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‣ Participação política como exercício da cidadania; Political participation as exercise of the citizenship

Freire, Roberto de Barros
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/04/2007 Português
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Dentre as diversas formas de abordar a participação política, uma em particular chama atenção: a ocorrência de uma acentuada alienação política ou uma crescente apatia pela cidadania ativa. Nesta perspectiva, a abordagem do problema político se fará do ponto de vista do indivíduo diante de condições instituintes de ordens sociais, porém, maleáveis a ações humanas intencionadas. A política não será entendida tão somente como jogo de forças sociais e interesses, mas também como busca negociada de interesses particulares visando o bem comum, como produto de um consenso possível. O foco principal da política está no exercício da cidadania, podendo ocorrer de forma mais ou menos consciente, o que permite qualificar a ação política como mais ou menos ética. Ao fim, estabelece a política como chamamento para a atividade consciente e ativa, objetivando fazer cidadãos participativos.; Amongst the many possible ways that are of approaching the political participation, one calls more attention: the occurrence of an accentuated political alienation, or a crescent apathy for the active citizenship. Under this perspective, the approach to the political question will be made from the point of view of the individual before the institutional conditions of the social orders...

‣ Luta antimanicomial: da participação política à formação da personagem militante; Antimanicomial struggle: political participation to the training of activist personage

Brito, Debora Cidro de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/09/2014 Português
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As ações que resultaram na Reforma Psiquiátrica tiveram início no Brasil a partir da década de 1970 e, especialmente na década de 1980, favorecendo a abertura para a participação política de usuários dos serviços de saúde mental e familiares de usuários, possibilitando a formação de diversos coletivos antimanicomiais que partilham dos ideais de eliminação dos manicômios, das práticas segregadoras em relação à saúde mental e pelo reconhecimento dos direitos e das capacidades de uma pessoa portadora de sofrimento psíquico. Essas transformações que vem ocorrendo nos últimos anos colocaram o usuário e o familiar em outra relação, seja com a própria loucura, seja com a sociedade, pois, ao menos em tese, novas possibilidades de inserção no espaço público foram se mostrando. Ainda assim, reconhecemos também os interesses envolvidos na Reforma Psiquiátrica que podem esconder as práticas manicomiais ainda presentes na sociedade, podendo ser essas transportadas para espaços extra-muros. Diante disso, os usuários e familiares que participam de coletivos antimanicomiais encontram-se na encruzilhada das políticas de identidades que regulam seu modo de vida e os lugares de sua existência e, das identidades políticas que visam desconstruir naturalizações de desigualdades sociais a que alguns grupos estão submetidos. Entre esses dois polos...

‣ Querer e poder: análise quantitativa dos determinantes da participação política no regime democrático brasileiro; To want or to be able: a quantitative analysis on the determinants of political participation in the Brazilian democratic regime

Arbache, Guilherme Pires
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/03/2015 Português
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Considerando que a qualidade de uma democracia depende não apenas de níveis altos de participação, mas de uma participação equilibrada entre diferentes grupos, o presente trabalho realiza uma investigação sobre os determinantes da participação e o perfil das pessoas que participam de atividades políticas diversas no regime democrático brasileiro. Foram realizadas regressões logísticas e ordinais com a participação em: petições, protestos, boicotes, voto; atividades de partidos políticos, Conselhos e Orçamento Participativo, e discussões. Os resultados demonstram que o interesse por política é importante para todos os tipos de participação, exceto a participação eleitoral. A educação só demonstrou relações estatisticamente significantes com protesto, petição e discussão, contrariando as tendências frequentemente achadas na literatura nacional e internacional. A participação em Conselhos demonstrou uma correlação robusta com variáveis relacionadas ao capital social. Destaca-se também a correlação negativa entre apoio à democracia e participação em alguns modelos estimados.; Given that the quality of democracy depends not only on high levels of political participation, but also on the equality of participation among different groups...

