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‣ Exercise testing of pre-school children using the Bruce treadmill protocol: new reference values

van der Cammen-van Zijp, Monique H. M.; IJsselstijn, Hanneke; Takken, Tim; Willemsen, Sten P.; Tibboel, Dick; Stam, Henk J.; van den Berg-Emons, Rita J. G.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.133953%
The Bruce treadmill protocol is an often-used exercise test for children and adults. Few and mainly old normative data are available for young children. In this cross-sectional observational study we determined new reference values for the original Bruce protocol in children aged 4 and 5 years. Furthermore, we compared the original protocol with the so-called ‘half Bruce’ protocol. In the Netherlands this half-Bruce protocol is often used for young children because of the rather large increments in workload in the original protocol. Seventy-eight healthy Dutch children participated. The maximal endurance time was the criterion of exercise capacity. The new reference values for the original Bruce protocol are presented as reference centiles. The mean (SD) endurance time using the original protocol was 10.2 (SD 1.5) min.; this was 9.4 (1.3) min. for the half-Bruce protocol. The mean difference was 50 seconds (95% CI: 29–71 s, P < 0.001). So, for children aged 4 and 5 years the endurance times obtained with the original and half-Bruce protocol are different and should not be considered interchangeable. Our new reference values can be used as reference values for the original Bruce protocol.

‣ Adaptations of a Competitive Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for the Detection of Antibodies to Influenza A Virus in Horse Sera for Use in Wild Aquatic Birds

Hoque, M. A.; Skerratt, L. F.; Garland, S.; Burgess, G. W.; Selleck, P.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.117354%
We applied a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies for influenza A in equine sera to their detection in sera from wild aquatic birds. Suboptimal results were obtained for the optical density (OD) of the monoclonal antibody (MAb) control and reproducibility between duplicate analyses in the initial assessment. It was therefore necessary to modify the assay to deliver increased reliability and reproducibility while maintaining adequate sensitivity. We optimized reagent concentrations to obtain optimal OD values (close to 2) for the monoclonal antibody control and used 2, 2′-Azino-bis: 3-Benzthiazoline-6-Sulphonic Acid as an alternative chromogen to potentially reduce variability in duplicate analyses. The original assay was compared with the optimized versions, with and without post coating, for the detection of avian influenza viral antibodies in 240 sera obtained from wild plumed whistling ducks. A separate analytical sensitivity study on diluted positive field sera of plumed whistling ducks and a test of antigen stability after post coating were also performed. Some quantitative differences were detected between the original and modified assays. The original assay recorded higher percentage inhibition results which were potentially indicative of increased sensitivity. However...