N; Fasold, H
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/1987 Português
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In the preceding paper [Riedel & Fasold (1987) Biochem. J. 241, 203-212] we have described a procedure for the preparation of nuclear-envelope vesicles (NE vesicles) from rat liver nuclei. These vesicles, which are largely free of components of the nuclear interior, were employed in an assay system in vitro to study protein translocation across the NE. We found that nuclear proteins such as histones, high-mobility-group proteins and acidic chromosomal proteins are specifically taken up and accumulated in the NE vesicles, whereas there is little or no affinity for non-nuclear proteins like immunoglobulin, myoglobin and cytochrome c. The kinetics of histone uptake into the NE vesicles are similar to those obtained for whole rat liver nuclei, and comparative studies with non-vesicular NEs prepared by deoxyribonuclease I-treatment (DNAase-NEs) indicate that the NE of the vesicles affects the uptake kinetics and increases the capacity for nuclear proteins. The uptake of histones into NE vesicles, but not the binding to DNAase-NEs, can be stimulated by GTP and GDP. Furthermore, we found that even very large molecules can be entrapped in the vesicles during their preparation. These results indicate that the NE vesicles might provide a useful system in vitro with which to investigate the structures and mechanisms involved in protein translocation across the NE.

‣ An investigation of acid-soluble nuclear proteins of human leucocytes in relation to fraction RP2-L, a component of neoplastic cells

MacGillivray, A. J.; Monjardino, J. P. P. V.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1968 Português
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1. The claim that tumour cells contain a specific nuclear protein was investigated. The presence of this component was confirmed in Walker tumour cells by the chromatography on CM-cellulose of nuclear proteins labelled with [14C]lysine. This protein was studied further in a number of human leucocyte cells. 2. The labelling of leucocyte nuclear proteins with [14C]lysine was attempted during incubation and culture in vitro. Incorporation of the label into acid-soluble nuclear proteins was highest in normal lymphocytes cultured with phytohaemagglutinin, followed by chronic-myeloid-leukaemic leucocytes and mixed samples of normal leucocytes incubated in plasma. Little incorporation was seen in similar extracts of chronic-lymphatic or normal leucocytes. 3. Lymphocytes were the only cells that gave nuclear extracts with amino acid analysis similar to that of unfractionated histones. 4. Little of the [14C]lysine in nuclear extracts of incubated leucocytes proved to be of chromosomal origin. No evidence was found of an RP2-L component in the highly labelled nuclear extracts of phytohaemagglutinin-treated lymphocytes until after 6 days of culture with [14C]lysine. This component was soluble in saline. 5. Evidence is presented that fraction RP2-L is a non-histone protein constituent of cell nuclei whose labelling with [14C]lysine may be dependent on the metabolic state of the cell. Thus this component is not specific to the neoplastic state.

‣ Host Cell Nuclear Proteins Are Recruited to Cytoplasmic Vaccinia Virus Replication Complexes

Oh, Jaewook; Broyles, Steven S.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2005 Português
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The initiation and termination of vaccinia virus postreplicative transcription have been reported to require cellular proteins, some of which are believed to be nuclear proteins. Vaccinia virus replicates in the cytoplasmic compartment of the cell, raising questions as to whether vaccinia virus has access to nuclear proteins. This was addressed here by following the fate of several nuclear proteins after infection of cells with vaccinia virus. The nuclear transcription factors YY1, SP1, and TATA binding protein were found to colocalize with virus replication complexes in the cytoplasm of infected cells. In addition, the nuclear proteins RNA polymerase II, TAFIIp32, and histone deacetylase 8, but not the structural protein lamin B, also were found in the cytoplasm of the cell. The association of YY1 with replication complexes was dependent on DNA replication and required only the DNA binding domain of the protein, indicating that DNA binding alone may be responsible for the association of nuclear transcription factors with viral replication complexes in the cytoplasm. The cytoplasmic localization of YY1 was resistant to the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B. Evidence is presented indicating that nuclear import and export pathways were not adversely affected by vaccinia virus infection. These observations indicate that vaccinia virus replication complexes have ready access to nuclear proteins by allowing leakage from the nucleus.

‣ Autoantibodies to purified nuclear proteins related to DNA metabolism during ageing and in SLE patients.