‣ Ampliando o debate sobre a participação política e a construção democrática : o movimento de moradia e as ocupações de imóveis ociosos no centro da cidade de São Paulo; Broadening the debate on political participation and democratic construction : the housing movement and the occupations of idle properties in the center

Thiago Aparecido Trindade
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/05/2014 Português
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Esta tese tem como objetivo principal problematizar o debate sobre a participação política e a construção da democracia no Brasil. Tendo como referência empírica as ocupações de imóveis ociosos no centro da cidade de São Paulo, ações realizadas pelo movimento de moradia da capital paulista, nossa proposta consiste em ampliar o escopo de análise referente ao tema da participação na literatura nacional. Em linhas gerais, este debate ficou restrito à dimensão institucional desta, desconsiderando outras formas de atuação política que, a despeito de se caracterizarem por sua extra institucionalidade, também podem ser entendidas como formas de participação política. O argumento central da tese é que o deslocamento analítico aqui proposto (dos espaços institucionais em direção ao espaço "das ruas") oferece vantagens analíticas importantes no debate teórico sobre a democracia, uma vez que nos possibilita lançar luz sobre temas e conflitos cruciais para o entendimento da disputa pela construção democrática e identificar com mais clareza os diferentes projetos políticos em disputa. A sociedade brasileira, no período pós-autoritário, foi capaz de avançar significativamente na construção de espaços participativos institucionais dedicados ao processo de formulação...

‣ Surveillance : a (potential) threat to political participation?

Simões, Maria João
Fonte: IARIA Publicador: IARIA
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Despite efforts of several authors, surveillance is nowadays yet sparsely understood, although surveillance has increasing impacts in our lives. The purpose of this paper is to point out, from a theoretical point of view, the threats that surveillance presents to political participation (and by consequence, to democracy) in digital societies. Current researches present the threats of surveillance to democracy focusing mainly in democracy-privacy trade-offs. Such debate, on the one hand, circumscribes the issue to a great extent to choosing the rulers and the kind of political regime, which does not allow a broader analysis of citizen participation in all spheres of public life in their daily life. On the other hand, the current debates seem put a little aside from the main issue: it is not the loss of privacy, but the loss of autonomy that challenges participation (and by consequence, democracy); although nowadays the threats to autonomy proceed mainly from the loss of privacy.

‣ Brave new world? Political participation and new media

Simões, Maria João; Barriga, Antónia do Carmo; Jerónimo, Nuno Amaral
Fonte: IARIA Publicador: IARIA
Tipo: Conferência ou Objeto de Conferência
Publicado em //2011 Português
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This paper intends to highlight the role played by new social media upon citizens’ political participation, their challenges and inequalities, like what has been thoroughly studied for traditional media. New media, also called social networks, like Twitter or Facebook, have been glorified as the universal public sphere, a promising new "café". This paper intends to discuss, in a more realistic and reflexive way, the use of some internet platforms, contradicting the excessive optimism that always arises whenever a new ICT (information and communication technology) emerges. We intend to reposition the social conditions that impact on digital political participations, namely the historical context, the social inequalities and the role of traditional media on political participation. Acknowledging the theoretical proposition stating that political participation (both in real or digital worlds) is stratified, this paper states that there is also a stratification of social media, regarding different levels of uses and goals, and that participation skills needed before social media ever existed are still necessary to participate via new media, an undervalued issue in new media studies. Similarly to other tools, Facebook and Twitter do not change the political situation by themselves. Although this transformation can be enabled by those tools...

‣ A construção de fortalecimento comunitário e a participação política nos CRAS do município de Várzea Paulista; The construction of strengthening and political participation by CRAS in Várzea Paulista city.

Taffarello, Ingrid Matzembacher Stocker
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2015 Português
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O Sistema de Proteção Social brasileiro logrou um avanço desde a Constituição Federal de 1988, desafiando os paradigmas enraizados até então do conceito de pobreza e de ações assistencialistas configuradas sob a lógica da tutela, do clientelismo e da urgência, fornecendo bases para as ações socioassistenciais no país. O Ministério de Desenvolvimento Social e Combate à Fome (MDS) tem buscado consolidar a importância da proteção social, enquanto política de direito na defesa, garantia e promoção de suas ações na abrangência do território nacional. Os serviços de proteção social básica possuem como objetivo fundamental a prevenção às situações de risco pessoal e social por meio do desenvolvimento de ações psicossociais que atuam no fortalecimento dos vínculos familiares e comunitários, prestados pelo Centro de Referência de Assistência Social (CRAS). Tendo em conta tal realidade, este projeto visa identificar os limites e possibilidades das práticas psicossociais comunitárias desenvolvidas nos CRAS do Município de Várzea Paulista, a partir de uma análise crítica, sob o referencial teórico-metodológico da psicologia política, acerca das intervenções destinadas às famílias atendidas no campo da Assistência Social. Vale ressaltar que esta pesquisa teve como norte analisar as especificidades produzidas por Várzea Paulista que...

