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‣ Media Influence on Alcohol Control Policy Support in the U.S. Adult Population: The Intervening Role of Issue Concern and Risk Judgments

Slater, Michael D.; Lawrence, Frank; Comello, Maria Leonora G.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Data from a national random-digit dial survey (N=1272) were analyzed to examine the influence of news media use on alcohol-control policy support, and to test whether risk judgments and concern about alcohol-related risks mediated effects of news media use variables on support for various types of alcohol-control public policies. In so doing, we test the proposition that perceptions influenced by routine coverage of events such as crime or accidents may in part explain news effects on public policy support in the domain of health policy. Analyses indicated that the (positive) influence of attention to news about crime and accidents on support for laws increasing server liability and limiting marketing of alcohol products was mediated by concern about risks of alcohol-related injuries and by perceptions of the alcohol-attributable fraction of homicides and unintended injury fatalities. Tests of model fit suggest that concern precedes the more cognitive risk judgment in the mediation model.

‣ Fear and Anger Responses to Local News Coverage of Alcohol-Related Crimes, Accidents, and Injuries: Explaining News Effects on Policy Support Using a Representative Sample of Messages and People

Goodall, Catherine E.; Slater, Michael D.; Myers, Teresa A.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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An experiment investigated emotional reactions to news on policy support. Stimuli were selected from a nationally representative sample of local crime/accident news, and a nationally representative online panel of U.S. adults. Stories were manipulated to mention or not mention the role of alcohol. Anger elicited by stories increased blame of individuals, whereas fear increased consideration of contributing societal factors. Mention of alcohol increased likelihood of different emotional responses dominating--greater anger when alcohol was mentioned and greater fear when not mentioned. Such emotions influence policy support: enforcement of existing laws controlling individual behavior in addition to new laws when anger predominated, and, indirectly, support for new laws changing social context in which alcohol is promoted and sold when fear predominated.

‣ The Role of Emotion in Global Warming Policy Support and Opposition

Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Prior research has found that affect and affective imagery strongly influence public support for global warming. This article extends this literature by exploring the separate influence of discrete emotions. Utilizing a nationally representative survey in the United States, this study found that discrete emotions were stronger predictors of global warming policy support than cultural worldviews, negative affect, image associations, or sociodemographic variables. In particular, worry, interest, and hope were strongly associated with increased policy support. The results contribute to experiential theories of risk information processing and suggest that discrete emotions play a significant role in public support for climate change policy. Implications for climate change communication are also discussed.

‣ Characterization of a peptide biomaterial used for cell-seeded scaffolds with an analysis of relevant stem cell policy

Kim, Gina
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 7007829 bytes; 142 p.; 7015540 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) We describe the ethical debate and political climate that led to the decision. An examination of the publication data shows that researchers in the United States have in fact remained leaders in the field until this point, in part because U.S. federal funding has also been available to early mover international groups who appear to have abided by the restrictions.; Restoring damaged or diseased tissue in the body may involve the use of biomaterial scaffolds that provide a responsive environment for cell proliferation. Such scaffolds may be used for in situ cell regeneration, where an implanted scaffold incites cell growth in the body, as well as for growing artificial tissue in vitro by seeding cells in a scaffold that will be implanted at a later stage of development or used for physiological tissue models. The research outlined in this thesis describes two methods of characterizing the stiffness of a biomaterial scaffold. It is well known that cell growth in vitro is affected by the moduli of the surrounding scaffold. Stiffness is also cited as a major factor affecting angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels. We describe a new rheometric method to examine the bulk mechanical properties of a self-assembling peptide biomaterial that spontaneously forms a filament network in a physiological salt solution and supports cell attachment and differentiation. This method has two major advantages: first...

‣ Global Good Practice in Incubation Policy Development and Implementation

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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This paper was based on a desk review of the literature relating to best practice in public policy supporting business incubation, supplemented by four national case studies covering Brazil, Ma-laysia, New Zealand and South Africa. These country studies were prepared through engage-ment of stakeholders, site visits and other sources of primary and secondary information collection. In the context of the study, we focused on best practice in policy development, meaning that public bodies should identify clear objectives and goals to be achieved within the resources avail-able and take steps to measure and assess what has actually been achieved, allowing changes to overcome unexpected barriers, as well as to identify and disseminate best practices to improve overall performance.

