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‣ How much do smoking and alcohol consumption explain socioeconomic inequalities in head and neck cancer risk?

BOING, A. F.; ANTUNES, J. L. Ferreira; CARVALHO, M. Brasilino de; GOIS FILHO, J. Francisco de; KOWALSKI, L. P.; MICHALUART JR., P.; ELUF-NETO, J.; BOFFETTA, P.; WUENSCH-FILHO, V.
Fonte: B M J PUBLISHING GROUP Publicador: B M J PUBLISHING GROUP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background A higher burden of head and neck cancer has been reported to affect deprived populations. This study assessed the association between socioeconomic status and head and neck cancer, aiming to explore how this association is related to differences of tobacco and alcohol consumption across socioeconomic strata. Methods We conducted a case-control study in Sao Paulo, Brazil (1998-2006), including 1017 incident cases of oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, and 951 sex- and age-matched controls. Education and occupation were distal determinants in the hierarchical approach; cumulative exposure to tobacco and alcohol were proximal risk factors. Outcomes of the hierarchical model were compared with fully adjusted ORs. Results Individuals with lower education (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.61 to 3.19) and those performing manual labour (OR 1.55; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.92) had a higher risk of disease. However, 54% of the association with lower education and 45% of the association with manual labour were explained by proximal lifestyle exposures, and socioeconomic status remained significantly associated with disease when adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption. Conclusions Socioeconomic differences in head and neck cancer are partially attributable to the distribution of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption across socioeconomic strata. Additional mediating factors may explain the remaining variation of socioeconomic status on head and neck cancer.; European Commission[IC18-CT97-0222]; Ludwig Institute for Research on Cancer; FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa no Estado de Sao Paulo)[01/01768-2]; FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa no Estado de Sao Paulo)[01/12897-8]; FAPESP (Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa no Estado de Sao Paulo)[04/12054-9]

‣ Inequalities in mortality of men by oral and pharyngeal cancer in Barcelona, Spain and Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1995-2003

ANTUNES, Jose Leopoldo Ferreira; BORRELL, Carme; PEREZ, Gloria; BOING, Antonio Fernando; WUENSCH-FILHO, Victor
Fonte: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD Publicador: BIOMED CENTRAL LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Large inequalities of mortality by most cancers in general, by mouth and pharynx cancer in particular, have been associated to behaviour and geopolitical factors. The assessment of socioeconomic covariates of cancer mortality may be relevant to a full comprehension of distal determinants of the disease, and to appraise opportune interventions. The objective of this study was to compare socioeconomic inequalities in male mortality by oral and pharyngeal cancer in two major cities of Europe and South America. Methods: The official system of information on mortality provided data on deaths in each city; general censuses informed population data. Age-adjusted death rates by oral and pharyngeal cancer for men were independently assessed for neighbourhoods of Barcelona, Spain, and Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 1995 to 2003. Uniform methodological criteria instructed the comparative assessment of magnitude, trends and spatial distribution of mortality. General linear models assessed ecologic correlations between death rates and socioeconomic indices (unemployment, schooling levels and the human development index) at the inner-city area level. Results obtained for each city were subsequently compared. Results: Mortality of men by oral and pharyngeal cancer ranked higher in Barcelona (9.45 yearly deaths per 100...

‣ Interaction between Tobacco and Alcohol Use and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer: Pooled Analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium

