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‣ How to Engage with the Private Sector in Public-Private Partnerships in Emerging Markets

Farquharson, Edward; Torres de Mastle, Clemencia; Yescombe, E.R.; Encinas, Javier
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
68.03115%
What transforms a desirable project on a government wish list to an attractive investment opportunity in the eyes of a potential private sector partner? This guide seeks to enhance the chances of developing effective partnerships between the public and the private sectors by addressing one of the main obstacles to the effective delivery of public-private partnership (PPP) projects: having the right information on the right project for the right partners at the right time. Data from the World Bank and the Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) private participation in infrastructure (PPI) project database indicate that private sector investment in infrastructure in developing economies grew steadily over the past decade. By 2007 the levels had finally surpassed the peak levels seen in 1997, the end of the previous growth spurt. This guide focuses specifically on what should be done, and when, in order to prepare projects to attract the right long-term private partners, procure their involvement, and manage the partnership. This guide is not a detailed project preparation manual; rather...

‣ Higher Wages, Lower Pay : Public vs. Private Sector Compensation in Peru

Coppola, Andrea; Calvo-Gonzalez, Oscar
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.980923%
Do public sector employees earn less than their counterparts in the private sector? This paper addresses this question in the case of Peru, a country where civil service reform is being debated yet the only available empirical studies on wage differentials date back to the late 1980s. Using data from the 2009 national household survey, the authors perform a multiple step analysis. First, they estimate a single equation with a public sector dummy, which is found to be statistically significant and positive when only monetary wages are taken into account. However, when in-kind payments and bonuses are included to measure compensation, the analysis finds a private sector premium. Second, they estimate for public and formal private employees two distinct wage functions, including the inverse Mills ratio. This takes into account the selection bias resulting from workers self-selecting into the public or private sector. Third, these results are used to decompose wage differentials using the standard Oaxaca-Blinder approach. The results show that the compensation differentials are not significant except for the sub-sample of employees that achieved a postgraduate degree.

‣ The Impact of Private Sector Participation in Infrastructure : Lights, Shadows, and the Road Ahead

Andrés, Luis A.; Guasch, J. Luis; Haven, Thomas; Foster, Vivien
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Português
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68.02492%
As numerous countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and elsewhere are moving toward a second phase of private participation in infrastructure programs mostly through public-private partnership schemes and other countries are just beginning the process, several concerns remain from the outcomes of the first phase. These concerns are making governments cautious in moving forward. The Impact of private sector participation in infrastructure addresses these concerns and brings clarity to the debate on the impact of private participation in infrastructure. The assessment of this impact may be one of the most emotional policy issues in economics, as it is clouded in a mist of myths, perceptions, and reality. This book analyzes the impact and sorts out the truth from the myths. The authors take a systematic and hard look at the facts (i.e., data) in Latin America, where starting in the late 1980s, many governments brought private sector participation into the delivery of essential utilities services. Although there are many assessments of this experience...

‣ International Workshop on Public-Private Dialogue : Proceedings Including the Charter of Good Practice in Using Public-Private Dialogue for Private Sector Development

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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67.898394%
There has been growing interest from stakeholders around the world in recent years in how to build momentum for private sector development in states with poor investment climates. Dialogue between the public and private sectors, in various forms, has often been integral to attempts to build such momentum. It became increasingly clear that there was a demand from the field for guidance based on international best practice. In 2004-2005, responding to this demand, the World Bank, Department for International Development (DFID) and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) development centre independently conducted or commissioned reports drawing together lessons learned from field experiences in using public-private dialogue to promote private sector development reform efforts. While numerous case studies had existed, this was the first time comprehensive efforts had been made to synthesize lessons. The papers were: competitiveness partnerships, reforming the business enabling environment, and dialogue public-prive dans les pays en developpement. The development of the three papers in a short period indicated a growing recognition among the international donor community of the importance and potential of public-private dialogue as a tool for promoting private sector development with the ultimate aim of poverty reduction.

‣ The Handshake : Why Do Governments and Firms Sign Private Sector Participation Deals? Evidence from the Water and Sanitation Sector in Developing Countries

Jensen, Olivia; Blanc-Brude, Frédéric
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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67.962363%
This paper uses a new dataset, "WATSAN," of private sector participation (PSP) projects for water and sanitation in developing countries to examine the determinants of the number of projects signed for each country between 1990 and 2004. The new dataset improves on existing sources, in particular in its coverage of projects with local investors, and provides adequate data for cross-country regression analysis. The authors use a negative binomial regression model to investigate the factors influencing the number of PSP projects in a sample of 60 developing countries with 460 PSP projects. The regression results provide support for the hypotheses that PSP is greater in larger markets where the ability to pay is higher and where governments are fiscally constrained. The authors test several indicators of institutional quality and find that these are generally significant in determining the number of projects signed for each country. Measures of the protection of property rights and the quality of the bureaucracy emerge as the most important institutions that encourage PSP. Rule of law and the control of corruption are significant, albeit at a lower level, while the quality of contract law and political stability are not robustly significant.

