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‣ Physicians` attitudes and adherence to use of risk scores for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: cross-sectional survey in three world regions

SPOSITO, Andrei C.; RAMIRES, Jose A. F.; JUKEMA, J. Wouter; MOLINA, Juan Carlos; SILVA, Pedro Marques da; GHADANFAR, Mathieu M.; WILSON, Peter W. F.
Fonte: LIBRAPHARM/INFORMA HEALTHCARE Publicador: LIBRAPHARM/INFORMA HEALTHCARE
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Objective: To evaluate physicians` attitudes and adherence to the use of risk scores in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Design and methods: A cross-sectional survey of 2056 physicians involved in the primary prevention of CVD. Participants included cardiologists (47%), general practitioners (42%), and endocrinologists (11%) from several geographical regions: Brazil (n=968), USA (n=381), Greece (n=275), Chile (n=157), Venezuela (n=128), Portugal (n=42), The Netherlands (n=41), and Central America (Costa Rica, Panama, El Salvador and Guatemala; n=64). Results: The main outcome measure was the percentage of responses on a multiple-choice questionnaire describing a hypothetical asymptomatic patient at intermediate risk for CVD according to the Framingham Risk Score. Only 48% of respondents reported regular use of CVD risk scores to tailor preventive treatment in the case scenario. Of non-users, nearly three-quarters indicated that `It takes up too much of my time` (52%) or `I don`t believe they add value to the clinical evaluation` (21%). Only 56% of respondents indicated that they would prescribe lipid-lowering therapy for the hypothetical intermediate-risk patient. A significantly greater proportion of regular users than non-users of CVD risk scores identified the need for lipid-lowering therapy in the hypothetical patient (59 vs. 41%; p<0.0001).

‣ Modelling the decline in coronary heart disease deaths in England and Wales, 1981-2000: comparing contributions from primary prevention and secondary prevention

Unal, Belgin; Critchley, Julia Alison; Capewell, Simon
Fonte: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. Publicador: BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/09/2005 Português
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Objective To investigate whether population based primary prevention (risk factor reduction in apparently healthy people) might be more powerful than current government initiatives favouring risk factor reduction in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) (secondary prevention).

‣ Aspirin for primary prevention of coronary heart disease: safety and absolute benefit related to coronary risk derived from meta-analysis of randomised trials

Sanmuganathan, P; Ghahramani, P; Jackson, P; Wallis, E; Ramsay, L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /03/2001 Português
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OBJECTIVE—To determine the cardiovascular and coronary risk thresholds at which aspirin for primary prevention of coronary heart disease is safe and worthwhile.
DESIGN—Meta-analysis of four randomised controlled trials of aspirin for primary prevention. The benefit and harm from aspirin treatment were examined to determine: (1) the cardiovascular and coronary risk threshold at which benefit in prevention of myocardial infarction exceeds harm from significant bleeding; and (2) the absolute benefit expressed as number needed to treat (NNT) for aspirin net of cerebral haemorrhage and other bleeding complications at different levels of coronary risk.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Benefit from aspirin, expressed as reduction in cardiovascular events, myocardial infarctions, strokes, and total mortality; harm caused by aspirin in relation to significant bleeds and major haemorrhages.
RESULTS—Aspirin for primary prevention significantly reduced all cardiovascular events by 15% (95% confidence interval (CI) 6% to 22%) and myocardial infarctions by 30% (95% CI 21% to 38%), and non-significantly reduced all deaths by 6% (95% CI −4% to 15%). Aspirin non-significantly increased strokes by 6% (95% CI −24% to 9%) and significantly increased bleeding complications by 69% (95% CI 38% to 107%). The risk of major bleeding balanced the reduction in cardiovascular events when cardiovascular event risk was 0.22%/year. The upper 95% CI for this estimate suggests that harm from aspirin is unlikely to outweigh benefit provided the cardiovascular event risk is 0.8%/year...

‣ Primary Prevention, Aging, and Cancer: Overview and Future Perspectives

Miller, Suzanne M.; Bowen, Deborah; Lyle, Jennifer; Clark, Melissa; Mohr, David; Wardle, Jane; Ceballos, Rachel; Emmons, Karen; Gritz, Ellen; Marlow, Laura
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/12/2008 Português
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Cancer specific primary prevention efforts for the geriatric population are not well-understood and are currently underutilized, despite the rapidly growing elderly population. Lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation, dietary change, and increasing physical activity have been shown to decrease the incidence of cancer in younger populations. However, a multitude of conceptual, methodological, and dissemination challenges arise when the goal is to apply primary prevention of cancer to the elderly. The state of the science is reviewed to reveal barriers in the uptake of cancer specific primary prevention practices, including the lack of data for the applicability of clinical research findings to older populations. Under representation of older adults in behavioral trials and research programs is hindering progress in understanding the physical health and lifestyle choices of older people. Efforts directed towards prevention in terms of promoting health behaviors may not only be clinically advantageous, but also cost-effective. Additionally, models for translating research findings on primary prevention from younger individuals to the elderly population needs to be addressed. Practitioners need to better understand opportunities for cancer specific primary prevention could enhance chronic disease management.

