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‣ The impact of Six Sigma in the performance of a Pollution Prevention program

CALIA, Rogerio Ceravolo; GUERRINI, Fábio Müller; CASTRO, Mario de
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; LONDON Publicador: ELSEVIER SCI LTD; LONDON
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The diffusion of Pollution Prevention faces organizational barriers as for instance resistance to change, insufficient support from decision-makers, unclear project leadership, insufficient employee accountability and inflexible organizational structures. To understand how to overcome such barriers, the performance of a Pollution Prevention program of a multinational corporation is analyzed. The quantitative analyses of 2096 Pollution Prevention projects conducted between 1995 and 2007 support the conclusion that the performance of the Pollution Prevention program increased after the implementation of the Six Sigma program. Moreover, the analyses of 1906 Pollution Prevention projects and 31,133 Six Sigma projects for cost reduction in 27 countries indicate that in countries where the implementation of Six Sigma is more expressive, pollution is prevented more than in countries with less expressive Six Sigma implementation. In fact, the Six Sigma implementation improved the organizational capability for data based project management. Therefore, comparing six years before and six years after the Six Sigma implementation, the total number of Pollution Prevention projects recognized increased 6.9 times and the total amount of pollution prevented increased by 62%. The qualitative analysis describes how the Six Sigma program interacts with the Pollution Prevention program in the studied company. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

‣ A influência da poluição atmosférica no remodelamento miocárdico; The role of air pollution upon myocardial remodeling

Fonoff, Adriana Morgan de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/06/2014 Português
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O avanço tecnológico trouxe aumento na quantidade e na variedade de agentes eliminados na atmosfera, tendo relação direta com o aumento de partículas de poluição do ar e com a ocorrência de mortes por falência cardíaca, infarto agudo do miocárdio e arritmias. Muitos estudos já relataram que o aumento de material particulado (MP <10 nM) induz ao estresse oxidativo que, por sua vez, pode causar inflamação, aumentando a expressão de citocinas inflamatórias. Especificamente no miocárdio, quando agredido, ocorre necrose dos cardiomiócitos, apoptose, ativação do sistema complemento, acúmulo de células inflamatórias na área infartada e na área remota, tendo como mediadores dessa perda celular a inflamação e o estresse oxidativo. Essa cadeia complexa de eventos promove intenso remodelamento molecular e celular na região infartada e em regiões distantes a ela. Visto a poluição atuar tanto na inflamação quanto no estresse oxidativo, e esses serem mecanismos de lesão miocárdica, nossa hipótese é que a poluição poderia ser um amplificador dessa lesão. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o papel da poluição no remodelamento estrutural, geométrico e funcional do coração em modelo experimental de infarto do miocárdio. Para tal...

‣ Structural equation modeling of parasympathetic and sympathetic response to traffic air pollution in a repeated measures study

Baja, Emmanuel S; Schwartz, Joel D; Coull, Brent A; Wellenius, Gregory A; Vokonas, Pantel S; Suh, Helen H
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Traffic-related air pollution has been associated to a range of adverse health impacts, including decreased heart rate variability (HRV). The association between traffic-related pollution and HRV, however, has varied by traffic-related or HRV marker as well as by study, suggesting the need for a more comprehensive and integrative approach to examining air pollution-mediated biological impacts on these outcomes. In a Bayesian framework, we examined the effect of traffic pollution on HRV using structural equation models (SEMs) and looked at effect modification by participant characteristics. Methods: We studied measurements of 5 HRV markers [high frequency (HF), low frequency (LF), 5-min standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN), square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal-to-normal intervals (rMSSD), and LF/HF ratio (LF/HF)] for 700 elderly men from the Normative Aging Study. Using SEMs, we fit a latent variable for traffic pollution that is reflected by levels of carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and black carbon (BC) to estimate its effect on latent variable for parasympathetic tone that included HF, SDNN and rMSSD, and the sympathetic tone marker, LF/HF. Exposure periods were assessed using 4-...