‣ Working with the Private Sector for Child Health

Waters, Hugh; Hatt, Laurel; Axelsson, Henrik
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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67.90688%
This document assesses the current importance and potential of the private sector in contributing to child health. In many countries private and non-governmental providers are more commonly consulted for child health illnesses than public providers are. Even poor families often use private sector services. Families spend relatively large amounts of money for curative services in the private sector, even when there are cheaper public sector alternatives available. However, in many settings private providers are poorly regulated and the technical quality of the services they provide is questionable. This document focuses on the role of the private sector in the direct provision of child health services. The private sector clearly has a much broader potential role in many other areas related to and supporting the provision of child health services-including the provision of ancillary services, training of health professionals (both pre-service and in-service), communication services, and financing of health care. The potential of the private sector in each of these areas is touched on in this document...

‣ Private Sector Assessment for Health, Nutrition and Population in Bangladesh

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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67.975757%
The objectives of this Private Sector Assessment (PSA) are to gain a better understanding of the private health care markets in Bangladesh, and to identify areas for increased collaboration between the government, and the private sector. While the study analyzes private health care markets in general, it uses maternal and child health (MCH) as an area of special focus to illustrate general principles, and/or draw lessons for the broader health, nutrition, and population (HNP) sector. MCH was chosen for this emphasis in view of its importance in Bangladesh, and because MCH outcomes constitute a significant part of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The PSA analysis confirmed that the private sector dominates the provision of basic care, nursing homes, laboratory and ambulatory diagnostic services; the public sector, however, remains the main provider of inpatient care. The private sector is used for the overwhelming majority of outpatient curative care, while the public sector is used for a larger proportion of hospital deliveries...

‣ IFC Jobs Study : Assessing Private Sector Contributions to Job Creation and Poverty Reduction

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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68.00439%
This report is the result of an open-source study to assess the direct and indirect effects of private sector activity on job creation. The report examines how and under what conditions the private sector can best contribute to job creation and poverty reduction. The private sector, which provides some 90 percent of jobs in developing countries, must be at the core of any response to this double challenge. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the constraints that private companies face in creating jobs, and the public sector and development finance institutions must help build an environment where these obstacles are removed or minimized. This report aims to help by providing an understanding of how the private sector generates jobs, what constraints limit job creation, and how these problems can be mitigated. The world is thus facing a double jobs challenge: creating a large number of jobs and creating better jobs. The economic crisis has added 27 million new unemployed; leading to a total of 200 million unemployed worldwide in 2011. More than 600 million jobs must be created in the next decade to ensure that unemployment does not increase even further as millions of young people enter the workforce. Private sector job cre-ation is inextricably linked to overall development and poverty reduction...

‣ Private Sector Involvement in Road Financing

Brocklebank, Peter
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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67.961826%
Achieving private sector involvement in financing, provision and management of roads requires specialized legal and institutional frameworks, public sector expertise, advisor support and sustained political commitment. In many African States, there is little experience of private sector involvement in the road sector but there is encouragement to promote such involvement from development partners. Increased private sector involvement in public sector procurement has been for many years an important aspect of the infrastructure investment policy of development partners, such as the World Bank and the African Development Bank. Public Private Partnerships (PPPs) are one of a number of initiatives being pursued within Africa, in relation to road sector reforms. In particular, the road sector reforms under the Road Management Initiative (RMI), launched in 1988 by the SSATP and the World Bank, in collaboration with other development partners have sought to improve road service delivery by reforming public sector institutions and legislation through clearly defined responsibility...

