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‣ Patterns of Parental Rearing Styles and Child Behaviour Problems among Portuguese School-Aged Children

Pereira, Ana I. F.; Canavarro, Cristina; Cardoso, Margarida F.; Mendonça, Denisa
Fonte: Springer Netherlands Publicador: Springer Netherlands
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The majority of studies investigating the effects of parental behaviour on the child’s adjustment have a dimensional approach. We identified the existence of various patterns in parental rearing styles and analysed the relationship between different parenting patterns and behavioural problems in a group of school-aged children. A longitudinal, multi-informant study was conducted. The sample consisted of 519 school-aged children from the Portuguese general population. Parental rearing styles were measured using the EMBU-C, a questionnaire that evaluates children’s perception of parental rearing dimensions. The assessment of child behavioural problems included the evaluation of internalizing and externalizing problems, and data from multiple reporters (parents and teacher). One year later, after a school transition, the adjustment of a sub-sample of 220 children was evaluated again. Cluster analysis identified four types of parental rearing styles: low support, supportive-controller, rejecting-controller, and supportive. In both assessment periods, low support and rejecting-controller parenting patterns showed higher levels of behavioural problems than the supportive and supportive-controller parenting patterns. These patterns show significant differences between them regarding behavioural problems and have a higher predictive value regarding externalizing problems (versus internalizing problems).

‣ The impact of perinatal and socioeconomic factors on mental health problems of children from a poor Brazilian city: a longitudinal study

RODRIGUEZ, Juliana D. M.; SILVA, Antonio A. M. da; BETTIOL, Heloisa; BARBIERI, Marco A.; RONA, Roberto J.
Fonte: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG Publicador: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Low birth weight and preterm birth, and social disadvantage may negatively affect mental health of children, but findings have been inconsistent. To assess the influence of perinatal and social factors on mental health problems in children aged 7-9 years. A random sample of 805 births in So Luis, Brazil was studied in 1997/1998 and again in 2005/2006. Perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables were assessed within 24 h after delivery. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess mental health problems in the children. Simple and multiple Poisson regressions were used for statistical analysis. The overall prevalence of mental health problems in the total sample was 47.7%. The prevalences of emotional and conduct problems were 58.2 and 48.8%, respectively. Only paternal age (< 20 years) was associated with mental health problems as measured by the full SDQ scale (prevalence ratio PR = 1.27). Children born to single mothers (PR = 1.31) and those with birth weight from 1,500 to 2,499 g (PR = 1.18) and from 2,500 to 2,999 g (PR = 1.17) had a higher risk of emotional problems, but those from low income families had a lower risk (PR = 0.80). Children with a father of less than 20 years had a higher risk of having problems with their peers (PR = 1.75). A maternal education of 9 years or over was inversely associated with peer (PR = 0.70) and conduct problems (PR = 0.73). Girls had a lower risk of conduct (PR = 0.77) and hyperactivity problems (PR = 0.68). A maternal education of 4 years or less increased the risk of hyperactivity (PR = 1.48). Socioeconomic and demographic conditions were better predictors of mental health problems in children than birth weight or preterm birth. However...

‣ Are mental health problems and depression associated with bruxism in children?

Renner, Andrea Coimbra; Silva, Antonio Augusto Moura da; Rodriguez, Juliana Dalla Martha; Simoes, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Barbieri, Marco Antonio; Bettiol, Heloisa; Thomaz, Erika Barbara Abreu Fonseca; Saraiva, Maria da Conceicao Pereira
Fonte: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN Publicador: WILEY-BLACKWELL; MALDEN
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Renner AC, da Silva AAM, Rodriguez JDM, Simoes VMF, Barbieri MA, Bettiol H, Thomaz EBAF, Saraiva MC. Are mental health problems and depression associated with bruxism in children? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2011. (C) 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract Objectives: Previous studies have found an association between bruxism and emotional and behavioral problems in children, but reported data are inconsistent. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of bruxism, and of its components clenching and grinding, and its associations with mental problems and depression. Methods: Data from two Brazilian birth cohorts were analyzed: one from 869 children in Ribeirao Preto RP (Sao Paulo), a more developed city, and the other from 805 children in Sao Luis SL (Maranhao). Current bruxism evaluated by means of a questionnaire applied to the parents/persons responsible for the children was defined when the habit of tooth clenching during daytime and/or tooth grinding at night still persisted until the time of the assessment. Additionally, the lifetime prevalence of clenching during daytime only and grinding at night only was also evaluated. Mental health problems were investigated using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and depression using the Childrens Depression Inventory (CDI). Analyses were carried out for each city: with the SDQ subscales (emotional symptoms...