‣ Unraveling the Worldwide Pollution Haven Effect

Grether, Jean-Marie; Mathys, Nicole A.; de Melo, Jaime
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This paper contributes to the debate on the existence of pollution haven effects by systematically measuring the pollution content of trade (measured by the pollution content of imports, PCI) and decomposing it into three components-a "deep" component (unrelated to the environmental debate but including variables traditionally present in the gravity model) and two components (factor endowments and environmental policies) that occupy center stage in the debate on trade and the environment. The decomposition is carried out for 1986-88 for an extensive data set covering 10 pollutants, 48 countries, and 79 ISIC 4-digit sectors. Illustrative decompositions presented for three of the 10 pollutants in the data set indicate a significant pollution haven effect which increases the PCI of the North because of stricter environmental regulations in the North. At the same time, the factor endowment effect decreases the PCI of the North as the North is relatively well-endowed in capital and pollution-intensive activities are also capital-intensive. On a global scale, because the bulk of trade is intraregional with a high North-North share, these effects are small relative to the "deep" determinants of the worldwide pollution content of trade. In sum...

‣ Indoor Air Pollution

Smith, Kirk R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Outdoor air pollution in developing-country cities is difficult to overlook. Indoor air pollution caused by burning such traditional fuels as wood, crop residues, and dung is less evident, yet it is responsible for a significant part of country and global disease burdens. The main groups affected are poor women and children in rural areas and urban slums as they go about their daily activities. This note reviews the evidence on health effects from indoor air pollution in developing countries, looking in detail at India. It outlines possible solutions and concludes that the only feasible long-term remedy is improved access to cleaner modern energy.

‣ Air Pollution During Growth: Accounting for Governance and Vulnerability

Dasgupta, Susmita; Hamilton, Kirk; Pandey, Kiran; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, D.C. Publicador: World Bank, Washington, D.C.
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New research on urban air pollution casts doubt on the conventional view of the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality. This view holds that pollution automatically increases until societies reach middle-income status because poor countries have neither the institutional capacity nor the political commitment necessary to regulate polluters. Some policymakers and researchers have cited this model (called the "environmental Kuznets curve," or EKC) when arguing that developing countries should "grow first, clean up later." However, new evidence suggests that the EKC model is misleading because it mistakenly assumes that strong environmental governance is not possible for poor countries. As the authors show in this paper, the empirical relationship between pollution and income becomes much weaker when measures of governance are added to the analysis. Their results also suggest that previous research has underestimated the effect of geographic vulnerability (climate and terrain factors) on air quality. The authors find that weak governance and geographic vulnerability alone can account for the crisis levels of air pollution in many developing country cities. When these factors are combined with income and population effects...

‣ Indoor Air Pollution Associated with Household Fuel Use in India : An Exposure Assessment and Modeling Exercise in Rural Districts of Andhra Pradesh, India

Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Mehta, Sumi; Kumar, Priti; Ramaswamy, Padmavathi; Sambandam, Sankar; Kumar, Kannappa Satish; Smith, Kirk R.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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Indoor air pollutants associated with combustion of solid fuels in households of developing countries are now recognized as a major source of health risks to the exposed populations. Based on this background, the present study was designed with three major objectives: to monitor household pollution concentrations in a statistically representative rural sample in southern India; to model household indoor air pollution levels based on information on household-level parameters collected through questionnaires, in order to determine how well such survey information could be used to estimate air pollution levels without monitoring; and to record time/activity and other information at the household-level, in order to estimate the exposures of different household members. This paper contains the following headings: background, study design and methodology, results, and conclusions.

‣ The Cost of Air Pollution

Sander, Klas; Mira-Salama, Daniel; Feuerbacher, Arndt
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
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In 2010, the Municipality of Cuenca, through its environmental management commission (EMC), and the World Bank, through the environment and natural resources department, started a collaboration targeted towards strengthening EMC’s capacity to better manage Cuenca’s environmental assets and to provide EMC with hard evidence and data that will serve as departing point for decision-makers towards the formulation of public policy. Two main areas of focus were chosen: (i) costs of environmental degradation for Cuenca; and (ii) climate change impacts and resilience measures for Cuenca. This report describes the findings of the first area of focus. This report tries to capture the main results and to describe the assumptions and input data utilized, through a detailed step-by-step description of an internationally-accepted and validated methodology, an explanation of input data needs, equations used, assumptions made, and alternative calculation streams; and through the demonstration of this methodology as it is applied to the real case of air pollution in Cuenca. Analyses about the cost of environmental degradation are often used as an environmental priority-setting tool...

