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‣ Algoritmos evolutivos e modelos simplificados de proteínas para predição de estruturas terciárias; Evolutionary algorithms and simplified models for tertiary protein structure prediction

Gabriel, Paulo Henrique Ribeiro
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 23/03/2010 Português
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A predição de estruturas de proteínas (Protein Structure Prediction PSP) é um problema computacionalmente complexo. Para tratar esse problema, modelos simplificados de proteínas, como o Modelo HP, têm sido empregados para representar as conformações e Algoritmos Evolutivos (AEs) são utilizados na busca por soluções adequadas para PSP. Entretanto, abordagens utilizando AEs muitas vezes não tratam adequadamente as soluções geradas, prejudicando o desempenho da busca. Neste trabalho, é apresentada uma formulação multiobjetivo para PSP em Modelo HP, de modo a avaliar de forma mais robusta as conformações produzidas combinando uma avaliação baseada no número de contatos hidrofóbicos com a distância entre os monômeros. Foi adotado o Algoritmo Evolutivo Multiobjetivo em Tabelas (AEMT) a fim de otimizar essas métricas. O algoritmo pode adequadamente explorar o espaço de busca com pequeno número de indivíduos. Como consequência, o total de avaliações da função objetivo é significativamente reduzido, gerando um método para PSP utilizando Modelo HP mais rápido e robusto; Protein Structure Prediction (PSP) is a computationally complex problem. To overcome this drawback, simplified models of protein structures...

‣ Uso de estratégias baseadas em conhecimento para algoritmos genéticos aplicados à predição de estruturas tridimensionais de proteínas; Knowledge-based Approach to Genetic Algorithms for the Protein Structure Prediction Problem

Oliveira, Lariza Laura de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/05/2011 Português
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Proteínas desempenham uma grande variedade de funções biológicas. O conhecimento da estrutura tridimensional proteica pode ajudar no entendimento da função desempenhada. De acordo com a hipótese de Anfisen, a estrutura terciária nativa de uma proteína pode ser determinada a partir da informação contida na sequência primária, o que permitiria que métodos computacionais poderiam ser usados para predizer estruturas terciárias quando a primária estiver disponível. No entanto, ainda não existe uma ferramenta computacional capaz de predizer a estrutura tridimensional para uma grande variedade de proteínas. Desse modo, o problema de Predição de Estruturas de Proteínas (PEP) permanece como um desafio para a Biologia Molecular. A conformação nativa de uma proteína é frequentemente a configuração termodinamicamente mais estável, ou seja, que possui menor energia livre. Assim, PEP pode ser vista como um problema de otimização, onde a estrutura com menor energia livre deve ser encontrada dentre todas as possíveis. Entretanto, este é um problema NP-completo, no qual métodos tradicionais de otimização, em geral, não apresentam um bom desempenho. Algoritmos Genéticos (AGs), devido às suas características, são interessantes para essa classe de problemas. O principal objetivo desse trabalho é verificar se a adição de informação pode ser útil aos AGs aplicados em PEP...

‣ Função de avaliação dinâmica em algoritmos genéticos aplicados na predição de estruturas tridimensionais de proteínas; Genetic Algorithms with Dynamic Fitness Functions Applied to Tridimensional Protein Structure Prediction

Ishivatari, Luís Henrique Uchida
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/09/2012 Português
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O problema de predição de estruturas tridimensionais de proteínas pode ser visto computacionalmente como um problema de otimização, tal que dada a sequência de aminoácidos, deve-se encontrar a estrutura tridimensional da proteína dentre as muitas possíveis através da obtenção de mínimos de funções de energia. Vários pesquisadores têm proposto estratégias de Computação Evolutiva para a determinação de estruturas tridimensionais das proteínas, entretanto nem sempre resultados animadores têm sido alcançados visto que entre outros fatores, há um grande número de ótimos locais no espaço de busca. Geralmente as funções de fitness empregadas pelos algoritmos de otimização são baseadas em campos de força com diferentes termos de energia, sendo que os parâmetros destes termos são ajustados a priori e são mantidos estáticos ao longo do processo de otimização. Alguns pesquisadores sugerem que o uso de funções de fitness dinâmicas, ou seja, que mudam durante um processo de otimização evolutivo, pode aumentar a capacidade das populações fugirem de ótimos locais em problemas altamente multimodais. Neste trabalho, propõe-se que os parâmetros dos termos do campo de força utilizado sejam modificados durante o processo de otimização realizado por Algoritmos Genéticos (AGs) no problema de predição de estruturas de proteínas...