Astaldi Ricotti, G C; Pazzaglia, M; Martelli, A M; Cerino, A; Bestagno, M; Caprelli, A; Riva, S; Pedrini, M A; Facchini, A
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1987 Português
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In this study the specificity of circulating autoantibodies in ANA+ aged donors, ANA- donors and SLE patients was investigated by immunoblotting on total nuclear proteins and by ELISA on purified nuclear proteins, possibly related to DNA metabolism, such as DNA polymerase alpha, DNA-dependent ATPase, DNA Topoisomerase I, ssDBP, hnRNP, HMG and histones. Immunoblotting showed that sera from ANA+ aged donors present fewer antibodies to nuclear proteins, especially to those between 21,000 and 45,000, molecular weight (MW), than sera from SLE patients. When the specificity of antisera was further studied on purified nuclear proteins, it was found that the majority of sera from SLE patients react with most of the proteins tested, whereas sera from ANA+ aged donors mainly react with DNA polymerase alpha, DNA-dependent ATPase, DNA Topoisomerase I and histones. In addition, sera from a few ANA- donors also reacted with certain purified nuclear proteins in a statistically significant age-related manner.

‣ PROTEINS IN NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC INTERACTIONS : III. Redistributions of Nuclear Proteins During and Following Mitosis in Amoeba proteus

Prescott, David; Goldstein, Lester
Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/11/1968 Português
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The behavior of nuclear proteins in Amoeba proteus was studied by tritiated amino acid labeling, nuclear transplantation, and cytoplasmic amputation. During prophase at least 77% (but probably over 95%) of the nuclear proteins is released to the cytoplasm. These same proteins return to the nucleus within the first 3 hr of interphase. When cytoplasm is amputated from an ameba in mitosis (shen the nuclear proteins are in the cytoplasm), the resultant daughter nuclei are depleted in the labeled nuclear proteins. The degree of depletion is less than proportional to the amount of cytoplasm removed because a portion of rapidly migrating protein (a nuclear protein that is normally shuttling between nucleus and cytoplasm and is thus also present in the cytoplasm) which would normally remain in the cytoplasm is taken up by the reconstituting daughter nuclei. Cytoplasmic fragments cut from mitotic cells are enriched in both major classes of nuclear proteins, i.e. rapidly migrating protein and slow turn-over protein. An interphase nucleus implanted into such an enucleated cell acquires from the cytoplasm essentially all of the excess nuclear proteins of both classes. The data indicate that there is a lack of binding sites in the cytoplasm for the rapidly migrating nuclear protein. The quantitative aspects of the distribution of rapidly migrating protein between the nucleus and the cytoplasm indicate that the distribution is governed primarily by factors within the nucleus.

‣ Monoclonal antibody specific for human nuclear proteins IEF 8Z30 and 8Z31 accumulates in the nucleus a few hours after cytoplasmic microinjection of cells expressing these proteins

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/1986 Português
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A monoclonal antibody (mAB 1C4C10) that reacts specifically with human nuclear proteins IEF 8Z30 and 8Z31 (charge variants; HeLa protein catalogue number; Bravo, R., and J. E. Celis, 1982, Clin. Chem., 28:766- 781) has been microinjected into the cytoplasm of cultured cells that either express (primates) or lack these proteins (at least having similar molecular weights and pIs; other species), and its cellular localization has been determined by indirect immunofluorescence. Nuclear localization (nucleolar and nucleoplasmic) of the antibody was observed only in cells expressing these antigens, suggesting that a determinant present in IEF 8Z30 and 8Z31 is required for cytoplasm- nuclear translocation. Nuclear migration was not inhibited by cycloheximide, implying that these proteins may shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm. The results assumed to support the signal rather than the free diffusion model are further supported by microinjection experiments using antibodies (proliferating cell nuclear antigen/cyclin, DNA) that react with nuclear components but do not recognize cytoplasmic antigens. Furthermore, they raise the possibility that some nonnuclear proteins may be transported to the nucleus by interacting with proteins harboring nuclear location signals.

