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‣ Polymerase chain reaction-Based clonality analysis of cutaneous B-cell lymphoproliferative processes

MELOTTI, Claudia Z; AMARY, Maria Fernanda Carriel; SOTTO, Miriam Nacagami; DISS, Timothy; SANCHES, Jose Antonio
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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INTRODUCTION: The differential diagnosis of B-cell lymphoproliferative processes remains a challenge for pathologists, dermatologists and oncologists, despite advances in histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate aid and limitations of clonality analysis in the diagnosis of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas and B-cell pseudolymphomas. METHODS: This study included 29 cases of B-cell lymphoproliferative processes classified as primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (13), B-cell pseudolymphomas (6) and inconclusive cases (10) using histology and immunohistochemistry. The clonality analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of immunoglobulin light chain and heavy chain rearrangements. RESULTS: DNA quality was shown to be generally poor; eight samples were inadequate for polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed monoclonality in eight of the primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas and polyclonality in four of the B-cell pseudolymphomas. In addition, monoclonality was shown in two of the inconclusive cases by histology and immunohistochemistry, demonstrating the utility of polymerase chain reaction as an ancillary diagnostic tool for primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas. DISCUSSION: The low quality DNA extracted from these cases demanded the use of an IgH protocol that yielded small fragments and IgK. Both methods used together improved detection. CONCLUSION: Use of the two protocols...

‣ Detecção e quantificação de patógenos periodontais em fumantes e não fumantes com periodontite crônica pela PCR em tempo real; Detection and quantification of periodontal pathogens in smokers and never-smokers with chronic periodontitis by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

Guglielmetti, Mariana Rocha
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/01/2014 Português
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O objetivo do presente trabalho foi comparar fumantes e não fumantes com periodontite crônica com relação a presença e quantidade de patógenos periodontais, através da reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real. Quarenta fumantes e quarenta não fumantes, pareados por idade, sexo e profundidade clínica de sondagem dos sítios de coleta microbiológica, foram incluídos no estudo. Foi realizado exame periodontal completo, e coletado um pool de biofilme subgengival dos sítios mais profundos de cada quadrante, em cada sujeito de pesquisa. Para confirmar os dados sobre tabagismo, os sujeitos foram submetidos à avaliação das concentrações de monóxido de carbono expirado, através de um monoxímetro. A presença e quantificação de Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia e Treponema denticola foi determinada pela reação em cadeia da polimerase em tempo real. Fumantes apresentaram maior média de profundidade clínica de sondagem (p = 0,001) e nível clinico de inserção (p = 0,006), e menos sítios com sangramento à sondagem (p = 0,001) do que os não fumantes. Foi observada associação entre fumo e presença de A. actinomycetemcomitans (p < 0,001). Contagens médias de A. actinomycetemcomitans (p < 0...

‣ Detection of leptospires in bovine semen by polymerase chain reaction

Heinemann, M. B.; Garcia, J. F.; Nunes, C. M.; Morais, Z. M.; Gregori, F.; Cortez, A.; Vasconcellos, S. A.; Visintin, J. A.; Richtzenhain, L. J.
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 32-34
Português
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Objective: In view of the considerable importance of venereal transmission of bovine leptospirosis, the objective of the present study was to compare the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture/isolation and serology to detect leptospire infection in bovine semen. Design: Blood for serologic examination and semen for bacterial culture and PCR were collected from 20 bulls at artificial insemination centres in Brazil. Each animal was sampled twice for serology. Result: Forty-five percent (9/20) of the serum samples collected showed agglutinin titers to serovar hardjo in the first sample and 25% (5/20) had agglutinin titers to serovar hardjo in the second sample. Eighty percent (16/20) of semen samples were positive by PCR. Leptospires could not be isolated from any of the semen samples examined. Conclusion: Polymerase chain reaction can be a method of great potential for the detection of leptospires at artificial insemination centres.