‣ Computational studies on membrane protein structures and protein-ligand binding affinities

Gao, Cen (1982 - ); Stern, Harry A.
Fonte: University of Rochester. Publicador: University of Rochester.
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: Number of Pages:xvii, 171 leaves
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Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Rochester. Dept. of Chemistry, 2010.; Computational methods currently play a significant role in the discovery of new pharmaceuticals. When the structure of the target or a closely related protein is known, computational prediction of binding affinities may be employed as part of lead discovery or optimization efforts. For protein targets with unknown structures, various computational methods have been developed in order to accurately predict their tertiary structures. This work summarizes the three computational chemistry projects I worked on, including membrane protein structure prediction, free energy calculation method and polarizable force field development. In Chapter 2, we evaluate the scoring function accuracy for membrane protein structure prediction. We perform a systematic examination of the ability of several different high-resolution, atomic-detail scoring functions to discriminate native conformations of loops in membrane proteins from non-native but physically reasonable, or decoy, conformations. Decoys constructed from changing a loop conformation while keeping the remainder of the protein fixed are a challenging test of energy function accuracy. Nevertheless, the best of the energy functions we examined recognized the native structure as lowest in energy around half the time...

‣ The N-terminal subdomain of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein 6. Structure and interaction with IGFs

Chandrashekaran, I.; Yao, S.; Wang, C.; Bansal, P.; Alewood, P.; Forbes, B.; Wallace, J.; Bach, L.; Norton, R.
Fonte: Amer Chemical Soc Publicador: Amer Chemical Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) modulate the activity and distribution of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). IGFBP-6 differs from other IGFBPs in being a relatively specific inhibitor of IGF-II actions. Another distinctive feature of IGFBP-6 is its unique N-terminal disulfide linkages; the N-domains of IGFBPs 1-5 contain six disulfides and share a conserved GCGCC motif, but IGFBP-6 lacks the two adjacent cysteines in this motif, so its first three N-terminal disulfide linkages differ from those of the other IGFBPs. The contributions of the N- and C-domains of IGFBP-6 to its IGF binding properties and their structure-function relationships have been characterized in part, but the structure and function of the distinctive N-terminal subdomain of IGFBP-6 are unknown. Here we report the solution structure of a polypeptide corresponding to residues 1-45 of the N-terminal subdomain of IGFBP-6 (NN-BP-6). The extended structure of the N-terminal subdomain of IGFBP-6 is very different from that of the short two-stranded -sheet of the N-terminal subdomain of IGFBP-4 and, by implication, the other IGFBPs. NN-BP-6 contains a potential cation-binding motif; lanthanide ion binding was observed, but no significant interaction was found with physiologically relevant metal ions like calcium or magnesium. However...

‣ FRAXE-associated mental retardation protein (FMR2) is an RNA-binding protein with high affinity for G-quartet RNA forming structure

Bensaid, M.; Melko, M.; Bechara, E.; Davidovic, L.; Berretta, A.; Catania, M.; Gecz, J.; Lalli, E.; Bardoni, B.
Fonte: Oxford Univ Press Publicador: Oxford Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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FRAXE is a form of mild to moderate mental retardation due to the silencing of the FMR2 gene. The cellular function of FMR2 protein is presently unknown. By analogy with its homologue AF4, FMR2 was supposed to have a role in transcriptional regulation, but robust evidences supporting this hypothesis are lacking. We observed that FMR2 co-localizes with the splicing factor SC35 in nuclear speckles, the nuclear regions where splicing factors are concentrated, assembled and modified. Similarly to what was reported for splicing factors, blocking splicing or transcription leads to the accumulation of FMR2 in enlarged, rounded speckles. FMR2 is also localized in the nucleolus when splicing is blocked. We show here that FMR2 is able to specifically bind the G-quartet-forming RNA structure with high affinity. Remarkably, in vivo, in the presence of FMR2, the ESE action of the G-quartet situated in mRNA of an alternatively spliced exon of a minigene or of the putative target FMR1 appears reduced. Interestingly, FMR1 is silenced in the fragile X syndrome, another form of mental retardation. All together, our findings strongly suggest that FMR2 is an RNA-binding protein, which might be involved in alternative splicing regulation through an interaction with G-quartet RNA structure.; Mounia Bensaid...