‣ Citizen-Driven Innovation

Eskelinen, Jarmo; Garcia Robles, Ana; Lindy, Ilari; Marsh, Jesse; Muente-Kunigami, Arturo
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC, and European Network of Living Labs Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC, and European Network of Living Labs
Tipo: Relatório
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This guidebook aims to bring citizen-driven innovation to policy makers and change agents around the globe, by spreading good practice on open and participatory approaches as applied to digital service development in different nations, climates, cultures, and urban settings. The report explores the concept of smart cities through a lens that promotes citizens as the driving force of urban innovation. Different models of smart cities are presented, showing how citizen-centric methods have been used to mobilize resources to respond to urban innovation challenges in a variety of situations, objectives, and governance structures. The living lab approach strengthens these processes as one of the leading methods for agile development or the rapid prototyping of ideas, concepts, products, services, and processes in a highly decentralized and user-centric manner. By adopting these approaches and promoting citizen-driven innovation, cities around the world are aiming to alleviate the demand for services, increase the quality of delivery, and promote local entrepreneurship. This guidebook is structured into seven main sections: an introductory section describes the vision of a humanly smart city, in order to give an idea of the kind of result that can be attained from opening up and applying citizen-driven innovation methods. Chapter one getting started helps mayors launch co-design initiatives...

‣ Family Policy in Australia: A review of recent developments

Mitchell, Deborah
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 168837 bytes; 362 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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During the 1990s government polices designed to meet the needs of families represented the fastest growing area of social policy in Australia. These policies reflected contradictory pressures, partly expansionary, from various commitments made by the ALP government in the 1980s, including social wage bargains under the Accord, attempts to end child poverty, and increased support for working women, and partly contractionary, including increased emphasis on means-testing, managerialist support for user-pays and private provision, and cost- shifting to states and community organisation. The Coalition government in its 1996 budget has continued contractionary approaches while indicating a return to the male breadwinner approach to family policy.; no

‣ Learning from Labor? Welfare policy transfer between Australia and Britain

Pierson, Chris
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Working/Technical Paper Formato: 187197 bytes; 356 bytes; application/pdf; application/octet-stream
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The evidence is examined for (and against) a process of policy transfer in the early 1990s between the Australian Labor Party (then in government) and policy reformers in the Labour Party in the UK in the two areas of ‘welfare to work’ (especially the JET initiative) and, rather more briefly, child support. Policy transfer of the JET was broadly successful while the transfer of the CSA initiative failed. Policy transfer is a real process but also complex and uncertain. The extent of transfer is conditioned by factors such as the extent of dissatisfaction with existing arrangements and the adequacy of local policy advice.; no

‣ FLA anticipate Sustainable Development Challenges for Better Policy Support

CARABIAS Vicente; CAGNIN Cristiano; HAEGEMAN Karel; KONNOLA Totti
Fonte: EFP Publicador: EFP
Tipo: Articles in books Formato: Printed
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This chapter explores current and forthcoming sustainable development challenges. By comparing the EU Sustainable Development Strategy (European Council, 2006), its related monitoring reports and the ´Facing the future: time for the EU to meet global challenges` (Boden et al., 2010) report, we can conclude that many identified future-oriented issues cover topics well reflected in sustainability indicator systems. Such comparison can help policy-making in view of developing better understanding on unsustainable trends and respective need for correction or prevention. Our findings suggest also that data collection could be enhanced to better monitor emerging issues currently not well covered by indicator systems. Today’s sustainability indicator systems offer information on past and present states but provide limited support to understand future developments. Combining sustainability monitoring with forward-looking activities (FLA) could therefore enhance policy support in developing more adaptive and anticipatory approaches to better orient societal change towards sustainable development.; JRC.J.2-Knowledge for Growth

‣ Analysis of the U.S. Navy Office of Women’s Policy Facebook use; Analysis of the U.S. Navy Office of Women’s Policy Facebook use