‣ The detection of Toxoplasma gondii by comparing cytology, histopathology, bioassay in mice, and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Silva, Aristeu Vieira da; Langoni, Helio
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 191-198
Português
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The objective of this study was to compare the different methods of detecting Toxoplasma gondii in sheep tissue, tested serologically positive by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT). Brain, diaphragm, and blood samples were collected from 522 sheep slaughtered at the São Manuel abattoir, São Paulo State, Brazil. Brain and diaphragm samples from IFAT seropositive animals were digested by both trypsin and pepsin and then injected into mice. Part of the digested samples was used to prepare slides for Giemsa staining and in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Tissue fragments were fixed in formalin and examined using hematoxilin-eosin (HE). Forty of the sheep (7.7%) were IFAT positive. T. gondii was isolated in 23 (59.0%) of the 39 mice with pepsin-digested brain samples and in 27 (69.0%) of the 39 with trypsin-digested brain samples. Injection of diaphragm samples led to T. gondii isolation in 26 (66.7%) of the 39 pepsin-digested samples and 21 (53.8%) of the 39 trypsin-digested samples. Cytological and hystopathological examination of both brains and diaphragms was negative in all examined sheep. PCR was positive in 7 (17.9%) of the trypsin and 2 (5.1%) of the pepsin-digested samples, while 9 (23.1%) of the trypsin and 3 (7.7%) of the pepsin-digested samples showed T. gondii DNA. T. gondii isolation rate in mice (n = 34; 85.0%) was significantly higher than detection by PCR (n = 15; 37.5%). © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

‣ Toxoplasma gondii: Detection by mouse bioassay, histopathology, and polymerase chain reaction in tissues from experimentally infected pigs

Garcia, João Luis; Gennari, Solange Maria; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 267-271
Português
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In the present study, we evaluated three techniques, mouse bioassay, histopathology, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect Toxoplasma gondii infection in tissues from experimentally infected pigs. Twelve mixed breed pigs, seronegative for T. gondii using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT), were used. Ten pigs were infected with 4 × 104 VEG strain oocysts, and two were maintained as uninfected controls. Animals were killed 60 days pos infection. Muscle (heart, tongue, diaphragm, and masseter) and brain samples were collected to investigate the presence of T. gondii tissue cysts by the different assay methods. For the bioassay, samples of brain (50 g) and pool of muscle samples (12.5 g of tongue, masseter, diaphragm, and heart) were used. PCR was performed using Tox4 and Tox5 primers which amplified a 529 bp fragment. The DNA extraction and PCR were performed three times, and all tissue samples were tested individually (brain, tongue, masseter, diaphragm, and heart). For histopathology, fragments of tissues were fixed in 10% of buffered formal saline and stained with HE. Histopathological results were all negative. PCR showed 25/150 (16.6%) positive samples, being 17/120 (14.1%) and 8/30 (26.6%) from muscle, and brain tissues...

‣ Use of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in molecular screening of Newcastle disease virus in poultry and free-living bird populations

de Oliveira Torres Carrasco, Adriano; Rodrigues, Juliana Nogueira Martins; Seki, Meire Christina; de Moraes, Fabricio Edgar; Silva, Jaqueline Raymondi; Durigon, Edison Luis; Pinto, Aramis Augusto
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 569-576
Português
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The aim of this study was to evaluate a simple molecular method of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to differentiate Newcastle disease virus strains according to their pathogenicity, in order to use it in molecular screening of Newcastle disease virus in poultry and free-living bird populations. Specific primers were developed to differentiate LaSota-LS-(vaccine strain) and Sao Joao do Meriti-SJM-strain (highly pathogenic strain). Chickens and pigeons were experimentally vaccinated/infected for an in vivo study to determine virus shedding in feces. Validation of sensitivity and specificity of the primers (SJM and LS) by experimental models used in the present study and results obtained in the molecular analysis of the primers by BLAST made it possible to generalize results. The development of primers that differentiate the level of pathogenicity of NDV stains is very important, mainly in countries where real-time RT-PCR is still not used as a routine test. These primers were able to determine the presence of the agent and to differentiate it according to its pathogenicity. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