‣ The Timing Hypothesis: A Paradigm Shift in the Primary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease in Women: Part 1, Comparison of Therapeutic Efficacy

Hodis, Howard N.; Mack, Wendy J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
47.248%
The long-held belief that outcome data from intervention trials in men are generalizable to women has created the framework in which the primary prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD) in women is viewed. However, over the past decade, data has accumulated to refute such a supposition of generalizability. These lines of evidence concern the sex-specific efficacy of CHD primary prevention therapies and timing of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) initiation according to age and/or time-since-menopause as modifiers of efficacy and risk. Although the standard primary prevention therapies of statins and aspirin reduce CHD in men, neither therapy reduce CHD, and more importantly total mortality in women under primary prevention conditions. On the other hand, HRT significantly reduces both CHD and total mortality in primary prevention when HRT is initiated in women <60 years old and/or <10 years-since-menopause. Herein, the efficacy of the commonly used therapies for the primary prevention of CHD in women, statins, aspirin and postmenopausal HRT is discussed. In part 2 of this series the comparative risks of these therapies are discussed.

‣ Asthma: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases

Jackson, Daniel J.; Hartert, Tina V.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Weiss, Scott T.; Fahy, John V.
Fonte: American Thoracic Society Publicador: American Thoracic Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 Português
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Asthma is a common disease with enormous public health costs, and its primary prevention is an ambitious and important goal. Understanding of how host and environmental factors interact to cause asthma is incomplete, but persistent questions about mechanisms should not stop clinical research efforts aimed at reducing the prevalence of childhood asthma. Achieving the goal of primary prevention of asthma will involve integrated and parallel sets of research activities in which mechanism-oriented studies of asthma inception proceed alongside clinical intervention studies to test biologically plausible prevention ideas. For example, continued research is needed, particularly in young children, to uncover biomarkers that identify asthma risk and provide potential targets of intervention, and to improve understanding of the role of microbial factors in asthma risk and disease initiation. In terms of clinical trials that could be initiated now or in the near future, we recommend three interventions for testing: (1) preventing asthma through prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus infections of the airway; (2) immune modulation, using prebiotics, probiotics, and bacterial lysates; and (3) prevention of allergen sensitization and allergic inflammation...

‣ Pulmonary Hypertension: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases

Austin, Eric D.; Kawut, Steven M.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Abman, Steven H.
Fonte: American Thoracic Society Publicador: American Thoracic Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 Português
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Pulmonary vascular dysfunction (PVD) precedes the onset of clinical signs and symptoms of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). PAH is defined by the elevation of pulmonary arterial pressure, which often progresses to right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and failure. PAH affects subjects of all ages, and is associated with diverse medical conditions, most of which are rare. Several factors pose immediate challenges to the development of strategies for primary prevention of PAH, including: (1) the idiopathic or primary form of the disease is extremely rare, limiting screening practicality; (2) methods for the detection of preclinical PVD are currently not established; (3) the understanding of determinants of pulmonary vascular growth, structure, and function in normal and PAH states is insufficient; (4) relatively small numbers of “at-risk” subjects are available for long-term studies to accurately assess disease development; and (5) preventative therapies for PVD are lacking. Despite these limitations, leveraging known at-risk patient populations for study, as well as growing progress across multiple disciplines, ranging from systems biology to advanced and more sensitive functional imaging modalities, may facilitate the opportunity to significantly improve primary prevention research and implementation over the next decade.

‣ Promotion of Lung Health: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases

Camargo, Carlos A.; Budinger, G. R. Scott; Escobar, Gabriel J.; Hansel, Nadia N.; Hanson, Corrine K.; Huffnagle, Gary B.; Buist, A. Sonia
Fonte: American Thoracic Society Publicador: American Thoracic Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 Português
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Lung-related research primarily focuses on the etiology and management of diseases. In recent years, interest in primary prevention has grown. However, primary prevention also includes “health promotion” (actions in a population that keep an individual healthy). We encourage more research on population-based (public health) strategies that could not only maximize lung health but also mitigate “normal” age-related declines—not only for spirometry but across multiple measures of lung health. In developing a successful strategy, a “life course” approach is important. Unfortunately, we are unable to achieve the full benefit of this approach until we have better measures of lung health and an improved understanding of the normal trajectory, both over an individual’s life span and possibly across generations. We discuss key questions in lung health promotion, with an emphasis on the upper (healthier) end of the distribution of lung functioning and resiliency and briefly summarize the few interventions that have been studied to date. We conclude with suggestions regarding the most promising future research for this important, but largely neglected, area of lung research.