Allert, Emily C.
Fonte: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School Publicador: Monterey, California: Naval Postgraduate School
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
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Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited; The use of social media within the workplace as a tool for communication among employees is increasing at an astounding rate. The implications for such use, however, are widely unknown. This case study aims to increase the understanding of enterprise social media (ESM) and computer-mediated social support (CMSS) use within the Department of Defense (DOD) by examining three Facebook (FB) groups developed by the Navy’s Office of Women’s Policy (OWP). The research utilizes interviews and data collected from the FB groups to identify the purpose, content trends, and availability of social support. The analyses of the interviews and FB data are subsequently used to assess the groups’ effectiveness as platforms for ESM and CMSS. Results show that the FB groups are an effective resource for CMSS with complementary managerial benefits. The study implies that FB groups could be used to provide social support for other military members, especially those who are considered minority groups. Additionally, a richer understanding of the groups’ strengths and weaknesses will allow the OWP to develop a more succinct purpose and strategy for administering these FB groups.; The use of social media within the workplace as a tool for communication among employees is increasing at an astounding rate. The implications for such use...

‣ Using the systems engineering process to balance the interdependence of mission capability, operations and support costs and system utility rates: What's T&E's role

Crouch, Thom
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Graduate School of Business and Public Policy Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Graduate School of Business and Public Policy
Tipo: Relatório Formato: 12 p.: ill.
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First Annual Acquisition Research Symposium; The following article is taken as an excerpt from the proceedings of the annual Acquisition Research Program. This annual event showcases the research projects funded through the Acquisition Research Program at the Graduate School of Business and Public Policy at the Naval Postgraduate School. Featuring keynote speakers, plenary panels, multiple panel sessions, a student research poster show and social events, the Annual Acquisition Research Symposium offers a candid environment where high-ranking Department of Defense (DoD) officials, industry officials, accomplished faculty and military students are encouraged to collaborate on finding applicable solutions to the challenges facing acquisition policies and processes within the DoD today. By jointly and publicly questioning the norms of industry and academia, the resulting research benefits from myriad perspectives and collaborations which can identify better solutions and practices in acquisition, contract, financial, logistics and program management. For further information regarding the Acquisition Research Program, electronic copies of additional research, or to learn more about becoming a sponsor, please visit our program website at: www.acquisitionresearch.org. For further information on or to register for the next Acquisition Research Symposium during the third week of May...

‣ Littoral combat ship (LCS) civilian aviation alternative support study: report of findings and recommendations

Hatch, William D.; Gowen, Charles; Loadwick, James; Gowen, Charles; Loadwick, James
Fonte: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Graduate School of Business and Public Policy Publicador: Monterey, California. Naval Postgraduate School; Graduate School of Business and Public Policy
Tipo: Relatório Formato: xvi, 100 p.: ill.
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Acquisition research (Graduate School of Business & Public Policy); In response to a request by NAVAIR Aviation/Ship Integration AIR 1.2, this study performed a Civilian Contractor Workforce and Skill/Qualification Assessment for an LCS Composite Aviation Detachment. The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) Human Capital's transformation vision mandates that the total number of personnel required to operate a Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) not exceed 75. However, the projected personnel requirements for the three principal components of the LCS deployment profile, i.e., the ship's crew, the aviation detachment and the Focused Mission Package detachment, combine for a significantly higher number. An in-depth analysis of collected data and information indicates that employing contractor personnel to conduct or support combat missions on board LCS or any other Navy combatant is impracticable and contrary to the international laws of armed conflict. However, contact with Navy aviation civilian contractors and US Coast Guard helicopter personnel indicates that significantly fewer active duty personnel might be required to operate and support embarked aircraft within the LCS aviation operations & maintenance profiles using NAVAIR's preliminary assumptions and Sea Base concept as delineated in the LCS concept of operations.