‣ Keeping IGF-II under control: Lessons from the IGF-II-IGF2R crystal structure

Brown, J.; Jones, E.; Forbes, B.
Fonte: Elsevier Science London Publicador: Elsevier Science London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) is a key regulator of cell growth, survival, migration and differentiation. Its pivotal role in these processes requires tight regulation of both expression and activity. The type 1 IGF receptor tyrosine kinase (IGF-1R) mediates IGF-II actions, and a family of six high affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) regulates IGF-II circulating half-life and its availability to bind IGF-1R. In addition, the type 2 IGF receptor (IGF2R; also called the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor) modulates the circulating and tissue levels of IGF-II by targeting it to lysosomes for degradation. The recently elucidated crystal structure of IGFII– IGF2R complex provides new insight into IGF-II regulation, and reveals a common binding surface on IGF-II for the regulatory proteins, IGF2R and the IGFBPs.; James Brown, E. Yvonne Jones and Briony E. Forbes

‣ The structure of an integrin/talin complex reveals the basis of inside-out signal transduction

Anthis, N.; Wegener, K.; Ye, F.; Kim, C.; Goult, B.; Lowe, E.; Vakonakis, I.; Bate, N.; Critchley, D.; Ginsberg, M.; Campbell, I.
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Fundamental to cell adhesion and migration, integrins are large heterodimeric membrane proteins that uniquely mediate inside-out signal transduction, whereby adhesion to the extracellular matrix is activated from within the cell by direct binding of talin to the cytoplasmic tail of the beta integrin subunit. Here, we report the first structure of talin bound to an authentic full-length beta integrin tail. Using biophysical and whole cell measurements, we show that a specific ionic interaction between the talin F3 domain and the membrane-proximal helix of the beta tail disrupts an integrin alpha/beta salt bridge that helps maintain the integrin inactive state. Second, we identify a positively charged surface on the talin F2 domain that precisely orients talin to disrupt the heterodimeric integrin transmembrane (TM) complex. These results show key structural features that explain the ability of talin to mediate inside-out TM signalling.; Nicholas J. Anthis, Kate L. Wegener, Feng Ye, Chungho Kim, Benjamin T. Goult, Edward D. Lowe, Ioannis Vakonakis, Neil Bate, David R. Critchley, Mark H. Ginsberg and Iain D. Campbell

‣ The structure of an interdomain complex that regulates talin activity

Goult, B.; Bate, N.; Anthis, N.; Wegener, K.; Gingras, A.; Patel, B.; Barsukov, I.; Campbell, I.; Roberts, G.; Critchley, D.
Fonte: Amer Soc Biochemistry Molecular Biology Inc Publicador: Amer Soc Biochemistry Molecular Biology Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Talin is a large flexible rod-shaped protein that activates the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules and couples them to cytoskeletal actin. It exists in both globular and extended conformations, and an intramolecular interaction between the N-terminal F3 FERM subdomain and the C-terminal part of the talin rod contributes to an autoinhibited form of the molecule. Here, we report the solution structure of the primary F3 binding domain within the C-terminal region of the talin rod and use intermolecular nuclear Overhauser effects to determine the structure of the complex. The rod domain (residues 1655–1822) is an amphipathic five-helix bundle; Tyr-377 of F3 docks into a hydrophobic pocket at one end of the bundle, whereas a basic loop in F3 (residues 316–326) interacts with a cluster of acidic residues in the middle of helix 4. Mutation of Glu-1770 abolishes binding. The rod domain competes with β3-integrin tails for binding to F3, and the structure of the complex suggests that the rod is also likely to sterically inhibit binding of the FERM domain to the membrane.; Benjamin T. Goult, Neil Bate, Nicholas J. Anthis, Kate L. Wegener, Alexandre R. Gingras, Bipin Patel, Igor L. Barsukov, Iain D. Campbell, Gordon C. K. Roberts and David R. Critchley