HASHIBE, Mia; BRENNAN, Paul; CHUANG, Shu-Chun; BOCCIA, Stefania; CASTELLSAGUE, Xavier; CHEN, Chu; CURADO, Maria Paula; MASO, Luigino Dal; DAUDT, Alexander W.; FABIANOVA, Eleonora; FERNANDEZ, Leticia; WÜNSCH-FILHO, Victor; FRANCESCHI, Silvia; HAYES, Richa
Fonte: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH Publicador: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: The magnitude of risk conferred by the interaction between tobacco and alcohol use on the risk of head and neck cancers is not clear because studies have used various methods to quantify the excess head and neck cancer burden. Methods: We analyzed individual-level pooled data from 17 European and American case-control studies (11,221 cases and 16,168 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. We estimated the multiplicative interaction parameter (psi) and population attributable risks (PAR). Results: A greater than multiplicative joint effect between ever tobacco and alcohol use was observed for head and neck cancer risk (psi = 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-3.04). The PAR for tobacco or alcohol was 72% (95% confidence interval, 61-79%) for head and neck cancer, of which 4% was due to alcohol alone, 33% was due to tobacco alone, and 35% was due to tobacco and alcohol combined. The total PAR differed by subsite (64% for oral cavity cancer, 72% for pharyngeal cancer, 89% for laryngeal cancer), by sex (74% for men, 57% for women), by age (33% for cases < 45 years, 73% for cases > 60 years), and by region (84% in Europe, 51% in North America, 83% in Latin America). Conclusions: Our results confirm that the joint effect between tobacco and alcohol use is greater than multiplicative on head and neck cancer risk. However...

‣ Involuntary smoking and head and neck cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium

LEE, Yuan-Chin Amy; BOFFETTA, Paolo; STURGIS, Erich M.; WEI, Qingyi; ZHANG, Zuo-Feng; MUSCAT, Joshua; LAZARUS, Philip; MATOS, Elena; HAYES, Richard B.; WINN, Deborah M.; ZARIDZE, David; WÜNSCH-FILHO, Victor; ELUF-NETO, Jose; KOIFMAN, Sergio; MATES, Dana;
Fonte: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH Publicador: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Although active tobacco smoking has been identified as a major risk factor for head and neck cancer, involuntary smoking has not been adequately evaluated because of the relatively low statistical power in previous studies. We took advantage of data pooled in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium to evaluate the role of involuntary smoking in head and neck carcinogenesis. Involuntary smoking exposure data were pooled across six case-control studies in Central Europe, Latin America, and the United States. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were estimated for 542 cases and 2,197 controls who reported never using tobacco, and the heterogeneity among the study-specific ORs was assessed. In addition, stratified analyses were done by subsite. No effect of ever involuntary smoking exposure either at home or at work was observed for head and neck cancer overall. However, long duration of involuntary smoking exposure at home and at work was associated with an increased risk (OR for >15 years at home, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.12-2.28; P(trend) <0-01; OR for >15 years at work, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.04-2.30; P(trend) = 0.13). The effect of duration of involuntary smoking exposure at home was stronger for pharyngeal and laryngeal cancers than for other subsites. An association between involuntary smoking exposure and the risk of head and neck cancer...

‣ Vitamin or mineral supplement intake and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium

Li, Qian; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Koifman, Sergio; Wuensch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Daudt, Alexander W.; Curado, Maria Paula; Winn, Deborah M.; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Castellsague, Xavier; Mo
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; HOBOKEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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To investigate the potential role of vitamin or mineral supplementation on the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC), we analyzed individual-level pooled data from 12 casecontrol studies (7,002 HNC cases and 8,383 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. There were a total of 2,028 oral cavity cancer, 2,465 pharyngeal cancer, 874 unspecified oral/pharynx cancer, 1,329 laryngeal cancer and 306 overlapping HNC cases. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for self reported ever use of any vitamins, multivitamins, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and calcium, beta-carotene, iron, selenium and zinc supplements were assessed. We further examined frequency, duration and cumulative exposure of each vitamin or mineral when possible and stratified by smoking and drinking status. All ORs were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, study center, education level, pack-years of smoking, frequency of alcohol drinking and fruit/vegetable intake. A decreased risk of HNC was observed with ever use of vitamin C (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.590.96) and with ever use of calcium supplement (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.420.97). The inverse association with HNC risk was also observed for 10 or more years of vitamin C use (OR = 0.72...