‣ iMAP, an integrated Modelling Platform for Agro-economic Commodity and Policy Analysis - New developments and policy support 2012-14

Fonte: Publications Office of the European Union Publicador: Publications Office of the European Union
Tipo: EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports Formato: Online
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Building, maintaining and applying the integrated Modelling Platform for Agro-economic Commodity and Policy Analysis (iMAP) has been a long-term project (since 2005) at the Joint Research Centre Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (JRC-IPTS), whose aim is to deliver in-house policy support to the European Commission. iMAP is the result of collaboration with and contributions from many former and present IPTS colleagues, as well as from researchers outside IPTS. The present JRC Technical Report provides an update on published model-related policy impact analysis related to baselines, the Common Agricultural Policy, Resource and energy policies, the bioeconomy, Europe and its neighbours, and Europe's agri-food sector in the global market.; JRC.J.4-Agriculture and Life Sciences in the Economy

‣ The great debate: how did the televised leaders' debate affect voters' opinions? A study of voter rationality, the Australian Federal Election in 2004

Kobayashi, Memiko
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
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Televised leaders' debates have been recognised as an important part of the election campaign process since the first US televised presidential debate took place in 1960. Since then, they have played a significant role in the election process in different countries, because they give voters a chance to compare each candidate's attitude toward the same issues at the same time. On the evening of Sunday 12 September 2004, the fifth Australian televised debate between Prime Minister John Howard and opposition leader Mark Latham was broadcast on the Nine Network. It began with moderator's opening address 'it 's your choice, your decision on who will govern Australia- John Howard or Mark Latham? To help you make that decision, 60 Minutes brings the two leaders together for their only face-to-face encounter as they debate live and uninterrupted by commercials ... ' But did the Great Debate really help audience make the decision which leader they want to vote for? How did the debate affect people's opinions about national issues, the leaders' images and their policies? This research paper focuses on the impact of the 2004 Great Debate, by examining the data collected by ANU Internet Opinion Polls which were conducted in 2004 for a month before the general election. The study investigates four key dependent variables...

‣ Promoting Intellectual Property Monetization in Developing Countries : A Review of Issues and Strategies to Support Knowledge-driven Growth

Ghafele, Roya; Gibert, Benjamin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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This paper outlines and evaluates several intellectual property monetization strategies available to patent holders in developing countries that help generate domestic innovation and knowledge-driven growth by promoting more active technology markets. Based on a review of World Intellectual Property Report indicators, the patent ownership gap between a sample of developed and developing countries has narrowed gradually for more technologically-sophisticated developing countries. However, based on complementary International Monetary Fund Balance of Payments data, the patent commercialization divide (as indicated by licensing income) has been widening. The paper argues that patents, and all forms of intellectual property, are an enabling mechanism rather than a defensive right: an intangible asset class that can be proactively nurtured and managed for greater value extraction to stimulate knowledge-based entrepreneurship and growth in developing countries. The paper presents multiple case studies of alternative monetization strategies to address the commercialization divide. These strategies range from private...

‣ Competitive Small and Medium Enterprises : A Diagnostic to Help Design Smart SME Policy

Tewari, Parth S.; Skilling, David; Kumar, Pranav; Wu, Zack
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Knowledge Economy Study; Economic & Sector Work
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Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) account for a lion's share of the enterprises in most economies and are also thought to be an engine of new growth and innovation. The focus of this paper is to take the insights on SME mix and segments to practical implications for developing countries around the world. The paper attempts to do this by providing a diagnostic approach that client countries and regions can use to assess their SME sectors and tease out firms' contribution to the local economy. Guidelines and specific examples of policies based on the insights in the paper have been provided. Lastly, the paper includes some areas of future research that are required on the subject. This paper proceeds in three steps. The first is to better understand the economic contribution of SMEs. This analysis complements the existing policy focus and takes it further to direct attention to a more specific set of growth drivers to enable the firms that matter disproportionately, the competitive SMEs, while remaining inclusive and avoiding market distortion. The second step is to develop a perspective on how best to complement the policy focus on competitive SMEs with that on larger firms. Policy-makers need to structure policy appropriately to develop a healthy eco-system of firms. The third step is to make this analysis actionable by policy-makers. This paper provides an initial SME policy diagnostic. A better understanding of how to encourage SME growth has the potential to make a substantial contribution to national economic performance.