‣ Solution structure of a repeated unit of the ABA-1 nematode polyprotein allergen of Ascaris reveals a novel fold and two discrete

Meenan, N.; Ball, G.; Bromek, K.; Uhrin, D.; Cooper, A.; Kennedy, M.; Smith, B.
Fonte: PLoS Publicador: PLoS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Background: Nematode polyprotein allergens (NPAs) are an unusual class of lipid-binding proteins found only in nematodes. They are synthesized as large, tandemly repetitive polyproteins that are post-translationally cleaved into multiple copies of small lipid binding proteins with virtually identical fatty acid and retinol (Vitamin A)-binding characteristics. They are probably central to transport and distribution of small hydrophobic compounds between the tissues of nematodes, and may play key roles in nutrient scavenging, immunomodulation, and IgE antibody-based responses in infection. In some species the repeating units are diverse in amino acid sequence, but, in ascarid and filarial nematodes, many of the units are identical or near-identical. ABA-1A is the most common repeating unit of the NPA of Ascaris suum, and is closely similar to that of Ascaris lumbricoides, the large intestinal roundworm of humans. Immune responses to NPAs have been associated with naturally-acquired resistance to infection in humans, and the immune repertoire to them is under strict genetic control. Methodology/Principal Findings: The solution structure of ABA-1A was determined by protein nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The protein adopts a novel seven-helical fold comprising a long central helix that participates in two hollow four-helical bundles on either side. Discrete hydrophobic ligand-binding pockets are found in the N-terminal and C-terminal bundles...

‣ Molecular mechanisms underlying insulin-like growth factor action: How mutations in the GH: IGF axis lead to short stature

Forbes, B.
Fonte: YS Medical Media Ltd Publicador: YS Medical Media Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) act via the Type 1 IGF receptor (IGF-1R) to promote growth and development. Recent structural and site-directed mutagenesis studies have provided detailed insight into the mechanism of interaction between the IGFs and the IGF-IR. Studies of the insulin: insulin receptor interaction have provided important additional understanding of the mechanisms underlying the IGF:IGF-1R interaction. The recent crystal structure of the insulin receptor ectodomain showed a folded over conformation accommodating two potential ligand binding pockets. The ligand interacts with the receptor at two different sites within a binding pocket to achieve high affinity binding and activation of the receptor. In this review the effect of mutations in the human IGF1 and IGF-1R genes so for reported are explained in terms of the effect on ligand binding and receptor activation. The severity of patient phenotype can generally be correlated to the effect of the mutation on protein structure and function.; B. E. Forbes

‣ Structure of the Drosophila apoptosome at 6.9 Å resolution; Structure of the Drosophila apoptosome at 6.9 angstrom resolution

Yuan, S.; Yu, X.; Topf, M.; Dorstyn, L.; Kumar, S.; Ludtke, S.; Akey, C.
Fonte: Cell Press Publicador: Cell Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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The Drosophila Apaf-1 related killer forms an apoptosome in the intrinsic cell death pathway. In this study we show that Dark forms a single ring when initiator procaspases are bound. This Dark-Dronc complex cleaves DrICE efficiently; hence, a single ring represents the Drosophila apoptosome. We then determined the 3D structure of a double ring at ∼6.9 Å resolution and created a model of the apoptosome. Subunit interactions in the Dark complex are similar to those in Apaf-1 and CED-4 apoptosomes, but there are significant differences. In particular, Dark has "lost" a loop in the nucleotide-binding pocket, which opens a path for possible dATP exchange in the apoptosome. In addition, caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) form a crown on the central hub of the Dark apoptosome. This CARD geometry suggests that conformational changes will be required to form active Dark-Dronc complexes. When taken together, these data provide insights into apoptosome structure, function, and evolution.; Shujun Yuan, Xinchao Yu, Maya Topf, Loretta Dorstyn, Sharad Kumar, Steven J. Ludtke and Christopher W. Akey