‣ The Effect of Government Responsiveness on Future Political Participation

Sjoberg, Fredrik M.; Mellon, Jonathan; Peixoto, Tiago
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: Working Paper
Português
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What effect does government responsiveness have on political participation? Since the 1940s political scientists have used attitudinal measures of perceived efficacy to explain participation. More recent work has focused on underlying genetic factors that condition citizen engagement. The authors develop a ‘calculus of participation’ that incorporates objective efficacy, the extent to which an individual’s participation actually has an impact, and test the model against behavioral data from FixMyStreet.com (n=399,364). The authors find that a successful first experience using FixMyStreet.com (e.g., reporting a pothole and having it fixed) is associated with a 54 percent increase in the probability of an individual submitting a second report. The authors also show that the experience of government responsiveness to the first report submitted has predictive power over all future report submissions. The findings highlight the importance of government responsiveness for fostering an active citizenry...

‣ A reappraisal of the Hirschman 'exit, voice and loyalty' scheme to interpret immigrants’ political participation in their origin countries

GABRIELLI, Lorenzo; ZAPATA-BARRERO, Ricard
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Relatório Formato: application/pdf
Português
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INTERACT - Researching Third Country Nationals? Integration as a Three-way Process - Immigrants, Countries of Emigration and Countries of Immigration as Actors of Integration; In this article, we apply Hirschman’s well-known distinction between voice, exit, and loyalty as an interpretative framework for looking at the political participation of immigrants in their origin countries and at their connections with state and non-state actors. Hirschman articulated these three options as mutually exclusive, but in our reappraisal of this scheme we consider these options overlapping and simultaneous. We can then distinguish immigrants’ political actions as constituting a specific combination of these three options. Having already exercised their right to move, immigrants can steer their political activities towards the origin country, following two different options: “voice” or “loyalty”. An exit may lead to the transnationalisation/internationalisation of the voice option or otherwise, to political activities inspired by loyalty towards the origin state. We will also argue that these options are in the hands of immigrants, but can also be promoted by origin states and civil society actors, who may oppose each other on some points. The State of origin’s interest is in maintaining their emigrants’ loyalty option...

‣ Social capital, people’s political participation and institutional performance of local government in the north of Thailand.

Soithong, Wanlapat
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2011 Português
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The thesis had three main objectives: to investigate the capacity of social capital in Thai society to increase people’s political participation in local government, to examine whether social capital improves the institutional performance of local government, and to explore both the impact of people’s political participation in local government on the institutional performance of local governments, and the impact of institutional performance on people’s political participation, in the north of Thailand. This study employed Robert D. Putnam’s (1993) definition of social capital as a principal theoretical framework. Therefore, the concepts of trust, norms of reciprocity and networks of civic engagement so central to Putnam’s work were studied by this study in the Thai context. A Planing-Doing-Checking-Acting (PDCA) model was employed to investigate local residents’ participation in their municipal governments. Institutional performance of local government was investigated by evaluating local residents’ satisfaction in municipality’s social service delivery. A face-to-face survey and in-depth interviews were utilized as the main tools to investigate the relationships between the three concepts in this study. The process of data collection in this study was conducted in three town municipalities — Tak...