‣ Pollution hazards from sporting shooting ranges

John, Peter CL
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 1150154 bytes; 362 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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Summary: Sporting shooters, in their enthusiasm for their hobby, do not fully take into account environmental pollution when selecting sites for shooting ranges. This is obvious from a recent proposal for a complex of shooting ranges in Bodalla State Forest on the NE slopes of Mt Dromedary. It may fall to the community to protest unsuitability of proposals since applications are considered at Shire Council level, where a small number of staff copes with great diversity of environmental considerations. The present review was prepared initially in a slightly different form for submission in 2003 to a Commission of Inquiry, which finally did not sit owing to the withdrawal of the shooting complex proposal. It is presented here as an aid to communities that may be affected by threats of lead pollution and perhaps to Councils who wish to benefit from the experiences of Eurobodalla Shire NSW. The hazard from lead is underlined by the international banning of lead from petrol and paint and the banning of lead shotgun pellets from waterways. In NSW Far South Coast, extensive lead pollution has been found at a shotgun range formerly used by the Batemans Bay Clay Target Club, at West Nelligen near Batemans Bay. N.S.W. Environment Protection Agency has informed Eurobodalla Shire Council that the site is polluted and is declared a remediation site (Declaratio n Number 21029). The cost of remediation is estimated by EPA as $ 250...

‣ Racing to the Bottom? Foreign Investment and Air Pollution in Developing Countries

Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Critics of free trade have raised the specter of a "race to the bottom," in which environmental standards collapse because polluters threaten to relocate to "pollution havens" in the developing world. Proponents of this view advocate high, globally uniform standards enforced by punitive trade measures that neutralize the cost advantage of would-be pollution havens. To test the race-to-the-bottom model, the author analyzes recent air quality trends in the United States and in Brazil, China, and Mexico, the three largest recipients of foreign investment in the developing world. The evidence clearly contradicts the model's central prediction. The most dangerous form of air pollution--suspended particulate matter--has actually declined in major cities in all four countries during the era of globalization. Citing recent research, the author argues that the race-to-the-bottom model is flawed because its basic assumptions misrepresent the political economy of pollution control in developing countries. He proposes a more realistic model...

‣ The Arab Republic of Egypt : For Better or For Worse, Air Pollution in Greater Cairo

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Policy Note; Economic & Sector Work
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This sector note presents the results of the World Bank-led study on the development of a strategy of the government of the Arab Republic of Egypt to respond to air quality problems in Greater Cairo. The Greater Cairo Metropolitan Area (GCMA) is the largest urban and industrial center in Egypt, which, in 2009, was ranked eighth among the world's top urban agglomerations. Twenty million people live and work in Greater Cairo, which is surrounded by major heavy industries to the north and the south, including large, as well as small and medium enterprises. As in many megacities in the world, air pollution has been a chronic problem in Greater Cairo. The persistent air quality problem represents a serious hurdle to the competitiveness that is a key to the socioeconomic development of Greater Cairo and therefore the nation. An action plan has prepared for the implementation of the main sectorial policies. This action plan will have to be developed and changed where required because it can only be implemented within a coherent framework of environmental...

‣ Pollution Havens and Foreign Direct Investment : Dirty Secret or Popular Myth?