‣ Regulation of the epithelial Na⁺ channel by the RH domain of G protein-coupled receptor kinase, GRK2, and Gαq/11; Regulation of the epithelial Na(+) channel by the RH domain of G protein-coupled receptor kinase, GRK2, and G alpha q/11

Lee, I.H.; Song, S.H.; Campbell, C.; Kumar, S.; Cook, D.; Dinudom, A.
Fonte: Amer Soc Biochemistry Molecular Biology Inc Publicador: Amer Soc Biochemistry Molecular Biology Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2011 Português
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The G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK2) belongs to a family of protein kinases that phosphorylates agonist-activated G protein-coupled receptors, leading to G protein-receptor uncoupling and termination of G protein signaling. GRK2 also contains a regulator of G protein signaling homology (RH) domain, which selectively interacts with α-subunits of the Gq/11 family that are released during G protein-coupled receptor activation. We have previously reported that kinase activity of GRK2 up-regulates activity of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in a Na+ absorptive epithelium by blocking Nedd4-2-dependent inhibition of ENaC. In the present study, we report that GRK2 also regulates ENaC by a mechanism that does not depend on its kinase activity. We show that a wild-type GRK2 (wtGRK2) and a kinase-dead GRK2 mutant (K220RGRK2), but not a GRK2 mutant that lacks the C-terminal RH domain (ΔRH-GRK2) or a GRK2 mutant that cannot interact with Gαq/11/14 (D110AGRK2), increase activity of ENaC. GRK2 up-regulates the basal activity of the channel as a consequence of its RH domain binding the α-subunits of Gq/11. We further found that expression of constitutively active Gαq/11 mutants significantly inhibits activity of ENaC. Conversely...

‣ Structural insights into the mechanism of the allosteric transitions of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis cAMP receptor protein

Reddy, M.; Palaninathan, S.; Bruning, J.; Thurman, C.; Smith, D.; Sacchettini, J.
Fonte: Amer Soc Biochemistry Molecular Biology Inc Publicador: Amer Soc Biochemistry Molecular Biology Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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The cAMP receptor protein (CRP) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a cAMP-responsive global transcriptional regulator, responsible for the regulation of a multitude of diverse proteins. We have determined the crystal structures of the CRP.cAMP and CRP.N(6)-cAMP derivative-bound forms of the enzyme to 2.2- and 2.3 A-resolution, respectively, to investigate cAMP-mediated conformational and structural changes. The allosteric switch from the open, inactive conformation to the closed, active conformation begins with a number of changes in the ligand-binding cavity upon cAMP binding. These subtle structural changes and numerous non-bonding interactions between cAMP, the N-domain residues, and the C-domain helices demonstrate that the N-domain hairpin loop acts as a structural mediator of the allosteric switch. Based on the CRP.N(6)-cAMP crystal structure, binding of N(6)-cAMP with a bulkier methylphenylethyl extension from the N6 atom stabilizes the cAMP-binding domain, N-domain hairpin, and C-terminal domain in a similar manner as that of the CRP.cAMP structure, maintaining structural integrity within the subunits. However, the bulkier N6 extension of N(6)-cAMP (in R conformation) is accommodated only in subunit A with minor changes, whereas in subunit B...

‣ The structure of an LIM-only protein 4 (LMO4) and deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 (DEAF1) complex reveals a common mode of binding to LMO4