‣ Private Sector Participation in Electricity Transmission and Distribution; Experiences from Brazil, Peru, the Philippines, and Turkey

ESMAP
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Working Paper; Publications & Research; Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper
Português
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67.90688%
In recent decades, many countries have embarked on structural reform programs involving private sector participation (PSP) across the entire value chain of the power sector. Often as part of a broader market oriented reform program, governments have resorted to PSP in transmission and distribution (T and D) for a variety of reasons, including to: (i) offset years of underinvestment and poor operating performance under public ownership; (ii) attract considerable private investment to fill the financing gap stemming from new T and D additions amid rapidly growing demand for electricity; and (iii) raise fiscal revenues by offloading state assets. In some cases (for example, Brazil and Peru), a prolonged electricity supply crisis prompted government into structural reforms of the T and D sector. The energy sector management assistance program (ESMAP) study covers PSP in transmission, as well as distribution. The four case-study countries, Brazil, Peru, Philippines, and Turkey were selected based on the substantial transmission story under their broader electricity PSP experience.

‣ Attracting Investors to African Public-Private Partnerships : A Project Preparation Guide; Promotion des partenariats public-prive africains aupres des investisseurs : guide de preparation de projets

Infrastructure Consortium for Africa; Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.91989%
What transforms a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) project from a desirable project on a government 'wish list' to an attractive investment opportunity in the eyes of a potential private sector partner? This guide seeks to enhance the chances of developing effective partnerships between the public and the private sectors by addressing one of the main obstacles to the effective delivery of PPP projects: having the right information on the right project for the right partners at the right time. This guide starts with a review of the meaning of the term PPP, which can be difficult to define (chapter two). This is followed by a look at the foundation blocks for engaging with the private sector (chapter three), an assessment of the issues relevant to project selection (chapter four), and a review of the actions involved in preparing projects for market, including how the process should be managed (chapter five). The particular issue of managing advisers is examined in chapter six, while chapter seven looks at how the public sector should interact with the private sector during the project selection and preparation phases...

‣ Republic of Tunisia - Private Sector Assessment Update : Meeting the Challenge of Globalization, Volume 1. Executive Summary and Proposed Reform Agenda

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.927188%
This private sector assessment (PSA) aims at evaluating conditions for private sector development in Tunisia, how they evolved since 1994, and what are the remaining constraints to private investment. It lays out an elaborate framework, placing private sector development in Tunisia, within the context of global economic integration, while facing increased competition from international competitors (particularly those accessing the European market). The analysis of characteristics, and performance of the private sector reveals that although traditionally, Tunisian exports to Europe have been strong, they are now challenged by competition from Asian, and Central/Eastern European countries, a factor exacerbated by the continued anti-export bias of the domestic economy, in light of other countries' rapid investment incentives, which enable private activity to access the opening European market. Thus, improved competitiveness in the country is a major issue. The report proposes reforms in incentives for private sector growth...

‣ Republic of Tunisia - Private Sector Assessment Update : Meeting the Challenge of Globalization, Volume 2. Main Report

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.961987%
This private sector assessment (PSA) aims at evaluating conditions for private sector development in Tunisia, how they evolved since 1994, and what are the remaining constraints to private investment. It lays out an elaborate framework, placing private sector development in Tunisia, within the context of global economic integration, while facing increased competition from international competitors (particularly those accessing the European market). The analysis of characteristics, and performance of the private sector reveals that although traditionally, Tunisian exports to Europe have been strong, they are now challenged by competition from Asian, and Central/Eastern European countries, a factor exacerbated by the continued anti-export bias of the domestic economy, in light of other countries' rapid investment incentives, which enable private activity to access the opening European market. Thus, improved competitiveness in the country is a major issue. The report proposes reforms in incentives for private sector growth...

‣ Private Solutions for Infrastructure in Angola : A Country Framework Report

Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.958423%
The Country Framework Report (CFR) for Angola is one of a series of country reviews aimed at improving the environment for private sector involvement in infrastructure. The report seeks to assist the Government of Angola in developing policies, and a framework to promote private participation in the rebuilding, and development of the country's infrastructure. Following the years of conflict, and the resulting damage to the country's infrastructure, as well as the negative impacts on economic growth and development, the country's investment needs are enormous. This study is particularly focused on how to maximize the private sector's role and contribution. The report's scope is on investment in infrastructure in the following sectors: electricity and gas; water and sanitation; transport; and, telecommunications. For each sector, a separate section in the report covers the current situation, opportunities for private sector participation in infrastructure (PPI), PPI barriers, and, measures and actions to promote more private involvement. A further section covers cross-sectoral issues. This CFR concludes with an action plan that identifies the steps that need to be taken to promote...

‣ Private Solutions for Infrastructure in Rwanda : A Country Framework Report

Private-Public Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.934097%
This report aims to provide an objective assessment of the condition of Rwanda's infrastructure sectors and of the institutional and policy frameworks that are associated with them. It also provides a clear route map for infrastructure sector reform, as well as highlighting both the opportunities that exist for the private sector and the role that the donor community can play in assisting the Government with establishing priorities in infrastructure.

