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‣ Níveis e avidez de anticorpos IgG específicos para a porção de 19kDa da região C-terminal da proteína-1 de superfície de merozoítos de P. vivax (MSP1 19) em grupos populacionais expostos à malária; Level and avidity of specific IgG antibodies to C-terminal 19kDa of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP119) in population groups exposed to malaria

Kudó, Mônica Eriko
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/02/2007 Português
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O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a resposta imune, quanto ao nível e à avidez dos anticorpos IgG, dirigidos contra o antígeno recombinante derivada da Proteína 1 de Superfície de Merozoíto de Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP119) em indivíduos residentes em diferentes áreas endêmicas do Brasil, empregando o teste ELISA. Para tanto, foram estudadas amostras de indivíduos expostos à malária, infectados ou não e em acompanhamento terapêutico. Na padronização das condições de reação, obteve-se uma sensibilidade de 95,00% em amostras de pacientes com gota espessa positiva para P. vivax e uma especificidade de 99,50% em amostras de indivíduos saudáveis e com outras patologias. Entre as amostras de pacientes com P. falciparum, 7,14% foram reagentes. O estudo dos diferentes grupos de pacientes com malária vivax mostrou haver diferença significante entre os primo infectados e aqueles com episódios anteriores de malária, sendo os níveis (IR) e avidez (IA) de IgG mais baixos nos primo infectados, embora os níveis de anticorpos já estivessem elevados nesses pacientes. A predominância de IgG anti-PvMSP119 de baixa avidez nos pacientes primo infectados por P. vivax, sugere um baixo grau de proteção, mesmo na presença de elevados níveis de anticorpos observados já no início da infecção. A análise dos indivíduos não infectados mostrou haver uma associação negativa dos resultados de IR com o tempo decorrido desde o último episódio de malária e associação positiva com o número de malárias anteriores. Em relação aos IA houve associação positiva com ambos os parâmetros...

‣ Condicionantes sociais na delimitação de espaços endêmicos de hanseníase; Social conditions in the delimitation of areas endemic for leprosy

Souza, Luis Roberto de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 21/09/2012 Português
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INTRODUÇÃO: A hanseníase é uma doença infecciosa crônica granulomatosa, cujo agente etiológico é uma bactéria de vida intracelular obrigatória, o Mycobacterium leprae, que tem no homem seu principal reservatório. A doença possui distribuição universal, predominando atualmente, em latitudes tropicais e tem sido enquadrada entre as enfermidades negligenciadas, atingindo desproporcionalmente populações pobres e marginalizadas. O bacilo é altamente contagioso, de baixa patogenicidade e acomete primordialmente pele e nervos, com grande potencial incapacitante. A doença grassou no Velho Mundo durante a Idade Média e praticamente desapareceu da Europa ainda no início do século XX, antes que qualquer recurso terapêutico eficaz estivesse disponível. Introduzida com os primeiros colonizadores europeus, a hanseníase é doença endêmica no Brasil e um problema de saúde pública. A hanseníase é hiperendêmica em muitos municípios, notadamente nos estados das regiões Norte e Centro-Oeste, que abrangem biomas de cerrado, pântano e floresta amazônica, em vastas áreas de baixa densidade demográfica; estas áreas vêm sofrendo enorme pressão antrópica relacionada ao incremento de atividades agropecuárias e extrativistas...

‣ Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and gluthatione S-transferases M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups

Hiragi,Cássia de Oliveira; Miranda-Vilela,Ana Luisa; Rocha,Dulce Maria Sucena; ,Silviene Fabiana de; Hatagima,Ana; Klautau-Guimarães,Maria de Nazaré
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) reduce the oxidation rates in the organism. Gluthatione S-transferases (GSTs) play a vital role in phase 2 of biotransformation of many substances. Variation in the expression of these enzymes suggests individual differences for the degree of antioxidant protection and geographical differences in the distribution of these variants. We described the distribution frequency of CAT (21A/T), SOD2 (Ala9Val), GPX1 (Pro198Leu), GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups: Kayabi Amerindians (n = 60), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 72), and an urban mixed population from Federal District (n = 162). Frequencies of the variants observed in Kalunga (18% to 58%) and Federal District (33% to 63%) were similar to those observed in Euro and Afro-descendants, while in Kayabi (3% to 68%), depending on the marker, frequencies were similar to the ones found in different ethnic groups. Except for SOD2 in all population groups studied here, and for GPX1 in Kalunga, the genotypic distributions were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. These data can clarify the contribution of different ethnicities in the formation of mixed populations...