‣ PREM Anchor Support to the Africa Region

Leipziger, Danny
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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The note reviews the support of the Africa Action Plan (AAP), through the work of the PREM - Poverty Reduction and Economic Management - Anchor, which actively stepped up its support to the Africa Region (AFR) in fiscal year 2006 (FY06). Activities have included knowledge generation, high-level policy support on missions, the development of toolkits and diagnostics to improve policy advice on growth strategies, among others. Most of this work has been provided on a demand-driven basis, and PREM plans to continue providing such services, subject to its budgetary and skills capacity. The note therefore illustrates how the PREM Anchor's support to the AFR connects with the objectives of the AAP.

‣ PREM Anchor Support to the Africa Region

Danny Leipziger
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Brief; Publications & Research
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The goal of the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management (PREM) Network is to shape policies and to help countries build successful national strategies for sustained, shared growth, and to strengthen partnerships at the country level for improved aid effectiveness. There is no region in which this goal is more challenging than in Africa. In support of the Africa Action Plan (AAP), the PREM Anchor has actively stepped up its support to the Africa Region (AFR) in fiscal year 2006 (FY06).As of the end of January 2006, Anchor staff had provided nearly 83 staff weeks in direct cross-support alone. Activities have included knowledge generation, high level policy support on missions, the development of toolkits and diagnostics to improve policy advice on growth strategies, among others. Most of this work has been provided on a demand driven basis, and PREM plans to continue providing such services subject to its budgetary and skills capacity. This note illustrates how the PREM Anchor's support to the PREM Anchor support to the AFR connects with the objectives of the AAP. The PREM Anchor is working closely with the AFR on ways to improve the results focus and analytical foundations of poverty reduction strategies (PRSs). A study is under way on the integration of PRS reporting and budget implementation covering eight African countries to improve existing reporting instruments and assess how to better align PRS reporting with budget reporting. Work is also under way to strengthen the quality of second generation PRSs and their relevance as a framework for scaling up and improving aid effectiveness.

‣ Attribution principles for data integration : technology and policy perspectives; Principles of attribution for data integration : technology and policy perspectives

Lee, Thomas Y. (Thomas Yupoo)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 250 p.; 14265560 bytes; 14265360 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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This thesis addresses problems of attribution that arise from the data integration that is exemplified by data re-use and re-distribution on the Web. We present two different perspectives. We begin with a simple definition of attribution, asking what data are we interested in and where does it come from? A formal model and its properties are defined, implementation in an extended relational algebra is described, and application to semistructured data on the Web is discussed. However, because the problem is more than simply what and where, we then expand the scope of our analysis. From the perspective of intellectual property policies, we adopt a broader view of the attribution problem space. A policy analysis that surveys the status quo policy landscape and stakeholder interests is followed by specific policy recommendations. Informed by our technology perspective, we offer two new arguments to support misappropriation as a policy approach to the attribution problem space. Our formal model of attribution is developed in the established foundation of the Domain Relational Calculus (DRC). Three distinct types of attribution are identified: comprehensive, source, and relevant. For each type, we consider the attribution of equivalent DRC expressions...

‣ Technology and policy drivers for standardization : consequences for the optical components industry

Speerschneider, Michael James, 1975-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 145 p.; 10230428 bytes; 10248278 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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Optical communications promise the delivery of high bandwidth service to all types of customers. The potential for optical communications is enormous and has generated excitement and anticipation over the last decade. However, the emergence of a growing market has not materialized and the 1990s communications "bubble" has burst. One result of the bubble burst is that manufacturers of optical components have seen demand for their products plummet and are now struggling to survive. The future of the communications industry depends on its ability to provide better services and higher reliability. At some point, the upward curve of communications demand will require a strong optical components industry to support the industry. If the current stagnation continues, and the manufacturers fail, the economic pillar that is communications will suffer. The MIT Microphotonics Center has initiated a Communications Technology Roadmap study to better understand the technical, economic, and political factors that are inhibiting growth in the optical communications industry. This thesis examines the current state of the optoelectronic manufacturing industry and the causes of the decline. The primary focus is the rampant proliferation of optical transceiver designs resulting from abnormal market conditions during the "boom years" of the 1990s. The transceiver provides send/receiver capabilities and is the major component of optical networks. Convergence...