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‣ A transição para uma matriz energética limpa : os avanços na tecnologia solar; The transition towards a clean energy matrix : the advances in solar technology

Kelly Rosana Suzigan
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/02/2015 Português
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As reservas mundiais de petróleo, carvão e gás natural podem acomodar maior crescimento no uso destas fontes de energia sobre as próximas décadas, mas agrava os enormes desafios colocados pelas alterações climáticas. A produção e o consumo energético de energia têm grande impacto na sociedade e na natureza, e o uso dos combustíveis fósseis é claramente insustentável com consequências potencialmente catastróficas. Desta forma, a necessidade de transição para uma matriz energética mais limpa é evidente, podendo ser observada através do redirecionamento da política energética de algumas das nações líderes do mundo. Dentre as tecnologias energéticas limpas, a tecnologia solar tem se destacado no cenário mundial, e por hipótese a energia solar deverá ser a principal fonte para geração de eletricidade no futuro. Esta dissertação pretende contribuir com a investigação acerca do desenvolvimento e perspectivas da energia solar no mundo, trazendo alguma luz à controvérsia sobre a possibilidade de superação do paradigma energético baseado na combustão de fósseis a tempo de se evitar um possível desastre ambiental. O presente trabalho divide-se em três partes. A primeira parte trata da necessidade da transição da matriz energética baseada em uso de combustíveis fósseis para uma baseada em energia limpa...

‣ The diffusion of photovoltaics : background, modeling, calibration and implications for government policy

Lilien, Gary Louis
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 2151982 bytes; application/pdf
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Prepared for the United States Dept. of Energy under Contract no. EX-76-A-01-2295, Task order 37.

‣ SERI photovoltaic venture analysis : long term demand estimation

Tabors, Richard D.; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory.
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory. Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Energy Laboratory.
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 2445523 bytes; application/pdf
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This report presents the results of a sectoral demand analysis for photo- voltaic power systems used in the residential sector single family homes], the service, commercial, and institutional sector [schools] and in the central power sector. The results described are the output of a set of three normative modeling activities carried out by the MIT Energy Laboratory, They are based on the assumption that the actors, i.e., the utilities, schools, and homeowners, will switch to photovoltaic power systems when they are cost-effective relative to the competition, that is, centralized power generation using conventional fuels. In each case the assumption is made that the market for photovoltaic power systems will be a new market, not a retrofit market. As a result the annual (total for utilities) sales potential at a given price is estimated for each sector assuming a specific level of new installations in that sector, i.e., new single-family homes, new schools, and additions to utility stocks. As such, the results presented are maxima for a given application. While the methodology presented does not allow for any early acceptors, it does assume that once economic all new homeowners, school-builders, and utilities will buy to a fixed level.

‣ Planning and analysis for development and commercialization of photovoltaic energy conversion systems : final report

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Energy Laboratory in association with the Sloan School of Management and the Dept. of Urban Studies and Planning..
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 2403444 bytes; application/pdf
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Near term consideration of development and commercialization requirements of photovoltaic power systems will increase the potential information generated during the experimental and field test phases of the photovoltaic technology development process. This report summarizes the research activities of the MIT Energy Laboratory Photovoltaics Project during its first year. The report discusses results of residential systems modeling, or market survey analysis and institutional analysis carried out in conjunction with the large scale photovoltaic field test at Mead, Nebraska, preliminary analysis of the social and environmental costs of photovoltaic power system development relative to conventional electrical power generation and the development of energy system R&D decision models. In addition, the report lists project reports and briefly discusses research work to be carried out in the second year of the project.; Prepared for the United States Dept. of Energy under Contract EX-76-A-01-2295, Task Order 37.

‣ Methodology and definition of solar photovoltaic planning regions

Tabors, Richard D.; Carpenter, Paul R.
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 2272430 bytes; application/pdf
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There are in use at the present time at least 10 differently defined sets of energy planning regions for the United States. This paper identifies and describes the existing energy planning regions and discusses their intended function. It then presents an argument for development of a set of solar regions within the United States and discusses the criterion (climate, economics and energy supply/demand) which are required for definition of such a set of regions. The final two sections of the paper discuss a methodology two stage factor analysis, for the definition of solar planning regions and the application of that methodology to the definition of a set of seven planning regions for the United States. Those regions so defined are: the Northeast (south as far as Virginia); the south (west as far as Oklahoma and Kansas); the southwest (including California and Nevada); the northwest (as far east as the Dakotas); the midwest (stretching from Minnesota to Ohio) and individually the state of Texas.; Prepared for the United States Dept. of Energy under Contract no. EX-76-A-01-2295, Task Order 37.