‣ Inequalities in mortality of men by oral and pharyngeal cancer in Barcelona, Spain and São Paulo, Brazil, 1995–2003

Antunes, José ; Borrell, Carme ; Pérez, Glòria ; Boing, Antonio ; Wünsch-Filho, Victor 
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Abstract Background Large inequalities of mortality by most cancers in general, by mouth and pharynx cancer in particular, have been associated to behaviour and geopolitical factors. The assessment of socioeconomic covariates of cancer mortality may be relevant to a full comprehension of distal determinants of the disease, and to appraise opportune interventions. The objective of this study was to compare socioeconomic inequalities in male mortality by oral and pharyngeal cancer in two major cities of Europe and South America. Methods The official system of information on mortality provided data on deaths in each city; general censuses informed population data. Age-adjusted death rates by oral and pharyngeal cancer for men were independently assessed for neighbourhoods of Barcelona, Spain, and São Paulo, Brazil, from 1995 to 2003. Uniform methodological criteria instructed the comparative assessment of magnitude, trends and spatial distribution of mortality. General linear models assessed ecologic correlations between death rates and socioeconomic indices (unemployment...

‣ Inequalities in mortality of men by oral and pharyngeal cancer in Barcelona, Spain and São Paulo, Brazil, 1995–2003

Antunes, José L F; Borrell, Carme; Pérez, Glòria; Boing, Antonio F; Wünsch-Filho, Victor
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.768394%
Abstract Background Large inequalities of mortality by most cancers in general, by mouth and pharynx cancer in particular, have been associated to behaviour and geopolitical factors. The assessment of socioeconomic covariates of cancer mortality may be relevant to a full comprehension of distal determinants of the disease, and to appraise opportune interventions. The objective of this study was to compare socioeconomic inequalities in male mortality by oral and pharyngeal cancer in two major cities of Europe and South America. Methods The official system of information on mortality provided data on deaths in each city; general censuses informed population data. Age-adjusted death rates by oral and pharyngeal cancer for men were independently assessed for neighbourhoods of Barcelona, Spain, and São Paulo, Brazil, from 1995 to 2003. Uniform methodological criteria instructed the comparative assessment of magnitude, trends and spatial distribution of mortality. General linear models assessed ecologic correlations between death rates and socioeconomic indices (unemployment, schooling levels and the human development index) at the inner-city area level. Results obtained for each city were subsequently compared. Results Mortality of men by oral and pharyngeal cancer ranked higher in Barcelona (9.45 yearly deaths per 100...

‣ Inequalities in mortality of men by oral and pharyngeal cancer in Barcelona, Spain and São Paulo, Brazil, 1995–2003

Antunes, José L F; Borrell, Carme; Pérez, Glòria; Boing, Antonio F; Wünsch-Filho, Victor
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Produção Intelectual da USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.768394%
Abstract Background Large inequalities of mortality by most cancers in general, by mouth and pharynx cancer in particular, have been associated to behaviour and geopolitical factors. The assessment of socioeconomic covariates of cancer mortality may be relevant to a full comprehension of distal determinants of the disease, and to appraise opportune interventions. The objective of this study was to compare socioeconomic inequalities in male mortality by oral and pharyngeal cancer in two major cities of Europe and South America. Methods The official system of information on mortality provided data on deaths in each city; general censuses informed population data. Age-adjusted death rates by oral and pharyngeal cancer for men were independently assessed for neighbourhoods of Barcelona, Spain, and São Paulo, Brazil, from 1995 to 2003. Uniform methodological criteria instructed the comparative assessment of magnitude, trends and spatial distribution of mortality. General linear models assessed ecologic correlations between death rates and socioeconomic indices (unemployment, schooling levels and the human development index) at the inner-city area level. Results obtained for each city were subsequently compared. Results Mortality of men by oral and pharyngeal cancer ranked higher in Barcelona (9.45 yearly deaths per 100...

‣ Oral and pharyngeal cancer in the North-west and West Yorkshire regions of England, and occupation.

Whitaker, C J; Moss, E; Lee, W R; Cunliffe, S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1979 Português
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Patients with oral or pharyngeal cancer in the two main textile regions of England were matched for age and sex with patients having cancers not known to be associated with textile work. Data were recorded on age, sex, cancer site, and smoking, chewing and drinking habits together with dental and occupational history. There were 102 and 61 matched pairs of males and 52 and 60 matched pairs of females in the North-west and West Yorkshire regions respectively. There were significantly (P less than 0.05) more textile workers in the cases compared with their matched controls for only the females in the North-west. No particular type of textile work occurred more frequently for the cases than the controls in all four matched comparisons. Only for the males in the North-west were there significant differences (P less than 0.05) in the proportions of textile workers in the three cancer sites of the tongue, mouth and pharynx. These results do not confirm the association between textile work and oral or pharyngeal cancer found by the mortality study of Moss and Lee (1974). The results for the association between oral or pharyngeal cancer and smoking, drinking, chewing and wearing of dentures are discussed.