‣ GAPDH Mediates Nitrosylation of Nuclear Proteins

Kornberg, Michael D.; Sen, Nilkantha; Hara, Makoto R.; Juluri, Krishna R.; Van K. Nguyen, Judy; Snowman, Adele M.; Law, Lindsey; Hester, Lynda D.; Snyder, Solomon H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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S-nitrosylation by nitric oxide (NO) is a major mode of signaling to cellular proteins1, including prominent nuclear proteins such as HDAC22 and PARP13. The high reactivity of the NO group with protein thiols implies the existence of selective targeting mechanisms. Specificity of NO signaling is often achieved by the binding of NO synthase (NOS) to target proteins, either directly4 or through scaffolding proteins such as PSD-955 and CAPON6. As the three principal isoforms of NOS - neuronal NOS (nNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), and inducible NOS (iNOS) - are primarily non-nuclear, the mechanisms by which nuclear proteins are selectively nitrosylated have been elusive. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is physiologically nitrosylated at its Cys150 residue, conferring upon it the ability to bind to Siah1, which possesses a nuclear localization signal and conveys nitrosylated GAPDH (SNO-GAPDH) to the nucleus7. We now show that SNO-GAPDH physiologically transnitrosylates nuclear proteins, including the deacetylating enzyme SIRT1, histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2), and DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK). Our findings reveal a novel mechanism for targeted nitrosylation of nuclear proteins and suggest that protein-protein transfer of NO groups may be a general mechanism in cellular signal transduction.

‣ Proteomic Survey of Ubiquitin-Linked Nuclear Proteins in Interferon-Stimulated Macrophages

Kim, Ji Young; Anderson, Eric D.; Huynh, Walter; Dey, Anup; Ozato, Keiko
Fonte: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publicador: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2011 Português
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Ubiquitin modification plays a critical role in immune responses. Some cytoplasmic factors require ubiquitination to execute proper signaling upon pathogen and cytokine stimulation. However, ubiquitin modification and its functional significance have not been fully studied for many nuclear proteins. We report here that stimulation of RAW macrophages with interferon-γ and toll-like receptor ligands that activates innate immune responses triggers a global increase in ubiquitinated proteins in the nucleus, pointing to the role for ubiquitin modification in regulating nuclear events during innate immune responses. By immunopurification and mass-spectrometry analyses, we found that more than 200 proteins are directly or indirectly associated with ubiquitin in stimulated RAW cells. These proteins included proteins in the ubiquitin pathways, those involved in DNA metabolism, chromatin and transcriptional regulation, and mRNA processing. The largest group of proteins found in our list was ribosomal proteins important for protein translation. Other proteins found here were heat shock proteins and stress-response factors, suggesting a link between macrophage activation and stress response. In conclusion, upon macrophage activation, a large number of nuclear proteins become associated with ubiquitin modification...

‣ Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Vasopressin-Responsive Nuclear Proteins in Collecting Duct Cells

Schenk, Laura K.; Bolger, Steven J.; Luginbuhl, Kelli; Gonzales, Patricia A.; Rinschen, Markus M.; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Hoffert, Jason D.; Pisitkun, Trairak; Knepper, Mark A.
Fonte: American Society of Nephrology Publicador: American Society of Nephrology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2012 Português
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Vasopressin controls transport in the renal collecting duct, in part, by regulating transcription. This complex process, which can involve translocation and/or modification of transcriptional regulators, is not completely understood. Here, we applied a method for large-scale profiling of nuclear proteins to quantify vasopressin-induced changes in the nuclear proteome of cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells. Using stable isotope labeling and tandem mass spectrometry, we quantified 3987 nuclear proteins and identified significant changes in the abundance of 65, including previously established targets of vasopressin signaling in the collecting duct. Vasopressin-induced changes in the abundance of the transcription factors JunB, Elf3, Gatad2b, and Hmbox1; transcriptional co-regulators Ctnnb1 (β-catenin) and Crebbp; subunits of the Mediator complex; E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4; nuclear transport regulator RanGap1; and several proteins associated with tight junctions and adherens junctions. Bioinformatic analysis showed that many of the quantified transcription factors have putative binding sites in the 5′-flanking regions of genes coding for the channel proteins Aqp2, Aqp3, Scnn1b (ENaCβ), and Scnn1g (ENaCγ), which are known targets of vasopressin. Immunoblotting demonstrated that the increase in β-catenin in nuclear fractions was accompanied by an even larger increase in its phosphorylated form (pSer552). The findings provide a new online database resource for nuclear proteomics (http://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/mNPD/) and generate new hypotheses regarding vasopressin-mediated transcriptional regulation in the collecting duct.