‣ The Internet and political participation: a look at new media and mobilisation in the United States and Australia

Burton, Laura
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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Political participation is an integral part of a democratic government. In the United States and Australia, as well as other countries, citizen involvement in politics has been declining for decades and a large proportion of the population remains apathetic towards the political world. Political participation is defined as any activity a citizen participates in with the intent of influencing the government. These activities can be placed into three categories: • Voting: This is the most common form of participation and simply involves casting a ballot on Election Day. • Campaign activities: This describes any activity during an election, such as volunteering for a candidate or party, contributing money to a campaign, attending campaign events, or trying to influence how others vote, that takes place during an election season. • Personal activities: These are actions initiated by citizens themselves when they act alone in contacting the government. • Communal activities: This group of activities is also initiated by citizens, but they do so through organizations or groups in order to influence government. A WK. Citizens who participate in both Australia and the United States tend to be wealthy, educated; or politically efficacious.These citizens possess the resources...

‣ Rising Voices: Supporting Women's Political Participation

Tulloch, Melanie
Fonte: Universidade Nacional da Austrália Publicador: Universidade Nacional da Austrália
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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The theme of the upcoming lOOth anniversary of International Women's Day, March 8 2011, is Women's Leadership and Political Participation. This highlights the fact that women's political participation remains extremely low in many parts of the world. Women's representation in national parliaments is as low as 4.3% of seats in the Arab States. However despite the fact that women continue to be excluded from the realms of political decision-making, women's global political participation has increased substantially since the 1995 Beijing Conference, when women held just over 10% or less of seats in two thirds of the world's parliaments. The average global proportion of women members of parliament reached an all-time high of 18.8% at the end of 2009; a gain of nearly 75% since 1995 (Inter-Parliamentary Union 2010). The list of top-performing nations in terms of women's political participation is now diverse, and includes countries of varying levels of economic development. This invites inquiry as to how countries such as South Africa and Argentina have achieved such rapid increases in women's representation over the past 15-20 years. While several quantitative studies have found common drivers of women's participation across industrialised countries...

‣ Conditional Cash Transfers, Political Participation, and Voting Behavior

Baez, Javier E.; Camacho, Adriana; Conover, Emily; Zárate, Román A.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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This paper estimates the effect of enrollment in a large scale anti-poverty program in Colombia, Familias en Accion, on intent to vote, turnout and electoral choice. For identification the analysis uses discontinuities in program eligibility and variation in program enrollment across voting booths. It finds that Familias en Accion had a positive effect on political participation in the 2010 presidential elections by increasing the probability that program beneficiaries registered to vote and cast a ballot, particularly among women. Regarding voter's choice, the authors find that program participants expressed a stronger preference for the official party that implemented and expanded the program. Overall, the findings show that voters respond to targeted transfers and that these transfers can foster support for incumbents, thus making the case for designing political and legislative mechanisms, as the laws recently passed by the Colombian government, that avoid successful anti-poverty schemes from being captured by political patronage.

‣ Political participation of Luso-African youth in Portugal : some hypothesis for the study of gender

Albuquerque, Rosana
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Article; info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2000 Português
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Dealing with cultural action and associative intervention of Luso-African youth in Portugal, I will draw some hypothesis about young women participation within the associative movement. I first describe the social and political framework that set the emergence of the immigrants' associative movement in order to focus on the ethnic mobilisation of Luso-African youth, linking cultural identity to their strategies of political participation (a concept used in a broader sense).; Partiendo de la acción cultural del asociacionismo de los jóvenes luso-africanos en Portugal, formularé algunas hipótesis sobre la participación de las jóvenes en el movimiento asociativo. Describiré primero el marco sociopolítico en el que se inserta la emergencia del movimiento asociativo de los inmigrantes, para pasar después a detenerme en la movilización étnica de los jóvenes luso-africanos, entrelazando la identidad cultural con sus estrategias de participación política (un concepto utilizado en un sentido amplio).

‣ Identity and Acculturation: Examination of Berry's Model on Asian Americans Political Participation

Zhang, Zihe
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Based on Berry's (1987) framework on acculturation and ethnic identity interaction, this study examined the link from this interaction among Asian Americans to their political participation. Using the 2008 National Asian American Survey (Study 1) and a self-initiated survey among Chinese students in Fall 2014 (Study 2), this thesis presents a model from which to consider some of the important determinants of Asian Americans' political participation, whether and how acculturation level interacts with (pan)ethnic group resource in predicting their participation. Most findings from these two studies supported the hypotheses. First, all the five traditional models of political participation have significant share in predicting Asian Americans' political participation. Second, the interaction between acculturation and ethnic identity does increase the model fit of Asian Americans' participation, but with varying strengths based on different forms of participation and target populations. Finally, after creating four groups based on acculturation and ethnic identity, I find that the integrated group is generally the most actively engaged in politics, followed by the assimilated group, the separated group and the marginalized group.