‣ Bacterial Pathogens Related to Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media in Individuals With Cleft Palate: Bacteriological Culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction

Weckwerth, Paulo Henrique; Mattias Franco, Adriana Terezinha de; Magalhaes Lopes, Carlos Alberto de; Santos, Fernando dos; Villas Boas Weckwerth, Ana Carolina; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Hungaro Duarte, Marco Antonio
Fonte: Alliance Communications Group Division Allen Press Publicador: Alliance Communications Group Division Allen Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 145-153
Português
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Objective: To characterize the microbial etiology of chronic suppurative otitis media comparing the methods of classical bacteriological culture and polymerase chain reaction.Design/Setting/Patients: Bacteriological analysis by classical culture and by molecular polymerase chain reaction of 35 effusion otitis samples from patients with cleft lip and palate attending the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies of the University of Sao Paulo, Bauru, Brazil.Interventions: Collection of clinical samples of otitis by effusion through the external auditory tube.Main Outcome Measure: Otolaryngologic diagnosis of chronic suppurative otitis media.Results: Positive cultures were obtained from 83% of patients. Among the 31 bacterial lineages the following were isolated. In order of decreasing frequency: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (54.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%), and Enterococcus faecalis (19.2%). No anaerobes were isolated by culture. The polymerase chain reaction was positive for one or more bacteria investigated in 97.1% of samples. Anaerobe lineages were detected by the polymerase chain reaction method, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius.Conclusions: Patients with cleft lip and palate with chronic suppurative otitis media presented high frequency of bacterial infection in the middle ear. The classical bacteriological culture did not detect strict anaerobes...

‣ The use of polymerase chain reaction to confirm diagnosis in skin biopsies consistent with american tegumentary leishmaniasis at histopathology: a study of 90 cases

Andrade,Rosilene Viana de; Massone,Cesare; Lucena,Meline Nogueira Barbosa de; Talhari,Anette Chusciak; Talhari,Sinésio; Guerra,Jorge Augusto de Oliveira; Ferreira,Luiz Carlos de Lima
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Dermatologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/2011 Português
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BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a chronic, infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus leishmania. The incidence of this disease is high in Brazil, with 19,746 new cases having been detected in 2008. The presence of amastigotes in the cytoplasm of histiocytes constitutes diagnosis of the disease; however, their presence is rarely found in late lesions, making histological diagnosis difficult. Polymerase chain reaction has been shown to represent a highly sensitive and specific technique for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. OBJECTIVES: To use polymerase chain reaction to evaluate paraffin-embedded skin biopsies with histopathological features consistent with cutaneous leishmaniasis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction amplification of a 120-base-pair fragment of Leishmania kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles was performed on 90 skin biopsies. The male/female ratio was 75/15. Mean age was 32.36 years, with a median of 31 years, range 4-72 years. Samples were histologically compatible with cutaneous leishmaniasis but a definitive diagnosis could not be made since amastigotes were not found. All cases were histologically classified according to the patterns described by de Magalhães. RESULTS: According to the de Magalhães classification...

‣ Validity of the polymerase chain reaction in the diagnosis of clinically suspected cases of American visceral leishmaniasis

Pedrosa,Celia Maria Silva; Ximenes,Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Almeida,Wendell Alexandre Pinheiro de; Rocha,Eliana Maria Mauricio da
Fonte: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases Publicador: Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2013 Português
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To test the validity of the polymerase chain reaction for diagnosing American visceral leishmaniasis, 88 suspected cases were studied. Diagnosis was confirmed in 47 (53.5%) and ruled out in 41 (46.5%) patients. Samples of bone marrow and peripheral blood were processed by polymerase chain reaction to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the test and its agreement beyond chance with microscopy examination. The polymerase chain reaction was positive in bone marrow of 100% of the patients with amastigotes seen with microscopy examination, and in 59.5% in those where no parasite were seen. Agreement beyond chance between visualization of the parasite in bone marrow aspirates and polymerase chain reaction was considered weak (Kappa = 0.41). Concordance between polymerase chain reaction of bone marrow aspirates and of peripheral blood was considered excellent (Kappa = 0.88). The test turned out positive in all bone marrow aspirates of those with the disease and whereas the positivity rate was 58.5% among those without the disease, with specificity rate of 41.5%.