‣ Interstitial Lung Disease: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases

Rosas, Ivan O.; Dellaripa, Paul F.; Lederer, David J.; Khanna, Dinesh; Young, Lisa R.; Martinez, Fernando J.
Fonte: American Thoracic Society Publicador: American Thoracic Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 Português
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Population-based, longitudinal studies spanning decades linking risk factors in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood to incident clinical interstitial lung disease (ILD) events in late adulthood have not been performed. In addition, no observational or randomized clinical trials have been conducted; therefore, there is presently no evidence to support the notion that reduction of risk factor levels in early life prevents ILD events in adult life. Primary prevention strategies are host-directed interventions designed to modify adverse risk factors (i.e., smoking) with the goal of preventing the development of ILD, whereas primordial prevention for ILD can be defined as the elimination of external risk factors (i.e., environmental pollutants). As no ILD primary prevention studies have been previously conducted, we propose that research studies that promote implementation of primary prevention strategies could, over time, make a subset of ILD preventable. Herein, we provide a number of initial steps required for the future implementation of prevention strategies; this statement discusses the rationale and available evidence that support potential opportunities for primordial and primary prevention, as well as fertile areas for future research of preventive intervention in ILD.

‣ Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases

McEvoy, Cindy T.; Jain, Lucky; Schmidt, Barbara; Abman, Steven; Bancalari, Eduardo; Aschner, Judy L.
Fonte: American Thoracic Society Publicador: American Thoracic Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2014 Português
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67.08136%
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most common complication of extreme preterm birth. Infants who develop BPD manifest aberrant or arrested pulmonary development and can experience lifelong alterations in cardiopulmonary function. Despite decades of promising research, primary prevention of BPD has proven elusive. This workshop report identifies current barriers to the conduct of primary prevention studies for BPD and causal pathways implicated in BPD pathogenesis. Throughout, we highlight promising areas for research to improve understanding of normal and aberrant lung development, distinguish BPD endotypes, and ascertain biomarkers for more targeted therapeutic approaches to prevention. We conclude with research recommendations and priorities to accelerate discovery and promote lung health in infants born preterm.

‣ The role of mental health in primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence

Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth
Fonte: Co-Action Publishing Publicador: Co-Action Publishing
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/09/2014 Português
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In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.

‣ High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin I and B-Type Natriuretic Peptide as Predictors of Vascular Events in Primary Prevention: Impact of Statin Therapy

Everett, Brendan M.; Zeller, Tanja; Glynn, Robert J.; Ridker, Paul M; Blankenberg, Stefan
Fonte: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.12159%
Background— Cardiac troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome in primary prevention populations. Whether statin therapy modifies this association is poorly understood. Methods and Results— We measured high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hsTnI) in 12 956 and BNP in 11 076 participants without cardiovascular disease in the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) trial before randomization to rosuvastatin 20 mg/d or placebo. Nearly 92% of participants had detectable circulating hsTnI, and 2.9% of men and 4.1% of women had levels above proposed sex-specific reference limits of 36 and 15 ng/L, respectively. hsTnI concentrations in the highest tertile were associated with a first major cardiovascular event (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.56–3.06; P for trend <0.001). BNP levels in the highest tertile were also associated a first cardiovascular event (aHR, 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.41–2.68; P for trend <0.001). The risk of all-cause mortality was elevated for the highest versus the lowest tertiles of hsTnI (aHR, 2.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.81–3.78; P for trend <0.001) and BNP (aHR...

‣ Aspirin for primary prevention: do potential benefits outweigh the risks?