‣ Human glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms associated with prostate cancer in the Brazilian population

Sá,Renata Almeida de; Moreira,Aline dos Santos; Cabello,Pedro Hernan; Ornellas,Antonio Augusto; Costa,Eduardo Butinhão; Matos,Cintia da Silva; Alves,Gilda; Hatagima,Ana
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Urologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 Português
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Objective To evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 in the risk of developing Prostate Cancer (PCa) in a population of Rio de Janeiro and compare the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies of the polymorphisms analyzed in the present study population with other regions in the country and different ethnic groups. Materials and Methods We analyzed a sample of the Brazilian population, comprising 196 patients with PCa treated by the urology services of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA) and Mario Kroeff Hospital (HMK), and 208 male blood donors from the Clementino Fraga Filho Hospital, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). The polymorphisms were determined in DNA, extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes using the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results Our results showed that the distribution of polymorphisms can vary significantly according to the Brazilian region and ethnic groups. The distribution of allele and genotype frequencies of the polymorphism GSTA1 was statistically different between cases and controls. Genotypes (A / B + B / B) were associated with protection (OR = 0.61, 95 % CI = 0.40-0.92) for PCa in comparison to genotype A / A. Conclusion The distribution of genotype frequencies of the polymorphism GSTA1 was statistically different between the case and control groups (p = 0.023)...

‣ Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and gluthatione S-transferases M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups

de Oliveira Hiragi, Cássia; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Rocha, Dulce Maria Sucena; de Oliveira, Silviene Fabiana; Hatagima, Ana; de Nazaré Klautau-Guimarães, Maria
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
454.5077%
Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) reduce the oxidation rates in the organism. Gluthatione S-transferases (GSTs) play a vital role in phase 2 of biotransformation of many substances. Variation in the expression of these enzymes suggests individual differences for the degree of antioxidant protection and geographical differences in the distribution of these variants. We described the distribution frequency of CAT (21A/T), SOD2 (Ala9Val), GPX1 (Pro198Leu), GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups: Kayabi Amerindians (n = 60), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 72), and an urban mixed population from Federal District (n = 162). Frequencies of the variants observed in Kalunga (18% to 58%) and Federal District (33% to 63%) were similar to those observed in Euro and Afro-descendants, while in Kayabi (3% to 68%), depending on the marker, frequencies were similar to the ones found in different ethnic groups. Except for SOD2 in all population groups studied here, and for GPX1 in Kalunga, the genotypic distributions were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. These data can clarify the contribution of different ethnicities in the formation of mixed populations...

‣ Remarkable Variation in the Informativeness of RFLP Markers Linked to Hemophilia B Locus in Indian Population Groups: Implication in the Strategy for Carrier Detection

Mukherjee, S.; Saha, A.; Kumar P., Senthil; Chandak, G. R.; Majumder, P. P.; Ray, K.
Fonte: IOS Press Publicador: IOS Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Hemophilia B, an X-linked recessive bleeding disorder, is caused by heterogeneous mutations in the factor IX (F9) gene. Hence, carriers of the disease are usually detected by F9 gene linked RFLP analysis. We aimed to test a set of RFLP markers (DdeI, XmnI, MnlI, TaqI & HhaI), used worldwide for carrier detection, to estimate its heterozygosity in different population groups of India, and identify additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) if necessary. A total of 8 population groups encompassing different regions of India, consisting of 107 unrelated normal females without any history of hemophilia B in the family and 13 unrelated obligate carriers were recruited in the study. Regions of F9 gene were amplified by PCR from genomic DNA of the donors followed by restriction enzyme digestion and/or sequencing as appropriate. Combined informativeness for the markers varied between 52–86% among normal females belonging to different geographical locations of India. Haplotype analysis revealed that the most prevalent haplotype lacked the restriction sites for all five RFLP markers. Screening regions of F9 gene that harbor 10 SNPs reported in dbSNP yielded only two SNPs, which increased the overall informativeness in each population group and heterozygosity in the obligate carriers for the disease from 38% to 69%. Our data show that heterozygosity of commonly used RFLP markers is remarkably variable across different regions of India. Thus prudent selection of the markers based on specific population groups including usage of additional markers is recommended for efficient carrier detection.