‣ Prognostic significance of bi/oligoclonality in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia as determined by polymerase chain reaction

Scrideli,Carlos Alberto; Defavery,Ricardo; Bernardes,José Eduardo; Tone,Luíz Gonzaga
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2001 Português
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CONTEXT: The CDR-3 region of heavy-chain immunoglobulin has been used as a clonal marker in the study of minimal residual disease in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Southern blot and polymerase chain reaction studies have demonstrated the occurrence of bi/oligoclonality in a variable number of cases of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a fact that may strongly interfere with the detection of minimal residual disease. Oligoclonality has also been associated with a poorer prognosis and a higher chance of relapse. OBJECTIVES: To correlate bi/oligoclonality, detected by polymerase chain reaction in Brazilian children with B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a chance of relapse, with immunophenotype, risk group, and disease-free survival. DESIGN: Prospective study of patients’ outcome. SETTING: Pediatric Oncology Unit of the University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo. PARTICIPANTS: 47 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia DIAGNOSTIC TEST: Polymerase chain reaction using consensus primers for the CDR-3 region of heavy chain immunoglobulin (FR3A, LJH and VLJH) for the detection of clonality. RESULTS: Bi/oligoclonality was detected in 15 patients (31.9%). There was no significant difference between the groups with monoclonality and biclonality in terms of the occurrence of a relapse (28.1% versus 26.1%)...

‣ Relevance of micrometastases detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for melanoma recurrence: systematic review and meta-analysis

Silva,Allisson Monteiro da; Oliveira Filho,Renato Santos de; Ferreira,Lydia Masako; Saconato,Humberto
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2003 Português
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CONTEXT: Cutaneous melanoma presents significant morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, about 90% of them are diagnosed by clinical examination and most are localized melanomas. Sentinel node biopsy has brought about a new and interesting approach towards localized cutaneous melanoma. The meaning of micrometastases in sentinel nodes diagnosed by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction is not well established. OBJECTIVE: To define the real value of micrometastases diagnosed by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in relation to melanoma recurrence. METHODS: Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. The Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Lilacs were the databases searched. We used the following key words: sentinel node and melanoma; sentinel node and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; melanoma and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Cohort studies enrolling localized cutaneous melanoma patients who underwent sentinel node biopsy were selected. Sentinel node evaluations included hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Out of the 1,542 studies evaluated, four were eligible. The four studies, when combined, were statistically homogeneous. The sample totaled 450 patients grouped as follows: 163 with a sentinel node negative to hematoxylin eosin and immunohistochemistry and positive to the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; 192 with a sentinel node negative to hematoxylin eosin...

‣ A quantitative analysis of Propionibacterium acnes in lesional and non-lesional skin of patients with progressive macular hypomelanosis by real-time polymerase chain reaction

Cavalcanti,Silvana Maria de Morais; França,Emmanuel Rodrigues de; Magalhães,Marcelo; Lins,Ana Kelly; Brandão,Laura Costa; Magalhães,Vera
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 Português
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Little is known about the etiology of progressive macular hypomelanosis, although it has been suggested that Propionibacterium acnes plays an important role. While microbiological culture is commonly employed to identify Propionibacterium acnes, new identification methods have been under investigation, amongst them polymerase chain reaction. To determine the cut-off point for the number of genome copies of Propionibacterium acnes in the lesional skin of patients with progressive macular hypomelanosis as a positive marker, employing quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and anaerobic culture, considered gold standard. An observational study with a comparison group, included 35 patients with dermatosis, attended at the Oswaldo Cruz University Hospital, Pernambuco, Brazil, between March and May 2008. Lesional skin was compared to non-lesional skin through positive testing with real-time polymerase chain reaction and culture. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 12.0, was employed for the association analysis with the McNemar test, and the cut-off point with the ROC curve for maximum values. Propionibacterium acnes was most frequently encountered in lesional areas (p<0,025). The cut-off point of Propionibacterium acnes in lesional skin was 1...