‣ Private Solutions for Infrastructure in Lesotho : A Country Framework Report

Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.96722%
The report looks at Lesotho, a predominantly mountainous, land-locked, poor country with a small population, limited natural resources, and a very fragile ecology. It has low gross national income, and a significant poverty level. To ameliorate this condition, the government has embarked on a pro-poor, growth strategy that includes public, and private investment in infrastructure. It explores the level of private participation at this phase in the evolution of the reforms, which is considerable, given the country's small size, limited institutional capacity, and lack of public and private investment capital. Telecommunications has recorded the most significant reform of any of the infrastructure sectors. Other than telecommunications, reforms in other sectors have not advanced significantly. Not surprisingly, the report identifies specific lessons learned from the telecommunications sector, and examines their relevance to reform efforts under way in the other sectors. In summary, this report finds that private participation in infrastructure could offer Lesotho three key advantages: 1) augmenting budget resources in cases where the private sector undertakes to finance projects...

‣ Healthy Partnerships : How Governments Can Engage the Private Sector to Improve Health in Africa

International Finance Corporation
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.96722%
Health systems across Africa are in urgent need of improvement. The public sector should not be expected to shoulder the burden of directly providing the needed services alone, nor can it, given the current realities of African health systems. Therefore to achieve necessary improvements, governments will need to rely more heavily on the private health sector. Indeed, private providers already play a significant role in the health sector in Africa and are expected to continue to play a key role, and private providers serve all income levels across sub- Saharan Africa's health systems. The World Health Organization (WHO) and others have identified improvements in the way governments interact with and make use of their private health sectors as one of the key ingredients to health systems improvements. Across the African region, many ministries of health are actively seeking to increase the contributions of the private health sector. However, relatively little is known about the details of engagement; that is...

‣ Public-Private Sector Wage Differentials and Returns to Education in Djibouti

Anós Casero, Paloma; Seshan, Ganesh
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.96538%
Do public sector workers earn a wage premium in Djibouti and are the returns to education different across the sectors? The authors estimate private and public sector wage earnings using 1996 household survey data, while controlling for selectivity using Heckman's two stage approach. They find that Djiboutian public sector employees earn a wage premium, independent of their personal attributes and human capital endowments, and are more likely to be males and have parents in the public sector. Workers in the public sector earn higher private rates of return to education than do private sector workers with post-secondary schooling. These results raise concerns about current government hiring and wage-setting practices that generate distortions in the labor market and are not efficiently allocating labor and public resources.

‣ Private Sector Participation in Child Health : A Review of World Bank Projects, 1993-2002

Axelsson, Henrik; Bustreo, Flavia; Harding, April
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Working Paper; Publications & Research
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
67.989536%
There is an increasing amount of evidence to support the view that the private sector significantly influences child health and nutrition outcomes through both service provision and supply of health related goods. In this context, this paper analyzes World Bank projects in Health, Nutrition and Population between fiscal years 1993-2002. The paper identifies the range of approaches taken to involve the private sector in improving child health outcomes; the actors involved; the type of activities supported by the projects; and examples of successful private sector participation. The paper's concludes: As measured by the proportion of projects (more than 50 perccent) that involved the private sector in child health, private sector participation was significant. As measured by the magnitude of involvement (budget amounts and stated project objectives), the degree of private sector participation was relatively small for most projects. Since most projects did not mention a systematic assessment of potential and opportunities to engage the private sector...

‣ The Private Sector and Youth Skills and Employment Programs in Low and Middle-Income Countries

Glick, Peter J.; Huang, Crystal; Mejia, Nelly
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Report; Economic & Sector Work :: Other Social Protection Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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Getting youth into productive employment is an urgent policy issue for countries around the world. Many governments in low and middle-income countries are actively engaged in policies to help youth attain the skills they need to do well in work and in life, as well as to find suitable employment. The involvement of the private sector in youth skills development and employment is a complex issue because the nature of the firms and their motivations vary significantly. Multinational corporations operating in low and middle-income countries may be motivated by direct productivity or profit objectives - to secure a skilled workforce, or reliable suppliers - but also, or even primarily, by corporate social responsibility (CSR) factors. Firms that supply training or employment services will be driven by profit considerations when entering these markets and deciding what services to offer and to whom. The purpose of this paper is threefold: (1) to provide a comprehensive look at the way the private sector is involved in youth skills and employment in low- and middle-income countries...