‣ Population Size, Concentration, and Civil War : A Geographically Disaggregated Analysis

Hegre, Håvard; Raleigh, Clionadh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Why do larger countries have more armed conflict? This paper surveys three sets of hypotheses forwarded in the conflict literature regarding the relationship between the size and location of population groups: Hypotheses based on pure population mass, on distances, on population concentrations, and some residual state-level characteristics. The hypotheses are tested on a new dataset-ACLED (Armed Conflict Location and Events Dataset)-which disaggregates internal conflicts into individual events. The analysis covers 14 countries in Central Africa. The conflict event data are juxtaposed with geographically disaggregated data on populations, distance to capitals, borders, and road networks. The paper develops a statistical method to analyze this type of data. The analysis confirms several of the hypotheses.

‣ Improving Health for the Poor in Mozambique : The Fight Continues

Chao, Shiyan; Kostermans, Kees
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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The health sector in Mozambique has made significant progress in terms of increasing coverage of services. However, health remains a major concern in the area of poverty reduction. The study describes the health status of the population, especially of the poor, and how the sector responds to the needs. Huge inequalities continue to exist with regards to resource allocation, deployment of staff and availability of services among various geographic areas, between the urban and rural population, and between the poor and the non-poor. The study builds upon the existing studies on health and consolidates the sector knowledge. Based on the analysis, the study makes various recommendations on how the health sector reforms can be made more pro-poor by focusing on certain interventions, by targeting certain areas and population groups, by designing new delivery models that would bring the services closer to the population, and by improving financial management to serve the poor more effectively.

‣ Poverty Reduction Strategies : Their Importance for Disability

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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This report is an attempt to assess the validity of poverty reduction strategies as an effective tool to manage poverty brought about by disability, by reviewing the disability policy content of poverty reduction strategy papers. In doing so, the report focuses on whether the specific poverty dimensions of disabled persons are acknowledged and the critical interventions for improving the economic and social integration of disabled persons are included in poverty reduction strategy papers. There is a wide consensus that disabled persons, being disproportionately poor, are among the population groups that should benefit from the poverty reduction programs of poverty reduction strategy papers. The issue, however, is whether they are de facto excluded from benefiting from current poverty reduction strategies. Poverty reduction strategy papers do not meet the needs of disabled persons because they are based on a limited social protection policy that conveys a wrong impression about the abilities and aspirations of the majority of disabled persons. Furthermore...

‣ Private Sector Assessment for Health, Nutrition and Population in Bangladesh

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The objectives of this Private Sector Assessment (PSA) are to gain a better understanding of the private health care markets in Bangladesh, and to identify areas for increased collaboration between the government, and the private sector. While the study analyzes private health care markets in general, it uses maternal and child health (MCH) as an area of special focus to illustrate general principles, and/or draw lessons for the broader health, nutrition, and population (HNP) sector. MCH was chosen for this emphasis in view of its importance in Bangladesh, and because MCH outcomes constitute a significant part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The PSA analysis confirmed that the private sector dominates the provision of basic care, nursing homes, laboratory and ambulatory diagnostic services; the public sector, however, remains the main provider of inpatient care. The private sector is used for the overwhelming majority of outpatient curative care, while the public sector is used for a larger proportion of hospital deliveries...

‣ Welfare Dynamics Measurement : Two Definitions of a Vulnerability Line and Their Empirical Application

Dang, Hai-Anh H.; Lanjouw, Peter F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Little research currently exists on a vulnerability line that distinguishes the poor population from the population that is not poor but that still faces significant risk of falling back into poverty. This paper attempts to fill this gap by proposing vulnerability lines that can be straightforwardly estimated with panel or cross-sectional household survey data, in rich- and poor-country settings. These vulnerability lines offer a means to broaden traditional poverty analysis and can also assist with the identification of the middle class or resilient population groups. Empirical illustrations are provided using panel data from the United States (Panel Study of Income Dynamics) and Vietnam (Vietnam Household Living Standards Survey) for the period 2004-2008 and cross-sectional data from India (National Sample Survey) for the period 2004-2009. The estimation results indicate that in Vietnam and India during this time period, the population living in poverty and the middle class have been falling and expanding...

‣ Madagascar : Three Years into the Crisis

Auffret, Philippe
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Português
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Madagascar is one of the poorest countries in the world and a very high proportion of the population experiences frequent shocks, whether from natural disasters, economic shocks or internal crises of governance. As a consequence, about half the country s population is undernourished. Children between the ages of 6 and 14 face the risks of low human capital development, child labor and marginalization. On the other hand, the Government of Madagascar s commitment to social protection as a national policy was never fully effective. Interventions in social protection have been developed on an ad-hoc basis, often on the initiative of donors. In order to inform the government s policy development, the report proposes a social protection strategy that increases the protection of the population while decreasing its vulnerability, taking into account the existing programs and the differences in exposure to risks between population groups recommendations that emerge from the research.