‣ Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Incidence and Mortality Among Hispanics, 1996–2002: The Need for Ethnoregional Studies in Cancer Research

Cruz, Gustavo D.; Salazar, Christian R.; Morse, Douglas E.
Fonte: © American Journal of Public Health 2006 Publicador: © American Journal of Public Health 2006
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /12/2006 Português
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Objectives. We investigated whether oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer (OPC) incidence and mortality statistics among Hispanics in New York State differed from those among Hispanics in the United States as a whole.

‣ Oral and pharyngeal cancer in South Asians and non-South Asians in relation to socioeconomic deprivation in South East England

Moles, D R; Fedele, S; Speight, P M; Porter, S R; Silva, I dos Santos
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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From UK Thames Cancer Registry data, after controlling for socioeconomic deprivation of area of residence, South Asian males showed a higher relative risk of oral (1.36; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.67), but not of pharyngeal cancer than non-South Asian males, whereas South Asian females had much higher risks of these cancers (3.67; 95% CI: 2.97, 4.53 and 2.06; 95% CI: 1.44, 2.93), respectively, than non-South Asians.

‣ An epidemiological study of oral and pharyngeal cancer in Central and South-East Asia

Hirayama, Takeshi
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1966 Português
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The author has investigated the epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal cancer in several different countries and localities in Central and South-East Asia. From comparisons of the various countries and areas and from detailed case studies among oral-cancer groups and control groups, the author has obtained strong supportive evidence for the association of the disease with the habit of chewing tobacco. He has also found a less marked association with smoking, the drinking of alcohol, and vegetarian dietary customs.

‣ CYP1A1, mEH, and GSTM1 Polymophisms and Risk of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer: A Spanish Case-Control Study

Varela-Lema, L.; Ruano-Ravina, A.; Juiz Crespo, M. A.; Kelsey, K. T.; Loidi, L.; Barros-Dios, J. M.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background. Genetic polymorphisms of drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the detoxification pathways of carcinogenic substances may influence cancer risk. Methods. Case-control study that investigates the relationship between CYP1A1 Ile/Val, exon 4 mEH, and GSTM1 null genetic polymorphism and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer examining the interaction between these genes, tobacco, and alcohol. 92 incident cases and 130 consecutive hospital-based controls have been included. Results. No significant associations were found for any of the genotypes assessed. The estimated risk was slightly elevated in subjects with the wild type of the mEH gene and the null GSTM1 genotype. For exon 4 mEH heterozygous polymorphism, the risk was slightly lower for heavy smokers than for light smokers. The inverse association was observed for the GSTM1 null genotype. Conclusions. The results suggest that exon 4 mEH and GSTM1 null polymorphisms might influence oral and pharyngeal cancer.

‣ Novel mutant-enriched Sequencing Identified High Frequency of PIK3CA Mutations in Pharyngeal Cancer

Qiu, Wanglong; Tong, Guo-Xia; Manolidis, Spiros; Close, Lanny G.; Assaad, Adel M.; Su, Gloria H.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/03/2008 Português
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We previously reported four PIK3CA mutations in 38 head and neck cancer samples; three of which were identified in six pharyngeal cancer samples. To determine the mutation frequency of PIK3CA in pharyngeal cancer, we studied 24 additional cases of pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in this study. Using both direct genomic DNA sequencing and novel mutant-enriched sequencing methods developed specifically for the three hot-spot mutations (H1047R, E545K and E452K) of PIK3CA, we detected five mutations of PIK3CA in the 24 pharyngeal cancers (20.8%). Three of the five mutations had been missed by the conventional sequencing method and were subsequently detected by novel mutant-enriched sequencing methods. We showed that the mutant-enriched sequencing method for the H1047R hot-spot mutation can identify the mutation in a mixed population of mutant and wild-type DNA sequences at 1:360 ratios. These novel mutant-enriched sequencing methods allow the detection of the PIK3CA hot-spot mutations in clinical specimens which often contain limited tumor tissues (i.e. biopsy specimens).