‣ Inclusão educacional e escolar da criança cega congênita com problemas na constituição subjetiva e no desenvolvimento global: uma leitura psicanalítica em estudo de caso; Educational and school inclusion of the blind chills with problems on the subjective constitution and on the development: a psychoanalytic lecture of a study case

Ormelezi, Eliana Maria
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/09/2006 Português
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Esta Tese tem como objeto de estudo a criança cega congênita com problemas na constituição da subjetividade e do desenvolvimento e sua inclusão educacional e escolar. É composta por um estudo de caso de um menino cego, no período em que ele se encontrava com cinco e seis anos de idade, com o objetivo de conhecer as especificidades dessa criança no modo como se instauraram os graves problemas de desenvolvimento, identificando singularidades e condições nas quais ela manifesta possibilidades de tornar-se sujeito e desenvolver-se, viabilizando também a inferência em relação a outras crianças cegas que mostram problemas semelhantes, sem compará-las à criança vidente. Além desse estudo apresentamos o levantamento de dados de outros dois casos para corroborar a análise e reflexões do primeiro. Estudar essa problemática, com o foco no âmbito educacional, poderá colaborar com os educadores na criação de condições necessárias à efetiva participação dessas crianças no contexto escolar. As referências teóricas que apóiam este trabalho estão pautadas em conceitos fundamentais da Psicanálise que abrem perspectivas para pensar essa criança, tais como as noções de corpo para além do dado orgânico na implicação da constituição de sujeito e a noção de olhar constituinte do sujeito...

‣ Bullying, problemas de comportamento e adversidade familiar em adolescentes de escolas públicas paulistas; Bullying, behavior problems and family adversity in youth from public school

Alkmin-Carvalho, Felipe
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/05/2014 Português
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Sofrer bullying na infância e na adolescência se configura como fator de risco para a instalação e manutenção de problemas de comportamento e de transtornos psiquiátricos. A adversidade familiar, por sua vez, contribui para o envolvimento em situações de bullying. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram: (1) avaliar e comparar os escores de problemas de comportamento em dois grupos (vítimas e não vítimas de bullying), obtidos por meio do autorrelato e do relato dos professores e (2) verificar correlações entre os escores de adversidade familiar e de problemas de comportamento nos dois grupos. Participaram 154 adolescentes, dos quais 31 (20,1%) foram identificados como vítimas de bullying, por meio da Escala de Violência Escolar (EVE) e da versão traduzida do Peer Assessment. Para avaliar os problemas de comportamento foram utilizadas as versões brasileiras do Youth Self Report/11-18 (YSR) e do Teacher Report Form (TRF). O índice de adversidade familiar (IAF) avaliou o nível de adversidade familiar entre as famílias. Mais adolescentes vítimas de bullying foram avaliados com problemas de comportamento internalizantes, externalizantes e totais em nível clínico, quando comparados ao grupo de não vítimas. As maiores diferenças entre grupos foram verificadas na subescala de Depressão e Ansiedade...

‣ Implicações do uso de Material Didático Virtual Livre em contexto formal de ensino-aprendizagem de italiano como LE/L2: a perspectiva dos problemas de ensino; Implications of the use of Free Virtual Educational Materials in the context of formal teaching and learning Italian FL/SL: the perspective of the Problems of Teaching