Smarzynska, Beata K.; Wei, Shang-Jin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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The "pollution haven" hypothesis refers to the possibility that multinational firms, particularly those engaged in highly polluting activities, relocate to countries with weaker environmental standards. Despite the plausibility and popularity of this hypothesis, there is little evidence to support it. The authors identify four obstacles that may have impeded researchers' ability to find evidence in favor of the "pollution haven" hypothesis: 1) The possibility that some features of host countries, such as bureaucratic corruption, may deter inward foreign direct investment and also be positively correlated with lax environmental standards. Omitting this information in statistical analyses may produce misleading results. 2) The possibility that country- or industry-level data, typically used in the literature, may have masked the effect at the firm level. 3) Difficulties associated with measuring environmental standards of the host countries. 4) Difficulties associated with the measuring the pollution intensity of the multinational firms. The authors attempt to surmount these obstacles by explicitly taking into account corruption in host countries and using a firm-level data set on investment projects in 24 transition economies. With these improvements...

‣ Cleaning Pakistan's Air : Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution

Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto; Enriquez, Santiago; Afzal, Javaid; Nakagawa, Akiko; Khan, Asif Shuja
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication
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Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy. Air pollution, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are the top environmental priority problems in Pakistan. Industrialization and urbanization, in conjunction with motorization, can result in further deterioration of urban air quality. This book examines policy options to strengthen the Pakistan clean air program (PCAP) to better address the cost imposed by outdoor air pollution upon Pakistan's economy and populace. The approach provided in this book recommends that the federal and provincial environmental protection agencies (EPAs) take on a limited number of high return, essential, and feasible interventions drawn largely from the PCAP. The objective of this book is to examine policy options to control outdoor air pollution in Pakistan. The findings of the analysis aim at assisting the Government of Pakistan (GoP) in the design and implementation of reforms to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of Pakistan's ambient air quality institutions. The overarching theme of this book is that prioritizing interventions is essential to address the cost of outdoor air pollution...

‣ China : Air Pollution and Acid Rain Control - The Case of Shijiazhuang and the Changsha Triangle Area

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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This study, and the associated technical assistance project, has three main objectives. The first is to help localities in China address several questions related to the planning, and implementation of SO2 emissions, and acid rain control: What are the environmental consequences, specifically for localities of different pollution control strategies, in terms of the impacts on human health, agricultural productivity, and other sectors and activities? What are the relative costs of different sulfur emission reduction plans? Will the proposed strategies enable localities to meet the environmental targets set by the central government? The second objective is to assist with capacity building, and training in China. to enable cities and regions to carry out environmental, and economic analyses of sulfur emission impacts, and control programs. The third objective is to provide a forum for discussion with the central government, primarily the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), on the results of the case studies...

‣ Incomplete Enforcement of Pollution Regulation : Bargaining Power of Chinese Factories

Wang, Hua; Mamingi, Nlandu; Laplante, Benoît; Dasgupta, Susmita
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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Only a small number of studies have empirically examined the determinants of the monitoring and enforcement performed by environmental regulators, and most of these have focused on industrial countries. In contrast, the authors empirically examine the determinants of enforcement in China. More precisely, they analyze the determinants of firms' relative bargaining power with local environmental authorities with respect to the enforcement of pollution charges. The authors show that private sector firms appear to have less bargaining power than state-owned enterprises. Contrary to earlier findings, they also show that firms facing adverse financial situations have more bargaining power than other firms and are more likely to pay smaller pollution charges than they should be paying. Finally, the authors show that the greater the social impact of a firm's emissions (as measured by complaints), the less bargaining power it has with local environmental authorities.

‣ Pollution Charges, Community Pressure, and Abatement Cost of Industrial Pollution in China

Wang, Hua
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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The author evaluates the strength of the effect that community pressure and pollution charges have on industrial pollution control in China, and estimates the marginal cost of pollution abatement. He examines a well-documented set of plant-level data, combined with community-level data, to assess the impact of pollution charges and community pressure on industrial behavior in China. He constructs and estimates an industrial organic water pollution discharge model for plants that violate standards for pollution discharge, pay pollution charges, and are constantly under community pressure to further abate pollution. He creates a model and estimates implicit prices for pollution discharges from community pressure, which are determined jointly by the explicit price, the pollution levy. He finds that the implicit discharge price is at least as high as the explicit price. In other words, community pressure not only exists, but may be as strong an incentive as the pollution charge is for industrial firms to control pollution in China. The author's modeling approach also provides a way to estimate the marginal cost of pollution abatement. The empirical results show that the current marginal cost of abatement is about twice the effective charge rate in China.