‣ Evaluating the Completeness of the SEER-Medicare Linked Database for Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer

Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Keighley, John D.; Cumming, Christopher G.; Girod, Douglas A.; Mayo, Matthew S.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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Oral and pharyngeal cancer is a persistent oral health problem. Baseline and trend data to measure progress are lacking. Our long-term goal is to create an algorithm using Medicare claims to identify oral and pharyngeal cancer cases among those ages 65 and older. The goal of this project was to assess the completeness of the SEER-Medicare linked database for identifying incident oral and pharyngeal cancer cases. We compared incidence rates from the “gold-standard” SEER limited-use database to those from the SEER-Medicare linked database using a quasi-likelihood extension of Poisson regression, allowing for over-dispersion. Adjustment for age, sex, race and ethnicity, and interaction terms between these explanatory variables with data source were used to assess the completeness of the SEER-Medicare linked database among these subgroups. Approximately 6.4% of the cases were missing from the SEER-Medicare linked database. The completeness varied by race and ethnicity (p=0.066). Future development of an algorithm to identify oral and pharyngeal cancer cases using Medicare claims alone can potentially identify over 93% of the cases; however, Hispanic, non-Hispanic black, and non-Hispanic other race and ethnicity subgroups will be less likely than non-Hispanic whites to be identified in such future algorithms.

‣ Comparative Effectiveness of Instructional Methods: Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer Examination

Clark, Nereyda P.; Marks, John G.; Sandow, Pamela R.; Seleski, Christine E.; Logan, Henrietta L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 Português
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This study compared the effectiveness of different methods of instruction for the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. A group of thirty sophomore students at the University of Florida College of Dentistry were randomly assigned to three training groups: video instruction, a faculty-led hands-on instruction, or both video and hands-on instruction. The training intervention involved attending two sessions spaced two weeks apart. The first session used a pretest to assess students’ baseline didactic knowledge and clinical examination technique. The second session utilized two posttests to assess the comparative effectiveness of the training methods on didactic knowledge and clinical technique. The key findings were that students performed the clinical examination significantly better with the combination of video and faculty-led hands-on instruction (p < 0.01). All students improved their clinical exam skills, knowledge, and confidence in performing the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination independent of which training group they were assigned. Utilizing both video and interactive practice promoted greater performance of the clinical technique on the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

‣ The Influence of Monoamine Oxidase Variants on the Risk of Betel Quid-Associated Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer

Chen, Ping-Ho; Huang, Bin; Shieh, Tien-Yu; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Chen, Yuk-Kwan; Wu, Ju-Hui; Huang, Jhen-Hao; Chen, Chun-Chia; Lee, Ka-Wo
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Betel quid (BQ) and areca nut (AN) (major BQ ingredient) are group I human carcinogens illustrated by International Agency for Research on Cancer and are closely associated with an elevated risk of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs) and cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx. The primary alkaloid of AN, arecoline, can be metabolized via the monoamine oxidase (MAO) gene by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the variants of the susceptible candidate MAO genes are associated with OPMDs and oral and pharyngeal cancer. A significant trend of MAO-A mRNA expression was found in in vitro studies. Using paired human tissues, we confirmed the significantly decreased expression of MAO-A and MAO-B in cancerous tissues when compared with adjacent noncancerous tissues. Moreover, we determined that MAO-A single nucleotide polymorphism variants are significantly linked with oral and pharyngeal cancer patients in comparison to OPMDs patients [rs5953210 risk G-allele, odds ratio = 1.76; 95% confidence interval = 1.02-3.01]. In conclusion, we suggested that susceptible MAO family variants associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer may be implicated in the modulation of MAO gene activity associated with ROS.