Joseph, Soumya; Kwan, Ann H.; Stokes, Philippa H.; Mackay, Joel P.; Cubeddu, Liza; Matthews, Jacqueline M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 13 pages
Português
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LIM-domain only protein 4 (LMO4) is a widely expressed protein with important roles in embryonic development and breast cancer. It has been reported to bind many partners, including the transcription factor Deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor-1 (DEAF1), with which LMO4 shares many biological parallels. We used yeast two-hybrid assays to show that DEAF1 binds both LIM domains of LMO4 and that DEAF1 binds the same face on LMO4 as two other LMO4-binding partners, namely LIM domain binding protein 1 (LDB1) and C-terminal binding protein interacting protein (CtIP/RBBP8). Mutagenic screening analysed by the same method, indicates that the key residues in the interaction lie in LMO4LIM2 and the N-terminal half of the LMO4-binding domain in DEAF1. We generated a stable LMO4LIM2-DEAF1 complex and determined the solution structure of that complex. Although the LMO4-binding domain from DEAF1 is intrinsically disordered, it becomes structured on binding. The structure confirms that LDB1, CtIP and DEAF1 all bind to the same face on LMO4. LMO4 appears to form a hub in protein-protein interaction networks, linking numerous pathways within cells. Competitive binding for LMO4 therefore most likely provides a level of regulation between those different pathways.; SJ was funded by an Australian Postgraduate Award (education.gov.au/australian-postgraduate-awards). JPM and JMM were awarded Senior Research Fellowships from the Australian National and Medical Research Council (www.nhmrc.gov.au). This project was funded by an Australian Research Council (www. arc.gov.au) Discovery Project Grant (DP110104332) to JMM and LC.

‣ The solution structure of the cytokine-binding domain of the common -chain of the receptors for granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3 and interleukin-5

Mulhern, T.; Lopez, A.; D'Andrea, R.; Gaunt, C.; Vandeleur, L.; Vadas, M.; Booker, G.; Bagley, C.
Fonte: Academic Press Ltd Publicador: Academic Press Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2000 Português
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The haemopoietic cytokines, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3 and interleukin-5 bind to cell-surface receptors comprising ligand-specific alpha-chains and a shared beta-chain. The beta-chain is the critical signalling subunit of the receptor and its fourth domain not only plays a critical role in interactions with ligands, hence in receptor activation, but also contains residues whose mutation can lead to ligand-independent activation of the receptor. We have determined the NMR solution structure of the isolated human fourth domain of the beta-chain. The protein has a fibronectin type III fold with a well-defined hydrophobic core and is stabilised by an extensive network of pi-cation interactions involving Trp and Arg side-chains, including two Trp residues outside the highly conserved Trp-Ser-Xaa-Trp-Ser motif (where Xaa is any amino acid) that is found in many cytokine receptors. Most of the residues implicated in factor-independent mutants localise to the rigid core of the domain or the pi-cation stack. The loops between the B and C, and the F and G strands, that contain residues important for interactions with cytokines, lie adjacent at the membrane-distal end of the domain, consistent with their being involved cooperatively in binding cytokines. The elucidation of the structure of the cytokine-binding domain of the beta-chain provides insight into the cytokine-dependent and factor-independent activation of the receptor.

‣ Stabilization of the biotinoyl domain of Escherichia coli acetyl-CoA carboxylase by interactions between the attached biotin and the protruding 'Thumb' structure

Solbiati, J.; Chapman-Smith, A.; Cronan Jr., J.
Fonte: Amer Soc Biochemistry Molecular Biology Inc Publicador: Amer Soc Biochemistry Molecular Biology Inc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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We previously reported (Chapman-Smith, A., Forbes, B. E., Wallace, J. C., and Cronan, J. E., Jr. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 26017-26022) that the biotinylated (holo) species of the biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP) biotinoyl domain is much more resistant to chemical modification and proteolysis than the unbiotinylated (apo) form. We hypothesized that the increased stability was due to a conformational change engendered by interaction of the domain with biotin protein ligase, the enzyme that attaches the biotin moiety. We now report that a BCCP-87 species to which the biotin moiety was attached by chemical acylation rather than by biotin protein ligase showed the characteristically greater stability of the holo biotinoyl domain. This result demonstrates that our hypothesis was incorrect; the attached biotin is solely responsible for the increased stability. The bacterial and chloroplast multisubunit acetyl-CoA carboxylases are unusual in that the highly symmetrical and conserved structure of the biotinoyl domain of the BCCP subunit is disrupted by a structured loop called the "thumb" that protrudes from body of the domain. Prior structural work showed that the thumb interacts with uriedo ring of the attached biotin moiety. We have tested whether the thumb-biotin interactions are responsible for the greater holo form stability by examination of two BCCP-87 species that lack the thumb. These BCCP species were produced in both the apo and holo forms...