Souza, Rômulo Francisco de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/08/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Nossa pesquisa teve como objetivo explorar as implicações relativas à utilização de material didático de natureza virtual livre em contexto formal de ensino-aprendizagem de italiano LE/L2. As implicações foram tratadas em forma de Problemas de Ensino e o termo utilização foi desdobrado em dois aspectos: utilização em sala de aula presencial e produção. Orientou-nos a hipótese de que o uso de materiais didáticos de natureza virtual livre, em contexto formal de ensino-aprendizagem de língua italiana como LE/L2, deflagra uma série de implicações observáveis e específicas as quais podem ser definidas em termos de Problemas de Ensino (ORTALE, 2010) , dada a sua natureza peculiar, ou seja, livre. A fim de alcançar nossos objetivos, lançamos mão de uma metodologia qualitativa de viés construtivista e interpretativista. Os Problemas de Ensino foram identificados por meio da análise de Relatos de Problemas de Ensino (ORTALE, 2010). Balizaram nossas análises a metodologia de formação de professores, alicerçada na ideia de Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas (ABP), explicitada em Ortale (2010), e as técnicas e procedimentos de desenvolvimento de teoria fundamentada, conforme Strauss e Corbin (2008). Os Problemas de Ensino relativos à utilização foram investigados em duas disciplinas de língua italiana ofertadas em nível de graduação junto à Faculdade de Letras de uma universidade pública do estado de São Paulo. Os Problemas de Ensino relativos à produção foram pesquisados nos contextos de duas edições de um curso de formação de professores de língua italiana em serviço e em pré-serviço que ministramos no âmbito de duas universidades públicas brasileiras - uma no estado de Santa Catarina e outra no estado de São Paulo. Encontramos um total de 11 (onze) Problemas de Ensino - 7 (sete) relacionados ao aspecto da produção de Material Didático Virtual Livre e 4 (quatro) relacionados ao aspecto da utilização. Notamos...

‣ Young children solving additive structure problems

Mamede, Ema; Soutinho, Florbela
Fonte: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego Publicador: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Rzeszowskiego
Tipo: Parte de Livro
Publicado em //2012 Português
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This paper describes a study to analyse how 4-6-year-olds (N=45) children solve different types of additive reasoning problems. Individual interviews were conducted on kindergarten children when solving the problems. Their performance as well as their explanations were analysed when solving additive reasoning problems. The additive reasoning problems comprised simple, inverse and comparative problems. Results suggested that Portuguese kindergarten children have some informal knowledge that allowed them to solve additive structure problems with understanding. Children performed better in the simple additive problems and found the comparative problems more difficult.; CIEC – Research Centre on Child studies, UM (FCT R&D 317)

‣ Polyhedral study of mixed integer sets arising from inventory problems; Estudo poliédrico de modelos de programação inteira mista que ocorrem em problemas de lot-sizing

Doostmohammadi, Mahdi
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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“Branch-and-cut” algorithm is one of the most efficient exact approaches to solve mixed integer programs. This algorithm combines the advantages of a pure branch-and-bound approach and cutting planes scheme. Branch-and-cut algorithm computes the linear programming relaxation of the problem at each node of the search tree which is improved by the use of cuts, i.e. by the inclusion of valid inequalities. It should be taken into account that selection of strongest cuts is crucial for their effective use in branch-and-cut algorithm. In this thesis, we focus on the derivation and use of cutting planes to solve general mixed integer problems, and in particular inventory problems combined with other problems such as distribution, supplier selection, vehicle routing, etc. In order to achieve this goal, we first consider substructures (relaxations) of such problems which are obtained by the coherent loss of information. The polyhedral structure of those simpler mixed integer sets is studied to derive strong valid inequalities. Finally those strong inequalities are included in the cutting plane algorithms to solve the general mixed integer problems. We study three mixed integer sets in this dissertation. The first two mixed integer sets arise as a subproblem of the lot-sizing with supplier selection...

‣ Optimised search heuristics: combining metaheuristics and exact methods to solve scheduling problems

Fernandes, Susana
Fonte: Universidade do Algarve Publicador: Universidade do Algarve
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2009 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Tese dout., Matemática, Investigação Operacional, Universidade do Algarve, 2009; Scheduling problems have many real life applications, from automotive industry to air traffic control. These problems are defined by the need of processing a set of jobs on a shared set of resources. For most scheduling problems there is no known deterministic procedure that can solve them in polynomial time. This is the reason why researchers study methods that can provide a good solution in a reasonable amount of time. Much attention was given to the mathematical formulation of scheduling problems and the algebraic characterisation of the space of feasible solutions when exact algorithms were being developed; but exact methods proved inefficient to solve real sized instances. Local search based heuristics were developed that managed to quickly find good solutions, starting from feasible solutions produced by constructive heuristics. Local search algorithms have the disadvantage of stopping at the first local optimum they find when searching the feasible region. Research evolved to the design of metaheuristics, procedures that guide the search beyond the entrapment of local optima. Recently a new class of hybrid procedures, that combine local search based (meta) heuristics and exact algorithms of the operations research field...