‣ Trends and ethnic disparities in oral and oro-pharyngeal cancers in South Africa, 1992-2001

Ayo-Yusuf, O.A.; Lalloo, R.; Johnson, N.W.
Fonte: South African Dental Association Publicador: South African Dental Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2013 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in the epidemiology of oral and of oro-pharyngeal (OAP) cancers in South Africa for the atest period available. METHODS: Data were obtained from the South African pathology-based National Cancer Registry. All new cases of OAP cancers diagnosed and confirmed histologically from 1992 to 2001 are included for the ICD-10 sites C00 to C14, excluding those involving the major salivary glands (C07-C08) and the nasopharynx (C11). OAP cancer incidence is reported by demographics (gender, age, race/ethnicity) and the anatomical sites involved. The analysis on anatomical sites was restricted to squamous cell carcinomas. RESULTS: Overall, males had a much higher OAP cancer incidence rate (world age-Standardised incidence rate [ASIR] = 7.01/100 000 per year) than females (ASIR = 1.99). However, among Asian/Indian South Africans, OAP cancer incidence was higher among females (ASIR = 4.60) than among males (ASIR = 3.80). OAP cancer, excluding those involving the lip, was highest among Coloureds (ASIR = 5.72) and lowest among Blacks (ASIR = 3.16). OAP cancer incidence was stable overall, but incidence rates increased significantly among Coloured South Africans over the period under review (p < 0.05). Cancer specifically involving the oro-pharyngeal was most common among Coloureds and showed an increasing trend during the period under review. CONCLUSIONS: Variations in the incidence of OAP cancers by gender...

‣ The relationships among individual and regional smoking, socioeconomic status, and oral and pharyngeal cancer survival: a mediation analysis

Guo, Yi; Logan, Henrietta L; Marks, John G; Shenkman, Elizabeth A
Fonte: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Publicador: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Poorer survival from oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC) has been reported for populations of lower socioeconomic status (SES), adjusting for risk factors such as patient and clinical characteristics. Beyond these risk factors, higher rates of tobacco use may be a mediator for the observed poorer OPC survival for low SES populations. In this study, we aimed to examine the impact of the relationships among SES, individual smoking status, and living in a region with a higher smoking rate on OPC survival. We obtained Florida Cancer Data System data from 1996 to 2010 and merged the data with US Census data and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 1996 to 2010. We built multivariable survival models to quantify the mediational effect of individual smoking on overall and OPC-specific survival, adjusting for regional smoking, demographics, and clinical characteristics. We found that lower SES, individual smoking, and living in a region with a higher smoking rate were all strongly associated with poorer survival. We estimated that the indirect effect of individual smoking accounted for a large part (ranged from 13.3% to 30.2%) of the total effect of SES on overall and OPC-specific survival. In conclusion, individual and regional smoking are both significant and independent predictors of poor cancer survival. Higher rate of individual smoking is partially responsible for poorer cancer survival in low SES populations. Results of this study provide rationale for considering a multi-level approach that simultaneously targets both individual and contextual factors for future smoking cessation interventions.

‣ Mortality from oral and pharyngeal cancer in Brazil: trends and regional patterns, 1979-2002

Boing,Antonio Fernando; Peres,Marco Aurélio; Antunes,José Leopoldo Ferreira
Fonte: Organización Panamericana de la Salud Publicador: Organización Panamericana de la Salud
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2006 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the trends and regional patterns in mortality from oral cancer and pharyngeal cancer in Brazil from 1979 through 2002. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System (Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade) database, which is compiled by the Ministry of Health of Brazil. Mortality rates were adjusted by gender and age. The Prais-Winsten generalized linear regression procedure was used to calculate the annual increase or decrease in mortality rates. The time trends for mortality due to oral cancer and to pharyngeal cancer were analyzed by specific anatomical site and by region of the country (North, Northeast, South, Southeast, and Center-West). RESULTS: In all five regions of Brazil over the period studied, oral cancer mortality remained stable for both genders, but pharyngeal cancer mortality increased for both genders. Mortality from cancer affecting the lips, tongue, gums, mouth floor, palate, other parts of the mouth, and tonsils showed a statistically significant decrease over the period. However, mortality from cancer affecting the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and ill-defined and undefined sites of the oral cavity and the pharynx showed a significant increase. Mortality rates for both oral cancer and pharyngeal cancer were higher in the South and Southeast regions of the country than in Brazil's three other regions. CONCLUSIONS: The relatively larger decrease in mortality from cancer affecting the lips...