‣ Photovoltaic technology : a review

McCleary, Janet
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1318290 bytes; application/pdf
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‣ The incorporation of solar photovoltaics into a model of residential energy demand

Hartman, Raymond S.
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 361683 bytes; application/pdf
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‣ Cost analysis of electric grid enhancement utilizing distributed generation in post-war reconstruction

Fiala, Darol D. M.
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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The current wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have presented significant civil infrastructure rebuilding challenges to these nations, as well as to the United States, coalition allies, and the United Nations. Iraqi and Afghan critical infrastructure has been destroyed, or fallen into disrepair, due to years of war, international sanctions, sabotage and neglect. Electrical infrastructure, in particular, is a critical economic and social component that is failing to meet the essential needs of these two societies. This paper is a starting point in researching the viability of integrating distributed generation (DG) resources, such as wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, and microturbines into the portfolio of power generation choices, by quantifying the fully burdened cost of electrical generation in war-torn regions. In this paper, Iraq is used as the sample case for investigating the viability of using DG technologies to enhance the existing electric grid. The fully burdened cost is expressed in the annual life-cycle cost (LCC) of each of the five systems (microturbines, diesel generators, photovoltaic panels, wind turbines and large-scale natural gas turbines) researched, "levelized" to $/kW. LCC includes capital costs, operation and maintenance...

‣ Pathways toward Zero-Carbon Electricity Required for Climate Stabilization

Audoly, Richard; Vogt-Schilb, Adrien; Guivarch, Celine
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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This paper covers three policy-relevant aspects of the carbon content of electricity that are well established among integrated assessment models but under-discussed in the policy debate. First, climate stabilization at any level from 2 to 3°C requires electricity to be almost carbon-free by the end of the century. As such, the question for policy makers is not whether to decarbonize electricity but when to do it. Second, decarbonization of electricity is still possible and required if some of the key zero-carbon technologies -- such as nuclear power or carbon capture and storage -- turn out to be unavailable. Third, progressive decarbonization of electricity is part of every country's cost-effective means of contributing to climate stabilization. In addition, this paper provides cost-effective pathways of the carbon content of electricity -- computed from the results of AMPERE, a recent integrated assessment model comparison study. These pathways may be used to benchmark existing decarbonization targets...

‣ Institutional analysis of the acceptance of photovoltaics in daytime radio broadcasting

Nutt-Powell, Thomas Evan; Wagner, Judith
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 1600450 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper, one of a series resulting from institutional analysis of photovoltaic (PV) acceptance, is undertaken in relation to a field test of PV applicability for use by a small-scale daytime AM radio station. Hypotheses in five areas of institutional comprehension of PV as an innovation are pro- posed. The five areas are: (1) decision structure of the station; (2) technical knowledge of the decision-maker; (3) prior information about solar energy of the decision-maker; (4) image potential of the field test to the station; and (5) financial contribution of the station. In the course of data collection, a sixth area -- the PON-RFP process -- was identified. Thirty-one radio stations which met the requirements for potential test site were studied to determine the institutional factors influencing their disposition to accept PV. The findings reveal a considerable capability on the part of small, daytime radio stations to deal with technologically based information about solar energy, coupled with a strong commitment to the encouragement of its broader use. Many revealed a considerable familiarity with solar energy applications, but did not view its use in their setting as primarily contributing to their station's image. Stations had limited financial resources for participation in the project...

‣ Institutional analysis of research and socialization in housing : a preliminary exploration

Furlong, Michael; Nutt-Powell, Thomas Evan
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: 1679935 bytes; application/pdf
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This paper is one of a series prepared under the sponsorship of DOE's Photovoltaic(PV) Program as part of the institutional analysis of housing. It considers research and socialization functions of housing. In addition to a brief discussion of the theory and methods of institutional analysis, the paper presents a brief historical review of building in the US, identi- fying an historic heritage for the independence of institutional entities in the building industry. A review of the building industry's response to innovation (including a brief description of the introduction of PVC piping) suggests that the industry may be characterized as fragmented and localized, with many actors, each responsive to the dispositions of all others (especially the ultimate source of motivation, the consumer and his/her purchasing power). The building industry is structured such that no single actor predominates, but that any or several may be the source of either facilitation or obstruction of innovation. Overcoming economic and technological constraints is not enough. Given the normative importance of housing, anything identified as "new and different" will meet resistance, while innovations labelled as providing "the same with less uncertainty" will find a more willing audience.; Prepared under Dept. of Energy Contract no. EX-76-A-01-2295...

‣ A simultaneous preference reporting methodology applied to the Nebraska agricultural community

Nutt-Powell, Bonnie R.; Sorrell, Levi Anthony.
Fonte: MIT Energy Laboratory Publicador: MIT Energy Laboratory
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 3300033 bytes; application/pdf
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One of a series of publications which are part of the institutional analysis research conducted under the Department of Energy's Photovoltaic (PV) Program, this paper describes the Simultaneous Preference Reporting Methodology and reports the results of collecting data in conjunction with an agricultural field test of PV in rlead, Nebraska. The authors find that in the Nebraska Agricultural Community, PV is an undifferentiated innovation. They also conclude that the Simultaneous Preference Reporting Methodology is a promising diagnostic and predictive tool regarding the acceptance of institutional innovation.; Prepared for the United States Dept. of Energy under Contract no. EX-76-A-01-2295, Task order 37.