‣ Environmental Health Costs in Colombia : The Changes from 2002 to 2010

Golub, Elena; Klytchnikova, Irina; Sanchez-Martinez, Gerardo; Belausteguigoitia, Juan Carlos
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Despite considerable progress in the area of environmental management over the last decade, Colombia still faces significant impacts from population exposure to urban air pollution, inadequate access to water supply and sanitation, and indoor air pollution from solid fuel use. This study estimates that the total health cost attributable to these three factors amounts to about 10.2 trillion Colombian Pesos (COP) annually, or about 2 percent of GDP in 2010. In terms of mortality, about 7,600 annual premature deaths can be attributed to these environmental factors. This study updates some of the estimates of environmental health costs reported in the 2005 Colombia Country Environmental Analysis environmental priorities and poverty reduction . Specific policy recommendations and targeted interventions can be derived from future analysis of environmental health costs at subnational level, cost-benefit analysis of specific policy interventions, and an analysis of the burden of health costs disaggregated by population groups and poverty levels. Disaggregated statistics on health outcomes...

‣ A life course approach to measuring socioeconomic position in population surveillance and its role in determining health status.

Chittleborough, Catherine Ruth
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Measuring socioeconomic position (SEP) in population chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems is essential for monitoring changes in socioeconomic inequities in health over time. A life course approach in epidemiology considers the long-term effects of physical and social exposures during gestation, childhood, adolescence, and later adult life on health. Previous studies provide evidence that socioeconomic factors at different stages of the life course influence current health status. Measures of SEP during early life to supplement existing indicators of current SEP are required to more adequately explain the contribution of socioeconomic factors to health status and monitor health inequities. The aim of this thesis was to examine how a life course perspective could enhance the monitoring of SEP in chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems. The thesis reviewed indicators of early life SEP used in previous research, determined indicators of early life SEP that may be useful in South Australian surveillance systems, and examined the association of SEP over the life course and self-rated health in adulthood across different population groups to demonstrate that inclusion of indicators of early life SEP in surveillance systems could allow health inequities to be monitored among socially mobile and stable groups. A variety of indicators...

‣ Population Aging : Is Latin America Ready?; Envejecimiento de la poblacion : esta preparada America Latina ?

Cotlear, Daniel
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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The past half-century has seen enormous changes in the demographic makeup of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). In the 1950s, LAC had a small population of about 160 million people, less than today's population of Brazil. Two-thirds of Latin Americans lived in rural areas. Families were large and women had one of the highest fertility rates in the world, low levels of education, and few opportunities for work outside the household. Investments in health and education reached only a small fraction of the children, many of whom died before reaching age five. Since then, the size of the LAC population has tripled and the mostly rural population has been transformed into a largely urban population. There have been steep reductions in child mortality, and investments in health and education have increased, today reaching a majority of children. Fertility has been more than halved and the opportunities for women in education and for work outside the household have improved significantly. Life expectancy has grown by 22 years. Less obvious to the casual observer...

‣ Action Plan for the Provision of Vitamins and Minerals to the Tanzanian Population through the Enrichment of Staple Foods

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Other Agricultural Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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The United Republic of Tanzania has a severe vitamin and mineral deficiency problem. Every year deficiencies in iron, vitamin A and folic acid cost the country over US$ 518 million, around 2.65 % of the country's GDP. Beyond the economic losses, vitamin and mineral deficiencies are a significant contributor to infant mortality, with over 27,000 infant and 1,600 maternal deaths annually attributable to this cause.2 In fact, if all of these deaths could be avoided, the infant mortality rate (IMR) in Tanzania could be reduced to 41.5 per 1,000 population, which would virtually ensure achievement of the MDG goal for IMR (40/1,000). To reduce this huge annual loss, an integrated national vitamin and mineral deficiency control programme is needed which is embedded in the national nutrition policy. Food fortification or enrichment should be an integral but not the only part of such a programme.