‣ Effect of nitric oxide on gene transcription – S-nitrosylation of nuclear proteins

Mengel, Alexander; Chaki, Mounira; Shekariesfahlan, Azam; Lindermayr, Christian
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/08/2013 Português
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Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in many different physiological processes in plants. It mainly acts by post-translationally modifying proteins. Modification of cysteine residues termed as S-nitrosylation is believed to be the most important mechanism for transduction of bioactivity of NO. The first proteins found to be nitrosylated were mainly of cytoplasmic origin or isolated from mitochondria and peroxisomes. Interestingly, it was shown that redox-sensitive transcription factors are also nitrosylated and that NO influences the redox-dependent nuclear transport of some proteins. This implies that NO plays a role in regulating transcription and/or general nuclear metabolism which is a fascinating new aspect of NO signaling in plants. In this review, we will discuss the impact of S-nitrosylation on nuclear plant proteins with a focus on transcriptional regulation, describe the function of this modification and draw also comparisons to the animal system in which S-nitrosylation of nuclear proteins is a well characterized concept.

‣ Gene structure and subcellular localisation of FMR2, a member of a new family of putative transcription activators

Gecz, J.; Bielby, S.; Sutherland, G.; Mulley, J.
Fonte: ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS Publicador: ACADEMIC PRESS INC JNL-COMP SUBSCRIPTIONS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1997 Português
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FMR2 is the gene associated with FRAXE mental retardation. It is expressed as an 8.7-kb transcript in placenta and adult brain. A fetal-specific FMR2 transcript of approximately 12 kb was detected in fetal brain and at a lower level in fetal lung and kidney. FMR2 is a large gene composed of 22 exons spanning at least 500 kb on Xq28. Alternative splicing involving exons 2, 3, 5, 7, and 21 was not tissue specific as tested on mRNA from human fetal and infant brain. FMR2 is translated into a 1311-amino-acid nuclear protein with putative transcription transactivation potential. Subcellular localization studies with green fluorescent protein as a reporter show that both nuclear addresses found in the FMR2 sequence are functional and direct the FMR2 protein into the nucleus. FMR2 together with AF4 and LAF4 forms a new family of nuclear proteins with DNA-binding capacity and transcription transactivation potential. BLAST searches of the dbEST database revealed the presence of at least two other groups of nonoverlapping ESTs showing high similarity to the FMR2-related family of proteins. One of them, represented by the EST W26686, maps to chromosome 5q31. Amino acid similarity among the proteins encoded by members of the gene family is high in the NH2 terminus...

‣ Changes in distribution of basic nuclear proteins and chromatin organization during spermiogenesis in the greater bandicoot rat, Bandicota indica

Worawittayawong, P.; Leigh, C.; Weerachatyanukul, W.; Manochantr, S.; Sobhon, P.; Breed, W.; Sretarugsa, P.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Male germ cells of the greater bandicoot rat, Bandicota indica, have recently been categorized into 12 spermiogenic steps based upon the morphological appearance of the acrosome and nucleus and the cell shape. In the present study, we have found that, in the Golgi and cap phases, round spermatid nuclei contain 10-nm to 30-nm chromatin fibers, and that the acrosomal granule forms a huge cap over the anterior pole of nucleus. In the acrosomal phase, many chromatin fibers are ∼50 nm thick; these then thickened to 70-nm fibers and eventually became 90-nm chromatin cords that are tightly packed together into highly condensed chromatin, except where nuclear vacuoles occur. Immunocytochemistry and immunogold localization with anti-histones, anti-transition protein2, and anti-protamine antibodies suggest that histones remain throughout spermiogenesis, that transition proteins are present from step 7 spermatids and remain until the end of spermiogenesis, and that protamines appear at step 8. Spermatozoa from the cauda epididymidis have been analyzed by acid urea Triton X-100 polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for basic nuclear proteins. The histones, H2A, H3, H2B, and H4, transitional protein2, and protamine are all present in sperm extracts. These findings suggest that...

‣ Identification and functional characterization of the human T-cell receptor beta gene transcriptional enhancer: common nuclear proteins interact with the transcriptional regulatory elements of the T-cell receptor alpha and beta genes.