; Thesis

‣ Political participation and war in Colombia

García, Miguel; Hoskin, Gary
Fonte: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Crisis States Research Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /11/2003 Português
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This study analyses the impact of the war on political participation in the March 2002 elections to the lower house of the Colombian Congress. The specific research question is whether the dynamics of violence in Colombia has affected the way voters behaved in those elections. In order to provide some answers, this article seeks to pinpoint the relationship between war and democracy by focusing upon a key component of democratic regimes, namely political participation. The article is organized in five sections. The first consists of a theoretical overview of democracy and political participation. The second section, drawn principally from the press, provides evidence of the impact of the war upon the congressional and presidential campaigns. The third part discusses the evolution of political participation in Colombia. The fourth section is a quantitative analysis of the relationship between violence and political participation. Finally, the last section offers some conclusions about political participation and violence in Colombia. Although Colombian democracy is under assault from armed actors and undermined by socio-economic factors, its viability has not been contested to the point of regime collapse, nor is that likely to occur in the near future. While it is appropriate to label Colombia a crisis state...

‣ Online opportunities for activism in the US do not alleviate inequalities in political participation

Oser, Jennifer; Hooghe, Marc; Marien, Sofie
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/09/2013 Português
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The rising prevalence of social media such as Twitter and Facebook has been hailed by many for their potential to democratize political participation. Jennifer Oser, Marc Hooghe and Sofie Marien investigate whether social media actually enables previously excluded groups to have a greater voice in politics. They find that in terms of online participation, women are as likely to be involved as men, and that young people are also highly engaged in opportunities for political participation. They also find, however, that while there is a distinct group of online political activists, the education and income stratification of that group is just as strong as for any other form of participation.

‣ Being a member of an interest group stimulates political participation, or at least makes it easier

Holyoke, Thomas T.
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/11/2013 Português
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As political participation continues to decline, how can we encourage citizens to re-engage with politics and voting? One area that has seen participation increasing is membership in political interest groups. Using survey data from 1,071 individuals’ contacts with Congress, Thomas T. Holyoke examines the role of interest groups in stimulating political action and participation. He finds that many groups help to increase, or at least direct, their members’ political participation, so that those who are members of both political and professional interest groups have a greater than 60 percent chance of contacting Congress.

‣ Political Participation of Latin American Migrants in Andalusia: Opportunities and Constraints

Bermúdez,Anastasia; Escrivá,Ángeles; Moraes Mena,Natalia
Fonte: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte Publicador: El Colegio de la Frontera Norte
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2014 Português
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The main purpose of this article is to present the results of a research project on the political participation of Latin American migrants in Andalusia (mainly in the cities of Seville and Huelva). The project uses a broad concept of what political participation constitutes, including both civic practices and activities associated with conventional politics, and adopts a transnational perspective. It is based on 45 semi-structured interviews with politically active migrants and members of political parties and other institutions. The article highlights some of the main findings of the research, including the importance of taking into account migrants' previous political experiences, as well as the role played by migrant associations in order to better understand their political practices.

‣ Social networks and civic and political participation in six European cities. A quantitative study

Duin,Laura van; Snel,Erik
Fonte: Centro de Estudos Geográficos Publicador: Centro de Estudos Geográficos
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 Português
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This study examines the relation between the size and composition of social networks of people and the degree of civic and political participation using survey data of the GEITONIES-project in six European cities (Lisbon, Bilbao, Thessaloniki, Vienna, Warsaw and Rotterdam). In like with Robert Putnam's findings, we expected respondents with larger social networks to participate more. We also expected that respondents with bridging social networks (in particular with more interethnic social contacts) to participate more. We found that network size is indeed related to participation in voluntary work, but not to political participation (voting). Interethnic contacts do not contribute to civic or political participation. On the contrary, people with more intra-ethnic contacts participate more in voluntary work.