‣ Behavioral Sleep Problems and their Potential Impact on Developing Executive Function in Children

Turnbull, Kathryn; Reid, Graham J.; Morton, J. Bruce
Fonte: Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC Publicador: Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/07/2013 Português
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Bedtime resistance and night waking are common sleep problems throughout childhood, especially in the early years. These sleep problems may lead to difficulties in neurobehavioral functioning, but most research into childhood sleep problems has not emphasized the importance of the developmental context in which disruptions in neurobehavioral and daytime functioning occur. We review the development of sleep as well as executive functioning (EF) in childhood and suggest that EF may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of these common childhood sleep problems because of its prolonged course of maturation. Behavioral problems associated with common sleep problems suggest poor self-regulation in the context of sleep loss, and developing EF skills play important roles in self-regulation. A research agenda that considers a developmental approach to sleep and sleep problems in the context of childhood EF performance is outlined to promote future research in this area.

‣ Weighted NP Optimization Problems: Logical Definability and Approximation Properties

Zimand, Marius
Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department. Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Tipo: Relatório
Português
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An optimization problem A is defined by: (1) a set {cal I}_A of input instances; we assume that this set can be recognized in polynomial time, (2) for each I in {cal I}_A, a set {cal F}_A(I) of feasible solutions associated to each input instance; we assume that each element in {cal F}_A(I) has size polynomially bounded in the size of I, and (3) an objective function f_A which maps each feasible solution to a real number; we assume that this function is computable in polynomial time. Problem A is an NP optimization problem if the associated decision problem (e.g., given I in {cal I}_A and a real value k, does there exists J in {cal F}_A(I) with f_A(J) geq k?) is in NP. Extending a well known property of NP optimization problems in which the value of the optimum is guaranteed to be polynomially bounded in the length of the input, we observe that all NP optimization problems admit a logical characterization. NP optimization problems in which the optimum is not polynomially bounded in the length of the input are called weighted NP optimization problems since they usually arise when the input includes numerical weights like costs, distances, penalties or bonuses, etc. The logical representation of such a problem also uses weights attached to tuples over the domain of the finite structure that encodes the input. We show that any NP optimization problem can be stated as a problem in which the constraint conditions can be expressed by a Pi_2 first-order formula and this is the best possible result. We further analyze the weighted analogue of all syntactically defined classes of optimization problems that are known to have good approximation properties in the case of NP optimization problems with polynomially bounded optimum value: MAX~NP...

‣ Associa????o bidirecional entre sibil??ncia e problemas de sa??de mental na adolesc??ncia: coorte de nascidos vivos de Pelotas, 1993; Bidirectional association between sheezing and mental health problems in adolescence: Pelotas birth cohort, 1993

COFR??, Natalia Graciela G??mez
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Medicina; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Epidemiologia; UFPel; BR Publicador: Universidade Federal de Pelotas; Medicina; Programa de P??s-Gradua????o em Epidemiologia; UFPel; BR
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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36.127905%
Introduction: several studies have shown an association between wheezing and mental health problems in children and adolescents. This association can occur in both directions. Objective: to assess longitudinally the bidirectional association between wheezing and mental health problems in adolescents at 11 and 15 years of age. Methods: individuals belonging to the 1993 birth cohort, in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, were followed at 11 and 15 years old. Wheezing was assessed as presence of wheezing in the last 12 months , based on the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Mental health problems were assessed with the questionnaire Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), with application version for parents. For the analysis, the total of subjects was divided in two samples from which teenagers with the outcomes (wheezing/mental health problems) at 11 years old were excluded. Results: in the crude analysis for mental health problems at age 11 as predictor of wheezing at age 15, there was a statistical significant association for both sexes: males [RI = 1.64 (95% CI 1.16, 2.31), p = 0.005], and females [RI = 1.68 (95% CI 1.28, 2.19), p <0.001]; after adjustment for confounders, the association was maintained only for females [RI = 1.66 (95% CI 1...