‣ Electricity from photovoltaic solar cells: Flat-Plate Solar Array Project. 10 years of progress

Christensen, Elmer
Fonte: NASA Publicador: NASA
Tipo: Report or Paper; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/1985 Português
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The Flat-Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, a Government-sponsored photovoltaics project, was initiated in January 1975 (previously named the Low-Cost Silicon Solar Array Project) to stimulate the development of PV systems for widespread use. Its goal then was to develop PV modules with 10% efficiency, a 20-year lifetime, and a selling price of $0.50 per peak watt of generating capacity (1975 dollars). It was recognized that cost reduction of PV solar-cell and module manufacturing was the key achievement needed if PV power systems were to be economically competitive for large-scale terrestrial use. The project was initiated at JPL to meet these goals through R&D of all phases of flat-plate module technology, from solar-cell silicon material refinement through verification of module reliability and performance. The Project sponsored parallel technology efforts with periodic progress reviews and continuing sponsorship of only the most promising options. A module manufacturing cost-analysis capability was developed that permitted cost goal allocations to be made for each module technology, based upon potential for achievement. Economic analyses, done as technical progress was achieved, permitted assessments to be made of each technical option's potential for meeting the goal and of the Project's overall progress toward the national goal. Excellent technical progress across the entire project was accomplished over the years...

‣ An Assessment of Renewable Portfolio Standards and Potential for Expansion in the Southeastern United States

Jentgen, Matthew
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 20/04/2012 Português
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We currently face a tremendous challenge to transition away from carbon-intensive fossil fuels as our primary energy source to more sustainable and cleaner options, including renewable energy. A Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS), which requires a minimum share of renewable power generation, is one policy mechanism that has been adopted by many states in the US to stimulate generation and investment. The recent passage of the North Carolina Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Standard (REPS) represents the first example of such a program in the South. Attempting to learn from this experience, this paper evaluates and offers lessons for other southern states who might adopt a renewable portfolio standard. This work responds to interest by the North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association (NCSEA) on the potential for other southern states to adopt a renewable portfolio standard. Combining historical experience with RPSs, recent experience with the NC REPS, and interviews with policymakers and energy sector stakeholders in neighboring South Carolina, I have concluded that while there are barriers to RPS adoption, there are also tremendous opportunities. There are three elements of a renewable portfolio standard that can be attractive to South Carolina policymakers: 1. Job growth potential: A renewable industry in North Carolina has been bolstered by the state’s renewable standard. A similar industry can be built in South Carolina. 2. A state mandate is better than a federal mandate: South Carolina’s ideological makeup is more inclined to state regulations based on a state’s needs. Other traditionally conservative states have enacted renewable portfolio standards: Utah...

‣ MAINSTREAMING RESIDENTIAL SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC ADOPTION IN THE UNITED STATES: DRIVERS, TIMING AND THE PRIVATE SECTOR

Fowler, Erik
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 27/04/2012 Português
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A central question of this research report is whether households will lead a major change in the way electricity is generated and used in the United States. The residential sector is the largest consumer of electricity generated and accounts for 39% of consumption and 21% of CO2 emissions. Unlike coal, solar does not deplete a fuel source nor contribute to emissions in the process of generating electricity. Scholars have shown the resource scale of solar is orders of magnitude greater than fossil fuels. Yet, solar photovoltaics (PV) have suffered from considerably less research and development and resultant higher costs relative to fossil fuel generation. This report analyzes the rapidly changing and emerging market of distributed, behind-the-meter generation of solar PV electricity for households with a focus on timing, drivers, and private sector strategies. Methods include a literature review, fieldwork, and a primary research survey instrument administered to 73 renewable energy professionals of varying backgrounds in the spring of 2012. Industry trend data and survey opinion confirm that dropping residential PV costs, increasing PV efficiency and a wider array of financing options are the main drivers of adoption. Technological limitations or regional solar capacity in the U.S. are not limiting factors overall. Although installed costs vary greatly by location...

‣ Maximum Entropy Modeling for Photovoltaic Optimization: A Spatial Analysis of California

Schrager, Samuel
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 26/04/2012 Português
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Adoption of renewable energy for electricity generation holds significant potential to produce emission reduced power, in addition to other benefits. Great promise has been expected for solar energy, specifically photovoltaic (PV) solar panels, which harness the photoelectric effect to produce electricity. Over the past 20 years, the average number of PV facilities in the United States have increased nearly 40% per year. Even with this growth, as of 2011, PV provided only .2% of all national electric generating capacity. However, if historical growth trends can continue, solar energy may stand on the threshold of much larger adoption rates. Within this context, a holistic understanding of the social, environmental and economic elements that play a role in aiding PV growth may prove fruitful. Questions, which have remained unanswered, include what parties adopt, what kind of sites are most common, where development most frequent and what are the drivers of PV adoption? In this paper, a literature review of quantitative and social studies, related to PV adoption is conducted. The output of the literature review is used to select environmental, economic and social variables, which guide a spatial model building process. The model goal is to predict PV adoption hotspots. The spatial boundary of this study is limited to California...