‣ Subdomain structure of the co-chaperone SGTA and activity of its androgen receptor client

Trotta, A.; Need, E.; Butler, L.; Selth, L.; O'Loughlin, M.; Coetzee, G.; Tilley, W.; Buchanan, G.
Fonte: Soc Endocrinology Publicador: Soc Endocrinology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2012 Português
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Ligand-dependent activity of steroid receptors is affected by tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)-containing co-chaperones, such as small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat-containing alpha (SGTA). However, the precise mechanisms by which the predominantly cytoplasmic TPR proteins affect downstream transcriptional outcomes of steroid signaling remain unclear. In this study, we assessed how SGTA affects ligand sensitivity and action of the androgen receptor (AR)using a transactivation profiling approach. Deletion mapping coupled with structural prediction, transcriptional assays, and in vivo regulation of AR-responsive promoters were used to assess the role of SGTA domains in AR responses. At subsaturating ligand concentrations of <0.1 nM 5a-dihydrotestosterone, SGTA overexpression constricted AR activity by an average of 32% (P!0.002) across the majority of androgen-responsive loci tested, as well as on endogenous promoters in vivo. The strength of the SGTA effect was associated with the presence or absence of bioinformatically predicated transcription factor motifs at each site. Homodimerizaion of SGTA, which is thought to be necessary for chaperone complex formation, was found to be dependent on the structural integrity of amino acids 1–80...

‣ Structural studies of the alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein copper-binding domain reveal how it binds copper ions

Kong, G.; Adams, J.; Harris, H.; Boas, J.; Curtain, C.; Galatis, D.; Masters, C.; Barnham, K.; McKinstry, W.; Cappai, R.; Parker, M.
Fonte: Academic Press Ltd Elsevier Science Ltd Publicador: Academic Press Ltd Elsevier Science Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia. Amyloid beta peptide (Abeta), generated by proteolytic cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), is central to AD pathogenesis. APP can function as a metalloprotein and modulate copper (Cu) transport, presumably via its extracellular Cu-binding domain (CuBD). Cu binding to the CuBD reduces Abeta levels, suggesting that a Cu mimetic may have therapeutic potential. We describe here the atomic structures of apo CuBD from three crystal forms and found they have identical Cu-binding sites despite the different crystal lattices. The structure of Cu(2+)-bound CuBD reveals that the metal ligands are His147, His151, Tyr168 and two water molecules, which are arranged in a square pyramidal geometry. The site resembles a Type 2 non-blue Cu center and is supported by electron paramagnetic resonance and extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies. A previous study suggested that Met170 might be a ligand but we suggest that this residue plays a critical role as an electron donor in CuBDs ability to reduce Cu ions. The structure of Cu(+)-bound CuBD is almost identical to the Cu(2+)-bound structure except for the loss of one of the water ligands. The geometry of the site is unfavorable for Cu(+)...

‣ The use of protein structure/activity relationships in the rational design of stable particulate delivery systems

Costa,M.H.B.; Quintilio,W.; Sant'Anna,O.A.; Faljoni-Alário,A.; Araujo,P.S. de
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2002 Português
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The recombinant heat shock protein (18 kDa-hsp) from Mycobacterium leprae was studied as a T-epitope model for vaccine development. We present a structural analysis of the stability of recombinant 18 kDa-hsp during different processing steps. Circular dichroism and ELISA were used to monitor protein structure after thermal stress, lyophilization and chemical modification. We observed that the 18 kDa-hsp is extremely resistant to a wide range of temperatures (60% of activity is retained at 80ºC for 20 min). N-Acylation increased its ordered structure by 4% and decreased its ß-T1 structure by 2%. ELISA demonstrated that the native conformation of the 18 kDa-hsp was preserved after hydrophobic modification by acylation. The recombinant 18 kDa-hsp resists to a wide range of temperatures and chemical modifications without loss of its main characteristic, which is to be a source of T epitopes. This resistance is probably directly related to its lack of organization at the level of tertiary and secondary structures.