‣ Polymerase chain reaction-Based clonality analysis of cutaneous B-cell lymphoproliferative processes

Melotti,Claudia Z; Amary,Maria Fernanda Carriel; Sotto,Miriam Nacagami; Diss,Timothy; Sanches,Jose Antonio
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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INTRODUCTION: The differential diagnosis of B-cell lymphoproliferative processes remains a challenge for pathologists, dermatologists and oncologists, despite advances in histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate aid and limitations of clonality analysis in the diagnosis of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas and B-cell pseudolymphomas. METHODS: This study included 29 cases of B-cell lymphoproliferative processes classified as primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (13), B-cell pseudolymphomas (6) and inconclusive cases (10) using histology and immunohistochemistry. The clonality analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of immunoglobulin light chain and heavy chain rearrangements. RESULTS: DNA quality was shown to be generally poor; eight samples were inadequate for polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed monoclonality in eight of the primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas and polyclonality in four of the B-cell pseudolymphomas. In addition, monoclonality was shown in two of the inconclusive cases by histology and immunohistochemistry, demonstrating the utility of polymerase chain reaction as an ancillary diagnostic tool for primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas. DISCUSSION: The low quality DNA extracted from these cases demanded the use of an IgH protocol that yielded small fragments and IgK. Both methods used together improved detection. CONCLUSION: Use of the two protocols...

‣ Direct fluorescent antibody assay and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis

Nishiwaki-Dantas,Maria Cristina; Abreu,Mariza Toledo de; Melo,Cynthia Mendonça de; Romero,Ivana Lopes; Matos Neto,Rubens Belfort; Dantas,Paulo Elias Correa
Fonte: Faculdade de Medicina / USP Publicador: Faculdade de Medicina / USP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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OBJECTIVES: To identify Chlamydia trachomatis via polymerase chain reaction and a direct fluorescent antibodyassay in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis while comparing the efficacies of both tests for detectingChlamydia trachomatis in these conditions. METHODS: Conjunctival scraping samples were obtained from 177 patients who were divided into two groups: avernal keratoconjunctivitis group (group A) and a control group (group B). The polymerase chain reaction and adirect fluorescent antibody assay were performed. Sensitivity, specificity, receiver operating characteristic curves,and areas under the curve were calculated for both tests in groups A and B. Receiver operating characteristic curveswere plotted using a categorical variable with only two possible outcomes (positive and negative). RESULTS: Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between vernal keratoconjunctivitis and Chlamydia trachomatis infection detected by a direct fluorescent antibody assay with high sensitivity and specificity. Allpatients in group A with positive polymerase chain reactions also presented with positive direct fluorescentantibody assays. CONCLUSION: The association between vernal keratoconjunctivitis and Chlamydia trachomatis infection wasconfirmed by positive direct fluorescent antibody assays in 49.4% of vernal keratoconjunctivitis patients and bypositive polymerase chain reactions in 20% of these patients. The direct fluorescent antibody assay detectedChlamydia trachomatis in a higher number of patients than did the polymerase chain reaction. Although thediagnosis of trachoma is essentially clinical...

‣ Optimal polymerase chain reaction amplification for preimplantation diagnosis in cystic fibrosis (∆F508); Optimal polymerase chain reaction amplification for preimplantation diagnosis in cystic fibrosis (DeltaF508)