‣ Negative affect mediates the relationship between the Cortisol Awakening Response and Conduct Problems in boys

Walsh, Anthony
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Ce mémoire débute avec deux chapitres portant sur les problèmes des conduites et la régulation du stress, notamment sur l’axe hypothalamique-pituitaire-surrénal (HPS). Ensuite, la littérature est résumée et nous voyons que les études qui cherchent à établir un lien entre les problèmes des conduites et l’axe HPS ont trouvé des résultats différents et parfois contradictoires. Le chapitre suivant illustre les problèmes méthodologiques qui pourraient expliquer ces résultats différents. Vient ensuite l’étude présentée dans ce mémoire qui cherche à établir un lien entre la réponse cortisolaire à l’éveil (RCE), considérée comme un bon indice du fonctionnent de l’axe HPS, et les problèmes de conduites chez l’enfant. De plus, les émotions négatives ont été associées avec les problèmes des conduites ainsi qu’aux dysfonctions de l’axe HPS, notamment le RCE. L’étude présentée dans ce mémoire cherche aussi à établir si les émotions négatives pourrait être une variable médiatrice dans la relation potentielle entre la RCE et les problèmes des conduites. L’étude révèle que pour les garçons mais pas pour les filles, une RCE réduite est associée avec les émotions négatives, ce qui est successivement associé avec les problèmes des conduites. Le dernier chapitre du mémoire examine les implications théoriques de cette médiatisation et propose également des pistes psychobiologiques pour expliquer les différences sexuelles observées.; This thesis begins with two chapters which discuss conduct problems and stress regulation...

‣ A Study of Ordered Gene Problems Featuring DNA Error Correction and DNA Fragment Assembly with a Variety of Heuristics, Genetic Algorithm Variations, and Dynamic Representations

Hughes, James
Fonte: Brock University Publicador: Brock University
Tipo: Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.170269%
Ordered gene problems are a very common classification of optimization problems. Because of their popularity countless algorithms have been developed in an attempt to find high quality solutions to the problems. It is also common to see many different types of problems reduced to ordered gene style problems as there are many popular heuristics and metaheuristics for them due to their popularity. Multiple ordered gene problems are studied, namely, the travelling salesman problem, bin packing problem, and graph colouring problem. In addition, two bioinformatics problems not traditionally seen as ordered gene problems are studied: DNA error correction and DNA fragment assembly. These problems are studied with multiple variations and combinations of heuristics and metaheuristics with two distinct types or representations. The majority of the algorithms are built around the Recentering- Restarting Genetic Algorithm. The algorithm variations were successful on all problems studied, and particularly for the two bioinformatics problems. For DNA Error Correction multiple cases were found with 100% of the codes being corrected. The algorithm variations were also able to beat all other state-of-the-art DNA Fragment Assemblers on 13 out of 16 benchmark problem instances.

‣ Mental health problems among young people on remand: has anything changed since 1989?

Sawyer, M.; Guidolin, M.; Schulz, K.; McGinnes, B.; Baghurst, P.; Zubrick, S.
Fonte: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc Publicador: Public Health Assoc Australia Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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Objectives: To determine whether the prevalence of mental health problems among adolescents on court ordered remand in South Australia has changed since 1989. To compare the prevalence of mental health problems reported among adolescents on remand in 1989 and 2008/09 with the prevalence among adolescents in the general community. Method: Mental health problems were identified using the Youth Self-Report (YSR), which was completed by 11-17 year olds on remand in South Australia in 1989 (n=100) and in 2008/09 (n=197), and 13-17 year olds (n=1,283) in the national survey of mental health problems among Australian adolescents conducted in 1998. Results: Although adolescents on remand reported somewhat fewer mental health problems in 2008/09 than were reported in 1989, the prevalence of problems in both groups of adolescents on remand was significantly higher than that reported for adolescents in the general community. Conclusion: Adolescents on remand have a much higher prevalence of mental health problems than other adolescents in the community, with little change evident over the past 20 years. Implications: To reduce the high levels of mental health problems experienced by adolescents on remand, interventions need to provide effective management and treatment both during the time adolescents are on remand and after they return to the general community.; Michael G. Sawyer...