Gottschalk, L R; Leiden, J M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/1990 Português
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A transcriptional enhancer has been mapped to a region 5.5 kilobases 3' of the C beta 2 gene in the human T-cell receptor (TCR) beta-chain locus. Transient transfections allowed localization of enhancer activity to a 480-base-pair HincII-XbaI restriction enzyme fragment. The TCR beta enhancer was active on both the minimal simian virus 40 promoter and a TCR beta variable gene promoter in both TCR alpha/beta + and TCR gamma/delta + T cells. It displayed significantly less activity in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells and K562 chronic myelogenous leukemia cells and no activity in HeLa fibroblasts. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the enhancer contains a consensus immunoglobulin kappa E2 motif, as well as an AP-1-binding site and a cyclic AMP response element. DNase I footprint analyses using Jurkat T-cell nuclear extracts allowed the identification of five nuclear protein-binding sites, T beta 1 to T beta 5, within the enhancer element. Deletion and in vitro mutagenesis studies demonstrated that the T beta 2- and T beta 3- and T beta 4-binding sites are each required for full transcriptional enhancer activity. In contrast, deletion of the T beta 1- and T beta 5-binding sites had essentially no effect on enhancer function. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that TCR alpha/beta + and TCR gamma/delta + T cells expressed T beta 2-...

‣ Improved proteomic analysis of nuclear proteins, as exemplified by the comparison of two myelo\"id cell lines nuclear proteomes

Lelong, Cécile; Chevallet, Mireille; Diemer, Hélène; Luche, Sylvie; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Rabilloud, Thierry
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/10/2012 Português
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One of the challenges of the proteomic analysis by 2D-gel is to visualize the low abundance proteins, particularly those localized in organelles. An additional problem with nuclear proteins lies in their strong interaction with nuclear acids. Several experimental procedures have been tested to increase, in the nuclear extract, the ratio of nuclear proteins compared to contaminant proteins, and also to obtain reproducible conditions compatible with 2D-gel electrophoresis. The NaCl procedure has been chosen. To test the interest of this procedure, the nuclear protein expression profiles of macrophages and dendritic cells have been compared with a proteomic approach by 2D-gel electrophoresis. Delta 2D software and mass spectrometry analyses have allowed pointing out some proteins of interest. We have chosen some of them, involved in transcriptional regulation and/or chromatin structure for further validations. The immunoblotting experiments have shown that most of observed changes are due to post-translational modifications, thereby a exemplifying the interest of the 2D gel approach. Finally, this approach allowed us to reach not only high abundance nuclear proteins but also lower abundance proteins, such as the HP1 proteins and reinforces the interest of using 2DE-gel in proteomics because of its ability to visualize intact proteins with their modifications.

‣ FRAP analysis of nucleocytoplasmic dynamics of the vitamin D receptor splice variant VDRB1: preferential targeting to nuclear speckles

Sunn, Kathryn L; Eisman, John A; Gardiner, Edith M; Jans, David A
Fonte: Portland Press Publicador: Portland Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Although the key components of the cellular nuclear transport machinery have largely been characterized through extensive efforts in recent years, in vivo measurements of the kinetics of nuclear protein import/export are patently few. The present study applies the approach of FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching) to examine the nucleocytoplasmic flux of a novel human VDRB1 (vitamin D receptor B1) isoform in living cells. Through an N-terminal extension containing a consensus nuclear targeting sequence, VDRB1 is capable of localizing in nuclear speckles adjacent to SC-35 (35 kDa splicing component)- containing speckles as well as in the nucleoplasm, dependent on ligand. Investigation of VDRB1 nucleocytoplasmic transport using FRAP indicates for the first time that the VDRB1 has a serum-modulated, active nuclear import mechanism. There is no evidence of an efficient, active export mechanism for VDRB1, probably as a result of nuclear retention. VDRB1 nuclear import in the absence of serum occurred more rapidly and to a greater extent to nuclear speckles compared with import to other nuclear sites. This preferential transport from the cytoplasm to and accumulation within nuclear speckles is consistent with the idea that the latter represent dynamic centres of VDRB1 interaction with other nuclear proteins. The results are consistent with the existence of specialized pathways to target proteins to nuclear subdomains.