‣ Endogenous Enforcement and Effectiveness of China's Pollution Levy System

Wang, Hua; Wheeler, David
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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The authors investigate two aspects of China's pollution levy system, which was first implemented about 20 years ago. First, they analyze what determines differences in enforcement of the pollution levy in various urban areas. They find that collection of the otherwise uniform pollution levy is sensitive to differences in economic development and environmental quality. Air and water pollution levies are higher in areas that are heavily polluted. Second, they analyze the impact of pollution charges on industry's environmental performance, in terms of the pollution intensity of process production and the degree of end-of-pipe abatement for both water pollution and air pollution. Econometric analysis shows that plants respond strongly to the levy by either abating air pollution in the production process or providing end-of-pipe treatment for water pollution.

‣ Interactions Between Particulate Air Pollution and Temperature in Air Pollution Mortality Time Series Studies

Roberts, Steven
Fonte: Academic Press Publicador: Academic Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In many community time series studies on the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality, particulate air pollution is modeled additively. In this study, we investigated the interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature in Cook County, Illinois and Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, using data for the period 1987-1994. This was done through the use of joint particulate air pollution-temperature response surfaces and by stratifying the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality by temperature. Evidence that the effect of particulate air pollution on mortality may depend on temperature is found. However, the results were sensitive to the number of degrees of freedom used in the confounder adjustments, the particulate air pollution exposure measure, and how the effects of temperature on mortality are modeled. The results were less sensitive to the estimation method used - generalized linear models and natural cubic splines or generalized additive models and smoothing splines. The results of this study suggest that in community particulate air pollution mortality time series studies the possibility of an interaction between daily particulate air pollution and daily mean temperature should be considered.

‣ An investigation of distributed lag models in the context of air pollution and mortality time series analysis

Roberts, Steven
Fonte: Air and Waste Management Association Publicador: Air and Waste Management Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In particulate air pollution mortality time series studies, the particulate air pollution exposure measure used is typically the current day's or the previous day's air pollution concentration or a multi-day moving average air pollution concentration. Distributed lag models (DLMs) that allow for differential air pollution effects that are spread over multiple days are seen as an improvement over using a single- or multi-day moving average air pollution exposure measure. However, at the current time, the statistical properties of DLMs as a measure of air pollution exposure have not been investigated. In this paper, a simulation study is used to investigate the performance of DLMs as a measure of air pollution exposure in comparison with single- and multi-day moving average air pollution exposure measures under various forms for the true effect of air pollution on mortality. The simulation study shows that DLMs offer a more robust measure of the effect of air pollution on mortality and avoid the potential for a large negative bias compared with single- or multi-day moving average air pollution exposure measures. This is important information. In many U.S. cities, particulate air pollution concentrations are observed only once every six days...

‣ Monetary valuation of salinity impacts and microbial pollution in the Olifants Water Management Area, South Africa

de Lange,WJ; Mahumani,BK; Steyn,M; Oelofse,SHH
Fonte: Water SA Publicador: Water SA
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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This paper estimates costs associated with water pollution in the Olifants River Water Management Area (WMA) in South Africa, and, more specifically, the area represented by the Loskop Dam Water User Association. We focus on the impacts of salinisation on commercial irrigated agriculture, and of microbial pollution on the general population of the WMA, many of whom do not have access to municipal water and sanitation services, leaving them vulnerable to microbial pollution in the water resource. Costs associated with salinity are estimates based on the impacts of increased salinity on the value of marginal product of certain irrigated crops. Costs associated with microbial pollution are estimated based on the direct and indirect costs of human health impacts as a result of microbial pollution in the study area. These monetary value estimates give an indication of the magnitude of the cost of water pollution to society in the WMA. It is concluded that the once-off cost required to provide some pollution prevention infrastructure will be lower than the current annual cost burden of pollution on society in the WMA, and that pollution prevention is therefore cost effective.