Cui, K.H.; Haan, E.; Wang, L.J.; Matthews, C.
Fonte: British Medical Association Publicador: British Medical Association
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1995 Português
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Objective: To evaluate direct polymerase chain reaction amplification of mutation on single embryo cells for the routine preimplantation diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. >Design: Direct polymerase chain reaction amplification of mutation was performed to identify the cystic fibrosis F508 mutation in human blood DNA, single lymphocytes, embryos, and embryo cells obtained by biopsy. Preimplantation diagnosis was performed for a couple who were heterozygous carriers of the F508 mutation. Setting: Laboratory for preimplantation diagnosis in a reproductive medicine unit. Main outcome measure: Correct diagnosis of homozygous normal, heterozygous, and homozygous abnormal DNA of the cystic fibrosis F508 mutation. Results: 45 blood samples (18 homozygous normal, 17 heterozygous, and 10 homozygous abnormal) and 204 single lymphocytes from known sources showed 100% amplification and were diagnosed correctly. 17 human embryos and 52 normal nucleated embryo cells obtained by single cell embryo biopsy also showed 100% amplification. After a miscarriage of the initial pregnancy (diagnosed at preimplantation to be homozygous normal) in the heterozygous carrier couple, fetal tissue was confirmed to be homozygous normal. Conclusion: Direct polymerase chain reaction amplification of mutation is a simple...

‣ Detection of occult metastasis in lymph nodes from colorectal cancer patients: a multiple-marker reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction study

Chen, G.; McIver, C.; Texler, M.; Lloyd, J.; Rieger, N.; Hewett, P.; sen Wan, D.; Hardingham, J.
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2004 Português
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INTRODUCTION Lymph node status is a key factor for disease staging and is the main determinant for adjuvant therapy of colorectal cancer. The current staging procedure is unable to identify occult metastasis in lymph nodes, which is likely to be an important cause of treatment failure in some early-stage patients. The detection of occult metastasis could identify a patient subgroup at risk for disease relapse that would benefit from adjuvant therapy. The purpose of this study was to establish and test a multimarker reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for the molecular detection of occult metastases in lymph nodes. METHODS Forty-four patients with colorectal cancer and 14 patients with benign bowel diseases undergoing colonic resection were enrolled in the study. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect expression of three epithelial markers, carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin 20, and guanylyl cyclase C, in fresh colorectal lymph node tissue. RESULTS Forty-six of 47 (97.9 percent) histologically positive lymph nodes were also positive by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Of 221 histologically negative nodes, 97 (43.9 percent) were positive for at least one of the three markers by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction: 24.9 percent for carcinoembryonic antigen...

‣ Accuracy of the serological ELISA test compared with the polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection in pregnancy

Parmigiani,Silvana Varella; Barini,Ricardo; Costa,Sandra Cecília Botelho; Amaral,Eliana; Silva,José Carlos Gama da; Pinto e Silva,João Luiz de Carvalho
Fonte: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM Publicador: Associação Paulista de Medicina - APM
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2003 Português
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CONTEXT: The most frequently used methods for detecting antibodies are the indirect immunofluorescence test and the enzymatic immunoassay (ELISA). The polymerase chain reaction is a molecular biology technique in which the production of large amounts of specific DNA fragments is induced from very low concentrations of complex substrates aloowing the detection of very low amounts of viral particles. OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of serological/ELISA tests in comparison with the polymerase chain reaction in maternal blood to diagnose cytomegalovirus infection. DESIGN: A descriptive study was performed. SETTING: High-risk outpatient clinic of Campinas University (Unicamp). PARTICIPANTS: We selected 243 pregnant women. All of them had been indicated for blood sampling because of suspicions of cytomegalovirus infection and also because of other infections. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: The group was tested for cytomegalovirus. Serological tests were run and compared to the polymerase chain reaction, which was considered to be the gold standard. Status analyses were done using Fisher's exact test, via the SAS software. RESULTS: The previous cytomegalovirus infection rate was 94.6%. The main reasons for inclusion in the study were fetal nervous system malformation (25.5%)...