‣ Labor Mobility, Economic Shocks, and Jobless Growth : Evidence from Panel Data in Morocco

Verme, Paolo; Barry, Abdoul Gadiry; Guennouni, Jamal; Taamouti, Mohamed
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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During the past 20 years, Morocco has implemented a wide range of macroeconomic, social, and labor market reforms that have delivered in terms of growth of gross domestic product and household welfare. Yet, these positive developments are not reflected by the main labor market indicators, a phenomenon observed elsewhere in developed and developing economies alike and labeled as "jobless growth." For the first time for Morocco, this paper uses quarterly panel data to investigate the question of labor mobility in an effort to determine whether people have moved to better sectors and jobs. The results point to significant labor mobility between labor statuses with quite distinct features across population groups. All groups experience some form of labor market mobility every quarter and women are as mobile as men. However, the transitions that women experience are very different from the transitions than men experience and women's performance is worse than men s performance in almost all aspects of labor mobility.

‣ Pakistan - Balochistan Economic Report : From Periphery to Core, Volume 2. Full Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: General Economy, Macroeconomics and Growth Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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Balochistan offers some of the best assets for development. Balochistan is generously bestowed with natural and locational resources. It possesses the largest land area of any province of Pakistan, proving vast rangeland for goats, sheep, buffaloes, cattle, camels and other livestock. Its southern border makes up about two thirds of the national coastline, giving access to a large pool of fishery resources. As a frontier province, it is ideally situated for trade with Iran, Afghanistan, Central Asia and the Persian Gulf countries. Over the last four decades, it supplied cheap natural gas to Pakistan's economic centers, supporting the country's industrialization. This report offers an empirical analysis of provincial economic development and the ways in which the provincial and federal governments, supported by donors, can help to foster it. It is organized around three topics: the stock taking of economic outcomes over the last decades; the Strategies for inclusive economic development of generating growth...

‣ Population groups: indexing, coverage, and retrieval effectiveness of ethnically related health care issues in health sciences databases.

Efthimiadis, E N; Afifi, M
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /07/1996 Português
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OBJECTIVES: This study examined methods of accessing (for indexing and retrieval purposes) medical research on population groups in the major abstracting and indexing services of the health sciences literature. DESIGN: The study of diseases in specific population groups is facilitated by the indexing of both diseases and populations in a database. The MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Embase databases were selected for the study. The published thesauri for these databases were examined to establish the vocabulary in use. Indexing terms were identified and examined as to their representation in the current literature. Terms were clustered further into groups thought to reflect an end user's perspective and to facilitate subsequent analysis. The medical literature contained in the three online databases was searched with both controlled vocabulary and natural language terms. RESULTS: The three thesauri revealed shallow pre-coordinated hierarchical structures, rather difficult-to-use terms for post-coordination, and a blurring of cultural, genetic, and racial facets of populations. Post-coordination is difficult because of the system-oriented terminology, which is intended mostly for information professionals. The terminology unintentionally restricts access by the end users who lack the knowledge needed to use the thesauri effectively for information retrieval. CONCLUSIONS: Population groups are not represented adequately in the index languages of health sciences databases. Users of these databases need to be alerted to the difficulties that may be encountered in searching for information on population groups. Information and health professionals may not be able to access the literature if they are not familiar with the indexing policies on population groups. Consequently...

‣ Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection patterns and risk behaviours in different population groups and provinces in Viet Nam

Tuan,Nguyen Anh; Fylkesnes,Knut; Thang,Bui Duc; Hien,Nguyen Tran; Long,Nguyen Thanh; Van Kinh,Nguyen; Thang,Pham Hong; Manh,Pham Duc; O'Farrell,Nigel
Fonte: World Health Organization Publicador: World Health Organization
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2007 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To study patterns and determinants of HIV prevalence and risk-behaviour characteristics in different population groups in four border provinces of Viet Nam. METHODS: We surveyed four population groups during April-June 2002. We used stratified random-cluster sampling and collected data concomitantly on HIV status and risk behaviours. The groups included were female sex workers (n = 2023), injecting drug users (n = 1391), unmarried males aged 15-24 years (n = 1885) and different categories of mobile groups (n = 1923). FINDINGS: We found marked geographical contrasts in HIV prevalence, particularly among female sex workers (range 0-24%). The HIV prevalence among injecting drug users varied at high levels in all provinces (range 4-36%), whereas lower prevalences were found among both unmarried young men (range 0-1.3%) and mobile groups (range 0-2.5%). All groups reported sex with female sex workers. Less than 40% of the female sex workers had used condoms consistently. The strongest determinants of HIV infection among female sex workers were inconsistent condom use (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.4-11.8), history of injecting drug use and mobility, and, among injecting drug users, sharing of injection equipment (adjusted OR...