‣ The travelling thief problem: the first step in the transition from theoretical problems to realistic problems

Bonyadi, M.; Michalewicz, Z.; Barone, L.
Fonte: IEEE; United States Publicador: IEEE; United States
Tipo: Conference paper
Publicado em //2013 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
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There are some questions concerning the applicability of meta-heuristic methods for real-world problems; further, some researchers claim there is a growing gap between research and practice in this area. The reason is that the complexity of real-world problems is growing very fast (e.g. due to globalisation), while researchers experiment with benchmark problems that are fundamentally the same as those of 50 years ago. Thus there is a need for a new class of benchmark problems that reflect the characteristics of real-world problems. In this paper, two main characteristics of real-world problems are introduced: combination and interdependence. We argue that real-world problems usually consist of two or more sub-problems that are interdependent (to each other). This interdependence is responsible for the complexity of the real-world problems, while the type of complexity in current benchmark problems is missing. A new problem, called the travelling thief problem, is introduced; it is a combination of two well-known problems, the knapsack problem and the travelling salesman problem. Some parameters which are responsible for the interdependence of these two sub-problems are defined. Two sets of parameters are introduced that result in generating two instances of the travelling thief problem. The complexities that are raised by interdependences for these two instances are discussed in detail. Finally...

‣ Häufigkeit von Schnarchen und anderen Schlafstörungen bei Grundschulkindern und deren Zusammenhänge mit den Schulleistungen; Frequency of habitual snoring and other sleep problems and associations with school performance in primary school children

Eggebrecht, Esther F.
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.162085%
EINLEITUNG: Schlafbezogene Atmungsstörungen und andere Schlafstörungen sind assoziiert mit vermehrter Unaufmerksamkeit (1) und schlechten Schulleistungen (2) (3). Bisher fehlen in Deutschland Daten zur Häufigkeit dieser Schlafstörungen im Grundschulalter und über ihren Einfluss auf die schulische Leistungsfähigkeit. METHODEN: Als Teil einer populationsbasierten Studie zur Prävalenzbestimmung des Obstruktiven Schlaf-Apnoe-Syndroms (OSAS) wurden an 27 Grundschulen in Hannover alle Drittklässler angesprochen. Ihre Eltern füllten einen Fragebogen aus, der u.a. nach Symptomen schlafbezogener Atmungsstörungen (Schnarchen, angestrengte Atmung im Schlaf, Atempausen) und weiteren häufigen Schlafstörungen (Ein- und Durchschlafstörungen, Bettnässen, Schlafwandeln, Alpträume) fragte. Die Kinder beantworteten fünf altersentsprechend umformulierte Fragen zu den häufigen Schlafstörungen. Die Schulsekretariate stellten ein aktuelles Schulzeugnis zur Verfügung. Anhand binär logistischer Regression wurden Chancenverhältnisse (odds ratio, OR) berechnet, beim Auftreten von häufigen Schlaf- und Atmungsstörungen in ausgewählten Schulfächern (Mathematik, Deutsch, Rechtschreibung, Schrift+Form, Sachunterricht) schlechte Schulleistungen (Note 4-6) zu erbringen. ERGEBNISSE: Von 1760 angesprochenen Kindern nahmen 1144 (65%) an der Studie teil. 114 Kinder (10%) schnarchten häufig oder immer. Laut Angaben der Eltern traten Einschlafstörungen...