‣ Accuracy of replication in the polymerase chain reaction. Comparison between Thermotoga maritima DNA polymerase and Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase

Diaz,R.S.; Sabino,E.C.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/10/1998 Português
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For certain applications of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), it may be necessary to consider the accuracy of replication. The breakthrough that made PCR user friendly was the commercialization of Thermus aquaticus (Taq) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that would survive the high temperatures needed for DNA denaturation. The development of enzymes with an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease proofreading activity, lacking in Taq polymerase, would be an improvement when higher fidelity is needed. We used the forward mutation assay to compare the fidelity of Taq polymerase and Thermotoga maritima (ULTMA™) DNA polymerase, an enzyme that does have proofreading activity. We did not find significant differences in the fidelity of either enzyme, even when using optimal buffer conditions, thermal cycling parameters, and number of cycles (0.2% and 0.13% error rates for ULTMA™ and Taq, respectively, after reading about 3,000 bases each). We conclude that for sequencing purposes there is no difference in using a DNA polymerase that contains an inherent 3' to 5' exonuclease activity for DNA amplification. Perhaps the specificity and fidelity of PCR are complex issues influenced by the nature of the target sequence, as well as by each PCR component.

‣ Polymerase chain reaction-Based clonality analysis of cutaneous B-cell lymphoproliferative processes

Melotti, Claudia Z; Amary, Maria Fernanda Carriel; Sotto, Miriam Nacagami; Diss, Timothy; Sanches, Jose Antonio
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2010 Português
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INTRODUCTION: The differential diagnosis of B-cell lymphoproliferative processes remains a challenge for pathologists, dermatologists and oncologists, despite advances in histology, immunohistochemistry and molecular biology. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate aid and limitations of clonality analysis in the diagnosis of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas and B-cell pseudolymphomas. METHODS: This study included 29 cases of B-cell lymphoproliferative processes classified as primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (13), B-cell pseudolymphomas (6) and inconclusive cases (10) using histology and immunohistochemistry. The clonality analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction analysis of immunoglobulin light chain and heavy chain rearrangements. RESULTS: DNA quality was shown to be generally poor; eight samples were inadequate for polymerase chain reaction analysis. The results showed monoclonality in eight of the primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas and polyclonality in four of the B-cell pseudolymphomas. In addition, monoclonality was shown in two of the inconclusive cases by histology and immunohistochemistry, demonstrating the utility of polymerase chain reaction as an ancillary diagnostic tool for primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas. DISCUSSION: The low quality DNA extracted from these cases demanded the use of an IgH protocol that yielded small fragments and IgK. Both methods used together improved detection. CONCLUSION: Use of the two protocols...

‣ Direct fluorescent antibody assay and polymerase chain reaction for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis

Nishiwaki-Dantas, Maria Cristina; Abreu, Mariza Toledo de; Melo, Cynthia Mendonça de; Romero, Ivana Lopes; Matos Neto, Rubens Belfort; Dantas, Paulo Elias Correa
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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OBJECTIVES: To identify Chlamydia trachomatis via polymerase chain reaction and a direct fluorescent antibodyassay in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis while comparing the efficacies of both tests for detectingChlamydia trachomatis in these conditions. METHODS: Conjunctival scraping samples were obtained from 177 patients who were divided into two groups: avernal keratoconjunctivitis group (group A) and a control group (group B). The polymerase chain reaction and adirect fluorescent antibody assay were performed. Sensitivity, specificity, receiver operating characteristic curves,and areas under the curve were calculated for both tests in groups A and B. Receiver operating characteristic curveswere plotted using a categorical variable with only two possible outcomes (positive and negative). RESULTS: Statistical analysis revealed a significant association between vernal keratoconjunctivitis and Chlamydia trachomatis infection detected by a direct fluorescent antibody assay with high sensitivity and specificity. Allpatients in group A with positive polymerase chain reactions also presented with positive direct fluorescentantibody assays. CONCLUSION: The association between vernal keratoconjunctivitis and Chlamydia trachomatis infection wasconfirmed by positive direct fluorescent antibody assays in 49.4% of vernal keratoconjunctivitis patients and bypositive polymerase chain reactions in 20% of these patients. The direct fluorescent antibody assay detectedChlamydia trachomatis in a higher number of patients than did the polymerase chain reaction. Although thediagnosis of trachoma is essentially clinical...