Shakib, S.
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Asia Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Asia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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The role of aspirin for primary prevention in healthy individuals has been the subject of clinical trials for more than a quarter of a century. Because of this evidence, or sometimes despite it, many individuals self-administer aspirin to prevent cardiovascular events. This article reviews the published work for aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular and malignant diseases and considers whether aspirin would be approved by regulatory authorities for this use if it were to be marketed for this indication today.; S. Shakib

‣ Community and health sector partnerships for primary prevention in Australia: Developing a typology

Taylor, J.; Braunack-Mayer, A.; Cargo, M.; Larkins, S.; Preston, R.
Fonte: Sage Publications Ltd Publicador: Sage Publications Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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The Australian health system requires novel strategies to implement widespread primary prevention to reduce the burden of chronic illness. One approach is for health sectors to draw on resources available in communities of place and to form partnerships which maximize the relevance and uptake of initiatives designed to promote healthy lifestyles. This article presents a typology of conceptual approaches to community and health sector partnerships, developed through an extensive literature search and empirically tested using in-depth case studies across regional Australia. The article finds that the health sector’s orientation to primary prevention is generally instrumental involving highly targeted outcomes and pre-defined programmes. Communities of place have multifaceted priorities that include building the social and economic sustainability of their community. While these approaches might appear incompatible, careful 'manipulation' and 'massaging' of instrumental objectives to adjust to community agendas and the presence of 'boundary crossers' can lead to successful primary prevention outcomes.; Judy Taylor, Annette Braunack-Mayer, Margaret Cargo, Sarah Larkins, Robyn Preston

‣ Toward onset prevention of cognitive decline in adults with Down syndrome (the TOP-COG study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

Cooper, Sally-Ann; Caslake, Muriel; Evans, Jonathan; Hassiotis, Angela; Jahoda, Andrew; McConnachie, Alex; Morrison, Jill; Ring, Howard; Starr, John; Stiles, Ciara; Sullivan, Frank
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Article; published version
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
57.02567%
This is the final published version. It first appeared at http://www.trialsjournal.com/content/15/1/202.; Background Early-onset dementia is common in Down syndrome adults, who have trisomy 21. The amyloid precursor protein gene is on chromosome 21, and so is over-expressed in Down syndrome, leading to amyloid ? (A?) over-production, a major upstream pathway leading to Alzheimer disease (AD). Statins (microsomal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors), have pleiotropic effects including potentially increasing brain amyloid clearance, making them plausible agents to reduce AD risk. Animal models, human observational studies, and small scale trials support this rationale, however, there are no AD primary prevention trials in Down syndrome adults. In this study we study aim to inform the design of a full-scale primary prevention trial. Methods/Design TOP-COG is a feasibility and pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT), with a nested qualitative study, conducted in the general community. About 60 Down syndrome adults, aged ?50 will be included. The intervention is oral simvastatin 40mg at night for 12 months, versus placebo. The primary endpoint is recruitment and retention rates. Secondary endpoints are (1) tolerability and safety; (2) detection of the most sensitive neurocognitive instruments; (3) perceptions of Down syndrome adults and caregivers on whether to participate...

‣ Estratégias de prevenção para câncer de testículo e pênis: revisão integrativa; Estrategias de prevención del cáncer de testículo y pene: revisión integradora; Prevention strategies for testicular and penile cancer: an integrative review

Souza, Kelly Wanessa de; Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz dos; Gomes, Isabelle Pimentel; Carvalho, Emília Campos de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Enfermagem
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/03/2011 Português
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Cânceres de testículo e pênis são doenças que acometem pequena parcela da população, mas geralmente são agressivas principalmente pelo impacto psicológico que exercem sobre os pacientes. Este estudo buscou identificar evidências de estratégias preventivas para tais cânceres. Foi realizada revisão integrativa de literatura, nas bases de dados Biblioteca COCHRANE, PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, BDENF e CINAHL, utilizando os descritores controlados: promoção da saúde, fatores de risco, prevenção primária e neoplasias urogenitais; e os não controlados: prevenção, câncer de pênis, câncer de testículo. Os estudos foram unânimes ao identificar, para o câncer de testículo, o autoexame do órgão; para o câncer de pênis, evidenciou-se a circuncisão como fator protetor, a prevenção de infecção sexualmente transmissível e a adequada higiene íntima. Os enfermeiros devem assumir a função de promotor da saúde, tendo em vista a importância dessa atitude frente à prevenção de doenças.; El cáncer de testículo y de pene son enfermedades sufridas por un pequeño segmento de la población, generalmente son agresivas, sobre todo por el impacto psicológico que ejercen sobre los pacientes. Este estudio buscó identificar evidencias de estrategias preventivas para tales cánceres. Se realizó una revisión integradora de literatura en las bases de datos Biblioteca COCHRANE...