‣ Wirksamkeit teilstationärer psychiatrisch-psychotherapeutischer Behandlung und ihre Beziehung zum Ausmaß und zur Reduktion der Belastung mit interpersonellen Problemen; Effectiveness psychiatric-psychotherapeutic dayhospital treatment and the relation with the level and the reduction of interpersonal problems

Assmann, Jörg
Fonte: Universidade de Tubinga Publicador: Universidade de Tubinga
Tipo: Dissertação
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
36.1984%
In der vorliegenden Studie wird eine Beziehung zwischen interpersonellen Problemen und psychopathologischen Beschwerden über die Überprüfung von Hypothesen zur Wirksamkeit und Prognose teilstationärer psychiatrisch-psychotherapeutischer Behandlung beschrieben. Ziel ist eine empirische Annäherung an das spezifische psychotherapeutische Setting teilstationärer Behandlung, dem eine besondere Kompetenz in der Förderung sozialer Fähigkeiten zugeschrieben wird. Es werden die Fragen geprüft, dass sich bei Patienten einer psychiatrisch-psychotherapeutischen Tagesklinik die Reduktion interpersoneller Probleme in der Wirksamkeit teilstationärere Behandlung niederschlägt und dass Patienten mit hoher Belastung mit interpersonellen Problemen gut von teilstationärer Behandlung profitieren. In die naturalistische Studie werden 135 Patienten einbezogen, darunter 54 mit der Diagnose Persönlichkeitsstörung, 37 mit schizophrenen Erkrankungen, 27 mit depressiven Störungen und 17 Angst- und Anpassungsstörungen. Die Behandlungen finden in einer psychiatrisch-psychotherapeutischen Tagesklinik mit 30 Therapieplätzen statt und weisen eine durchschnittliche Behandlungsdauer von 70,7 Tagen auf. Es werden die Instrumente Symptom Checkliste (SCL-90-R)...

‣ Four-year prospective study of BMI and mental health problems in young children

Sawyer, M.; Harchak, T.; Wake, M.; Lynch, J.
Fonte: Amer Acad Pediatrics Publicador: Amer Acad Pediatrics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate prospectively the relationship between BMI and the mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of young children. METHODS: In this study we used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children obtained when children were 4 to 5 and 8 to 9 years old. BMI was available for 3363 children at both waves. Mental health problems were assessed by using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), which was completed by parents and teachers. HRQoL was assessed by using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), which was completed by the parents. RESULTS: Logistic regression models were adjusted for children's age, gender, baseline SDQ or PedsQL scores, and maternal characteristics. A 1-SD increase in BMI in children aged 4 to 5 years was associated with increased odds of scoring in the abnormal range of the SDQ peer problems scale of 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03–1.28) for parent reports and 1.20 (95% CI: 1.04–1.37) for teacher reports when these children were aged 8 to 9 years. The odds ratio for children who scored above the at-risk cutoff on the parent-reported PedsQL social problems scale was 1.17 (95% CI: 1.06–1.28) for each 1-SD increase at 4 to 5 years of age. There were also increased odds for teacher reports of childhood emotional problems. CONCLUSIONS: Higher BMI in children aged 4 to 5 years was positively related to poorer peer relationships and teacher-reported emotional problems but not to other childhood mental health problems...

‣ Use of services and associated costs for young adults with childhood hyperactivity/conduct problems: 20-year follow-up

D'Amico, F.; Knapp, M.; Beecham, J.; Sandberg, S.; Taylor, E.; Sayal, K.
Fonte: Royal College of Psychiatrists Publicador: Royal College of Psychiatrists
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2014 Português
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Background: Although childhood hyperactivity and conduct problems are associated with difficulties in adulthood, little is known about later service use or public expenditure costs in the UK. Aims: To describe the use of services and calculate recent (past 6 months) and early adulthood (since the age of 18 years) public expenditure costs incurred by young adults who had hyperactivity and/or conduct problems during childhood. Method: A 20-year follow-up of a community sample of 6- to 7-yearold boys (n = 83) with hyperactivity only, conduct problems only, mixed hyperactivity and conduct problems, and no behaviour problems (control). Information was obtained about service use; recent (past 6 months), and early adulthood (since age 18 years) public expenditure costs were calculated. Results: High levels of childhood conduct problems were associated with a two- to threefold increase in early adulthood costs, mainly driven by criminal justice contacts. Although the mixed problems group had the highest recent costs in terms of receipt of benefits and health and social care, they had the lowest criminal justice costs. Conclusions: High levels of early childhood conduct problems are particularly associated with increased health, social care and criminal justice costs in adulthood.