‣ Prevenção primária do alcoolismo: esboço de programa para população urbana brasileira; Primary prevention of alcoholism: outline of a Brazilian program

Simon, Ryad
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Artigo Avaliado pelos Pares Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/1974 Português
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Estudo de dados de população de alcoólatras em 3 sanatórios de São Paulo (Brasil) com a finalidade de se realizar pesquisa sobre prevenção primária do alcoolismo. Conseguiu-se separar certas variáveis (idade, sexo e fatores ambientais) que permitiram caracterizar uma "população sob risco especial" de adquirir alcoolismo. Algumas hipóteses etiológicas foram aventadas permitindo, dentro de uma vaga noção de história natural do alcoolismo, atuar em nível de "proteção específica", visando impedir a incidência de etilismo na maioria da população mais susceptível.; Some data on alcoholism occurrence in there sanatoria of S. Paulo (Brazil) were studied in order to realize a research on primary prevention. Some variables (age, sex and environmental factors) that could make us come to the characterization of a "population at special risk" of becoming alcohol addicts, were reached. Some etiological hypothesis were also presented, that lead us, by means of a vague outline of a natural history of etilism, to measures of "specific protection", directed at preventing the incidence of alcoholism in all more susceptible people.

‣ Primary prevention: a movement analysis and possibilities to Brazil; Prevenção primária: análise de um movimento e possibilidades para o Brasil

Lacerda Júnior, Fernando; Guzzo, Raquel Souza Lobo
Fonte: UFPR Publicador: UFPR
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; avaliado por pares; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 04/04/2006 Português
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Este trabalho tem como objetivos refletir sobre a temática da prevenção primária e discutir criticamente sobre algumas das idéias que permeiam este campo. A primeira parte apresenta o surgimento da temática da prevenção em um movimento específico na psicologia dos EUA que critica modelos individualistas e remediativos de atuação. São apresentados aspectos históricos e constitutivos da prevenção primária, a diferenciação entre níveis, tipos e abordagens de prevenção e reflete-se sobre a relação entre prevenção primária e promoção de saúde. Define-se o que são fatores de risco e fatores de proteção e os indicadores e as dimensões do bem-estar. A segunda parte discute problemas e questões controversas no debate sobre a prevenção primária, a partir de noções presentes nos trabalhos de George W. Albee e Emory L. Cowen. Na terceira parte são apresentadas as possibilidades oferecidas por este modelo para a realidade brasileira a partir da crítica a algumas das idéias destacadas. A noção de educação emancipadora e a tomada de uma perspectiva histórica na compreensão da constituição do homem são consideradas como necessárias para a superação do positivismo que permeia noções e práticas preventivas. Enfatiza-se a inseparabilidade entre prevenção e mudança social.Palavras-chave: prevenção primária; história da prevenção; mudança social.; This paper discusses the primary prevention and some ideas developed in this field. The first section presents the origins of prevention theme at a specific movement in US psychology which criticizes the individualistic and remediative frameworks. Historical and constitutive dimensions of primary prevention...

‣ Application of a child abuse prevention programme in an educational context

Moreno-Manso,Juan M.; García-Baamonde,Elena; Blázquez-Alonso,Macarena; Pozueco-Romero,José M.
Fonte: Anales de Psicología Publicador: Anales de Psicología
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; journal article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: text/html; application/pdf
Publicado em 01/10/2014 Português
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This study analyses the effectiveness of a child abuse prevention programme in an educational context. The proposal for action is based on the use of stories as an instrument of primary prevention. The programme aims to improve a child's capacity to face potentially threatening situations and was applied in 10 primary schools of Extremadura (Spain) to 317 pupils aged 9 and 10 years old. There were 12 sessions whose aim was for the children to gain an awareness of abuse, identify situations of abuse and learn strategies to face them. This was done through the use of tutorials and by linking the programme to the aims of the pupils' educational stage. The evaluation of the programme shows that the pupils in the experimental group resolved the situations with increasing skill, confidence and determination; and that they could see more clearly where to look for help in terms of protection measures. The tutors evaluated the programme positively, considering the contents useful for prevention.

‣ A cost-effective strategy for primary prevention of acute rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease in children with pharyngitis

Irlam,J H; Mayosi,B M; Engel,M E; Gaziano,T A
Fonte: SAMJ: South African Medical Journal Publicador: SAMJ: South African Medical Journal
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2013 Português
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Primary prevention of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) in children depends on prompt and effective diagnosis and treatment of pharyngitis at the primary level of care. Cost-effectiveness modeling shows that the most cost-effective strategy for primary prevention in South Africa (SA) is to use a simple symptomatic clinical decision rule (CDR) to diagnose pharyngitis in children presenting at the primary level of care and then to treat them with a single dose of intramuscular penicillin. Treat All and CDR2+ strategies are affordable and simple and miss few cases of streptococcal pharyngitis at the primary level of care. The CDR2+ strategy is the most cost-effective for primary prevention of ARF and RHD in urban SA and should complement primordial and secondary prevention efforts.